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Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(6): 1372-1378, 2011

ISSN 1991-8178



Corresponding Author: Edwige Sopie Yapo, Université d'Abobo-Adjamé, UFR des Sciences et technologie des Aliments,

Laboratoire de Technologie alimentaire, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d'Ivoire;

E-mail: yapo Edwige Sopie Salomé – sopiedeyapo@yahoo.fr

1372


Phenolic profiles of pineapple fruits (Ananas comosus L. Merrill) Influence of the

origin of suckers

1,2


Edwige Sopie Yapo, 

2,3


Hilaire Tanoh Kouakou, 

2

Laurent kouakou kouakou,



 2

Justin Yatty

Kouadio, 

1

Patrice Kouamé, 



 3

jean-Michel Mérillon 

1

Université d’Abobo-Adjamé, UFR des Sciences et technologie des Aliments, Laboratoire de



Technologie alimentaire, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire;

2

Université d’Abobo-Adjamé, UFR des Sciences de la Nature, Laboratoire de Biologie et



Amélioration des Productions Végétales, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire.

3

Groupe d’Etude des Substances Végétales à Activités Biologiques, EA 3675, Laboratoire de



Mycologie et Biotechnologie Végétale, UFR Pharmacie, Université de bordeaux 2/Institut des

Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin-CS 50008, 210, Chemin de Leysotte, F-33882 Villenave d'Ornon,

France.

Abstract: Phenolic profiles of three fruits collected from pineapple plants obtained by

micropropagation (FM), somatic embryogenesis (FE) and suckers of old field (FR) were studied to

evaluate the influence of plant cell culture on pineapple fruit quality. The isolation and identification

of a range of polyphenol compounds by HPLC methods shows that: eleven phenolic compounds in

FR, thirteen compounds in FM and twenty compounds in FE. These three pineapple fruits presented

the same chemical profile composed of eight phenolic compounds, i.e gallic acid, gentisic acid,

syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, isoferulic acid and o-coumaric acid. Protocatechuic

acid, tyrosine, syringaldéhyde, génistine and taxifolin are only present in FM. It is the same for 3-

hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, quercitrin, trans-

methoxycinnamic acid, kaempferol and myricetin which are only reported in FE. The compounds

chavicol, tyramin and p-coumaroylquinic acid were identified in FR and FE when arbutin is present

in FM and FE. Fruits obtained with pineapple suckers from somatic embryogenesis are better in terms

of phenolic quality than those obtained respectively with pineapple suckers from micropropagation and

suckers of old field. However, when comparing pineapple fruit, we can observe denoted a stronger

influence of the origin of auxiliary bud. This study showed clearly that original change of auxiliary

buds causes a drastic increase in the number of phenolic compounds in pineapple fruit. Origins of

pineapple auxiliary bud influence strongly the phenolic profile in pineapple fruit.

Key words:  Ananas comosus - pineapple - fruit - phenolic compounds - auxiliary bud - HPLC.

INTRODUCTION

Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill] is an important tropical and subtropical plant widely cultivated

in the tropical areas of the world including Côte d’Ivoire. Its fruit is consumed fresh or canned as a

commercial product in many countries (Avallone, 2003). Pineapple has also been known for a number of

beneficial biological activities such as antioxidative (Larrauri, 1997), anti-browning (Chaisakdanugull, 2007),

anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet (Hale, 2005) activities. Pineapple has been extensively used in foods or for

health benefits. There have only been few studies on its different components such as phenolic compounds

(Fernandez de Simon, 1992; Wen, 1999; Wen, 2002).

Phenolic compounds are secondary plant metabolites with a wide structural diversity and phylogenic

distribution (Harborne, 1989). The most important classes of phenolic compounds in pineapple fruits include

in phenolic acids and only nonflavonoid phenolics were reported, with the exception of myricetin in fiber

(Larrauri, 1997). Interestingly, some phenolic compounds have been reported in pineapple such as chavicol (p-

allylphenol) was isolated by (Silverstein, 1965). Ethylphenol was identified by (Takeoka, 1989). Eugenol,

vanillin and syringaldéhyde were identified by (Wu, 1991).



Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(6): 1372-1378, 2011

1373


In raspberries, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities can be influenced by genetics and

environment (Ozgen, 2008). For (Esti, 1998; Romani, 1999), quantitative and even qualitative changes in the

phenolic composition occur during ripening and considerable differences can be observed according to the stage

of development of the olive fruit. 

As an important commercial crop in Côte d'Ivoire, many of the modern pineapple plantations use pineapple

vitroplants as raw material for the establishment of new farms. Indeed, the possible regeneration of the plant

through tissue culture would be the basis of good results in performance with superior taste. Plant cell culture

is considered to be a potential mean of producing valuable plant products in a factory setting, such as

polyphenols (Konczak-Islam, 2003). Those chemical constituents of ripe pineapple vary according to stage of

fruit ripeness, and agronomic and environmental factors (Kermasha, 1987) and the physiology of plant (Py,

1987). 

The Smooth Cayenne is the most appreciated by consumers for its interesting organoleptic characteristics



unlike others varieties. This difference is related to differences in chemical composition of the fruits. As far

as we know, no reports on the nature of phenolic compounds in fruits coming from pineapple suckers of

various origins exist. Therefore, in the present work, we will use three fruits produced by pineapple plants

obtained by micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis and suckers of old field. The phenolic profile of three

fruits collected from pineapple plants was studied. The identification of a range of polyphenol compounds will

be presented. Correlations between phenolic profile, pineapple fruit origin are discussed. 



MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials:

Fruit from pineapple plants obtained by three propagation methods were used (Table 1). 



Table 1: Pineapple samples characterization.

Pineapple plant

Origin of suckers

Sample


Type P1

Somatic embryogenesis

Fruit derived from plants regenerated through somatic embryogenesis: FE

Type P2


Micropropagation

Fruit derived from plants regenerated by micropropagation: FM

Type P3

suckers of old field



Fruit derived from plants regenerated by suckers of old field: FR

Fruits were manually harvested between 150 and 158 days after the induction of flowering and 100 g of

fresh pulp (FE, FM and FR) were used. The lyophilisations of samples were carried out using a Virtis UNI-

TRAP apparatus. All samples were packed in sealed plastic bags to be sent to Mycology and plant

Biotechnology Laboratory (France) to polyphenols analyze.

Chemically pure standard of caffeic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic,



o-coumaric,  p-coumaric, protocatechuic, salicylic, trans-cinnamic,  trans-methoxycinnamic, syringic, veratric,

sinapic acids, catechin, epicatechin,

genistein, kaempférol, myricetin, naringenin, quercetin, quercitrin, rutin, vanillin, piceatannol and piceid

were obtained from Sigma (Sigma chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo, USA. The phenolic compounds were selected

according to their usual occurrence in pineapple and their availability as commercial chemical standards. All

other chemicals and solvents were of HPLC-grade purity from Sigma-Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany). The water

was treated in a Milli-Q water purification system (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA) before use. 

Sample preparation:

100 mg of freeze-dried pineapple pulp were extracted overnight by 10 ml methanol at 4°C with a blender.

Samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant was collected, cleaned up Sep-Pak Plus

tC

18



 and Bond Elut PSA cartridges. The tC

18

 cartridge was attached to the top of the PSA cartridge using a



suplecoÒ Visiprep system. The cartridge assembly was conditioned with 10 ml of methanol, followed by 10

ml of distilled water. The sample was directly loaded onto the cartridge and washed with 10 ml of distilled

water. The attached cartridges were eluted with 10 ml methanol. These eluates were collected in a flask and

then evaporated under Speed Vac to dryness. Every extract sample was dissolved in 5 ml methanol, and then

filtered through a Millipore membrane with 0.45 μm porosity. The filtrated samples were diluted with a same

volume of distilled and filtered water before HPLC analysis.



Hplc and Nmr Analysis:

Chromatographic separation was carried out as reported previously (Kouakou, 2009), with an analytical

HPLC unit (Agilent 1100 Series LC), using a reversed-phase C18 column (Prontosil, 250x4.0 mm, 5 µm,


Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(6): 1372-1378, 2011

1374


Bischoff). The compounds were analyzed at a flow rate of 0.6 ml/min under the solvent system

water–trifluoroacetic acid (99.9:0.1) (A) and acetonitrile-trifluoroacetic acid (99.9:0.1) (B). The gradient program

was 10 to 50 % B (0-30 min), 50 to 100% B (0-31 min) and 100% B (31-40 min), and the injection volume

was 20 µl. Spectral data from all peaks were accumulated in the 254-500 nm range and chromatograms were

recorded at 284 nm. Phenolic compounds identification was achieved by the absorbance recorded in the

chromatograms relative to external standard. The methanol fraction was purified by semi-preparative HPLC

system equipped with a DAD. It consisted of an Agilent binary pump, an Agilent autosampler, an Agilent

degasser and an Agilent photo-diode array detector controlled by Agilent software v. A.08.03 (Agilent

Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany). A C18 reverse phase column (Prontosil, 250 x 8.0 mm, 5 µm, Bischoff)

was used at a flow rate of 2.4 ml/min with the same gradient eluent. Chromatograms were monitored at 284

nm. The run time of 40 min was set to elute all phenolic compounds that might be present in the pineapple.

The chemical structure of purified phenolic compounds from pineapple pulp was confirmed by NMR. 

1

H-

NMR spectra were measured on a Bruker Avance 600 MHz. The purified samples were dissolved in methanol-



d6 as an internal standard.

Identifications are based on retention time and chromatography with standards, when available. 

1

H-NMR


spectra were used to confirm or determine the identity of compounds

Total Phenolic Content:

The total phenol contents of pineapple fruits were determined in triplicate in gallic acid equivalents (GAE)

using the Folin-Ciocalteu method (George, 2005).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of Origin of Sucker on Total Phenolic Content:

The results of total phenolic content of the different fruits studied are indicated in the figure 1. The

importance of phenolic compounds is related to the fact that they are involved in fruit quality by their role

in the aroma, flavour and their role as antioxidant, a quality that confer health benefits to human. Analysis of

total phenolic content of the different fruits studied here indicates a high significant content in fruits FM and

FE compared to fruits FR. The phenolic content of fruits studied is similar results obtained by (Gorinstein,

1999) on the Smooth Cayenne. In our results total phenolic content are relatively low compared to other

varieties of pineapple (Queen) and other tropical fruits (lychee, guava and ripe mango) (Gorinstein, 1999).



Fig. 1: Total phenolic content of pineapple fruits samples studied.

Effect of Origin of Sucker on Phenolic Compounds Quality:

The examination of HPLC chromatograms revealed the presence of several phenolic compounds in

pineapple fruits (figure 2). Some phenolic compounds were identified by comparing their retention time with

similar compounds that have been previously studied under similar conditions (table 2). 

We identified eleven phenolic compounds in FR, thirteen compounds in FM and twenty compounds in FE.

These three pineapple samples presented the same chemical profile, composed of eight identified phenolic

compounds: gallic acid, gentisic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, isoferulic acid and o-

coumaric acid. These phenolic compounds do not seem to be related to the sucker’s origin. Protocatechuic acid,



Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(6): 1372-1378, 2011

1375


compounds b, c, d and e are only present in FM. It is the same for 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic

acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, quercitrin, trans-methoxycinnamic acid, kaempferol and h which are only

reported in FE. The compounds a, f and g were identified in FR and FE when arbutin is present in FM and

FE. The results showed that all phenolic compounds mentioned above have a close relationship with the origin

of pineapple suckers as evidenced by the variation of phenolic composition of each fruit. Eight unidentified

compounds whose retention times were found to be different from the reference standard of phenolic

compounds were purified by HPLC-DAD. 

1

H-NMR analyses identified these compounds as chavicol (a), tyrosin



(b), syringaldehyde (c), genistin (d), taxifolin (e), tyramin (f), p-coumaroylquinic acid (g) and myricetin (h).

These results suggest that the production of phenolic compounds depends were on multiple factors such as

physiological, genetic and environment factors of plants (Kuti, 2005).

The phenolic differences observed between the pineapple fruits seem to show that the origin of sucker play

an important role in pineapple fruit quality. The results clearly indicate that rejuvenation of pineapple plants

have a major incidence on product fruit quality. We observe that by taking suckers from micropropagation,

fruit (FM) synthesize six new phenolic compounds unlike fruit from suckers obtained by suckers of old field

(FR). These compounds were identified as protocatechuic acid, tyrosin, syringaldehyde, and flavonoids i.e

génistine and taxifolin. Several factors are known to affect the phenolic profiles of fruits. Among these factors,

the degree of ripeness and the nature of the cultivar are certainly those that have a pronounced influence on

the composition. However the geographical origin or the originally obtaining of plant material also be taken

into consideration because they could influence fruit quality. The samples that were the object of the study

presented herein have different origins. Although the strict influence of one factor can only be evaluated when

all other factors remain constant, some clear conclusions can be drawn from the results herein obtained. Indeed,

we observed that by taking suckers from somatic embryogenesis, fruit (FE) were synthesized six new phenolic

compounds unlike fruit from suckers obtained by classical multiplication (FR).

These compounds were identified as phenolic acid i.e 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and

trans-methoxycinnamic acid, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids i.e epicatechin, quercitrin, kaempferol and

myricetin denoted a stronger influence of the origin of suckers in pineapple fruit. furthermore, FR and FE

synthesized chavicol, tyramin and p-coumaroylquinic acid.

The eleven phenolic compounds produced by FR are also produced by FE in addition to nine other

phenolic compounds, which are arbutin, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, trans-methoxycinnamic

acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, quercitrin, kaempferol and myricetin. The differences observed between fruit

suggest that there is a positive correlation between the presence of phenolic compounds in fruit and

physiological state of the plant that produced the fruit. Indeed, (Barnetts, 1966) showed that during a very

severe stress (attack parasitic) in Bermuda grass, photosynthesis, accumulation of starch and protein synthesis

are inhibited. Thus, the initial products of the biosynthesis of polyphenols may be lacking. In addition, the

aging of tissues leads inevitably a slow process of synthesizing phenolic compounds that could justify the

absence of some phenolic compounds in fruit from older releases. So, the photosynthetic capacity of a plant

old can be is reduced (Barnetts, 1966). Indeed, photosynthesis is an important precursor in all the mechanisms

of synthesis of molecules within the plant. Photosynthesis is itself influenced by many genetic factors such as

age and leaf morphology and environmental factors like light, the availability of carbon dioxide, temperature,

soil moisture, nutrients and canopy structure (Hopkins, 2003).

The fruits were produced in the same environmental conditions and plants are of the same cultivar and

different origins. The fruits have the same degree of ripeness. Therefore, difference in phenolic composition

of fruits studied could be due to quality ie the physiological state of plants used for their production. The in

vitro plants are plants with cells that have undergone the rejuvenation by in vitro culture compared with

suckers of old field.

The results suggest that the rejuvenation of in vitro plants was promoted or restored the synthesis of

phenolic compounds and their accumulation in fruits FM and FE. Our results indicate the presence of

flavonoids in fruits FM and FE and absent in FR fruit. Flavonoids are considered as compounds of end the

synthesis of phenolic, their presence shows that the mechanism of synthesis of phenolic at these two fruits

came to his theme, or was faster than the fruits FR. Ours results showed clearly that original change of suckers

causes a drastic increase in the number of phenolic compounds in pineapple fruit. Thus, fruits obtained with

pineapple suckers from somatic embryogenesis (FE) are better in terms of phenolic quality than those obtained

respectively with pineapple suckers from micropropagation (FM) and classic propagation (FR). Plant cell culture

is considered to be a potential means of producing valuable plant products including polyphenols

(Konczak-Islam, 2003).


Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(6): 1372-1378, 2011

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retentoin time (min)

Fig. 2: HPLC chromatograms of phenolic compounds detected in extract of the pineapple fruits obtained with

suckers from three different origins using 284 nm absorbance detection.  Peaks were identified by

comparison with reference standards when available or by 

1

HNMR data. Peak numbers are given in



Table 2.  FR, fruit derived from plants regenerated through somatic embryogenesis; FM, fruit derived

from plants regenerated by micropropagation; FE, fruit derived from plants regenerated by suckers of

old field.


Aust. J. Basic & Appl. Sci., 5(6): 1372-1378, 2011

1377


Table 2: Retention time of standard Phenolic compounds at 284 nm.

Phenolic compound

No. of peaks

Retention time(min)

Arbutin

1

4.471



Gallic

2

5.661



Protocatechuic acid

3

8.211



3-hydroxybenzoic acid

4

9.589



4-hydroxybenzoic acid

5

10.545



Ellagic acid

6

10.762



Catechin

7

11.544



Genistein

8

11.570



gentisic acid

9

11.922



Chlorogenic acid

10

12.111



Syringic acid

11

13.328



Isovanillic acid

12

13.364



Epicatechin

13

13.796



Vanillin

14

15.012



Vanillic acid

15

15.046



p-coumaric acid

16

16.369



Quercitrin

17

16.621



Fcrulic acid

18

17.696



Veratric acid

19

17.771



Sinapic acid

20

18.017



Rutin

21

18.274



Isoferulic acid

22

18.623



Hydroxybenzoic acid

23

18.986



Isoquercetin 24

19.095


Piceid

25

19.306



o-coumaric acid

26

20.150



Piceatannol

27

20.780



Salicylic acid

28

21.014



Cafeic acid

29

21.232



trans-Resveratrol

30

23.060



trans-cinnamic acid

31

25.466



Quercetin

32

25.535



trans-methoxycinnamic acid

33

26.464



Naringenin

34

28.260



kaempferol

35

29.877



Conclusion:

The origin of seedlings seems to play an important role in the pattern of phenolic profiles; it greatly

affects the phenolic profiles of pineapple fruit. The phenolic profile of pineapple fruits FE from plants

regenerated by somatic embryogenesis are richer in phenolic compounds than fruit FM from plants regenerated

by micropropagation. Thus, it would be interesting to replace the pineapple plants in fields with plants obtained

by somatic embryogenesis; this to improve quality of fruits and also consumer health. These findings may help

and guide fruit growers on the choice plant to get the best quality as a resource to help meet recent consumer

trends.


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