It is appropriate to divide the factors, which influence the plant location or facility location on the basis of the nature of the organization as


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It is appropriate to divide the factors, which influence the plant location or facility location on the basis of the nature of the organization as:

  • It is appropriate to divide the factors, which influence the plant location or facility location on the basis of the nature of the organization as:

  • 1. General locational factors, which include controllable and uncontrollable factors for all type of organizations.

  • 2. Specific locational factors specifically required for manufacturing and service organizations.





Controllable Factors:

  • Controllable Factors:

  • -Proximity to markets:

  • -Supply of raw materials

  • -transportation facilities

  • -Infrastructure availability

  • -labor and wages

  • -external economies of scale

  • -capital



Proximity to markets:

  • Proximity to markets:

    • • After sales services are promptly required very often.
    • • Transportation cost is high and increase the cost significantly.
    • Supply of raw materials
      • When a single raw material is used without loss of weight,
      • When raw material is universally available, locate close to the market area.
      • If the raw materials are processed from variety of locations, the plant may be situated
      • so as to minimize total transportation costs.


3. Transportation facilities: Speedy transport facilities ensure timely supply of raw materials

  • 3. Transportation facilities: Speedy transport facilities ensure timely supply of raw materials

  • to the company and finished goods to the customers. The transport facility is a prerequisite for

  • 4. Infrastructure availability: The basic infrastructure facilities like power, water and

  • waste disposal, etc., become the prominent factors in deciding the location.





Uncontrollable Factors:

  • Uncontrollable Factors:

    • Government policy
    • Climate condition
    • Supporting industries and services
    • Community and labor attitude
    • Community infrastructure and amenity(facility)


Dominant factors:

  • Dominant factors:

  • Location decisions for new manufacturing plants can be broadly classified in six groups.

    • 1.favourable labor climate: labor-intensive firms in industries such as textiles, furniture, and consumer electronics.
    • 2.Proximity to markets : For example, manufacturers of products such as plastic pipe and heavy metals all emphasize proximity to their markets.
    • 3. Quality of life :Good schools, recreational facilities, cultural events, and an attractive lifestyle contribute to quality of life.
      • 4. Proximity to suppliers and resources :
      • 5. Utilities, taxes and real estate costs :telephone, energy, and water),
    • Secondary factors: room for expansion, construction costs, accessibility to multiple modes of transportation, the cost of shuffling people and materials between plants,


Dominant factors

  • Dominant factors

    • 1.Proximity to customers :Example: few people would like to go to remotely located dry cleaner or supermarket if another is more convenient.
    • 2. Transportation costs and proximity to markets :
    • 3. Location of competitors :
  • Secondary factors: Retailers also must consider the level of retail activity, residential density, traffic flow, and site visibility. High residential density ensures nighttime and weekend business when the population in the area fits the firm’s competitive priorities and target market segment.



Location models

  • Location models



In this method to merge quantitative and qualitative factors, factors are assigned weights based on relative importance and weightage score for each site using a preference matrix is calculated. The site with the highest weighted score is selected as the best choice.

  • In this method to merge quantitative and qualitative factors, factors are assigned weights based on relative importance and weightage score for each site using a preference matrix is calculated. The site with the highest weighted score is selected as the best choice.



Let us assume that a new medical facility, Health-care, is to be located in Delhi. The location factors, weights, and scores (1 = poor, 5 = excellent) for two potential sites are shown in the following table. What is the weighted score for these sites? Which is the best location?

  • Let us assume that a new medical facility, Health-care, is to be located in Delhi. The location factors, weights, and scores (1 = poor, 5 = excellent) for two potential sites are shown in the following table. What is the weighted score for these sites? Which is the best location?





The weighted score for this particular site is calculated by multiplying each factor’s weight by its score and adding the results:

  • The weighted score for this particular site is calculated by multiplying each factor’s weight by its score and adding the results:































Break-even analysis can help a manager compare location alternatives on the basis of quantitative factors that can be expressed in terms of total cost.

  • Break-even analysis can help a manager compare location alternatives on the basis of quantitative factors that can be expressed in terms of total cost.

    • Determine the variable costs and fixed costs for each site.
    • Plot the total cost lines—the sum of variable and fixed costs—for all the sites on a single graph
    • Identify the approximate ranges for which each location has the lowest cost.
    • Solve algebraically for the break-even points over the relevant ranges.


An operations manager has narrowed the search for a new facility location to four communities.

  • An operations manager has narrowed the search for a new facility location to four communities.

  • The annual fixed costs (land, property taxes, insurance, equipment, and buildings) and the variable costs (labor, materials, transportation, and variable overhead) are shown below.

  • Total costs are for 20,000 units.







Step 2. Using break-even analysis, calculate the break-even quantities over the relevant ranges. If the expected demand is 15,000 units per year, what is the best location?

  • Step 2. Using break-even analysis, calculate the break-even quantities over the relevant ranges. If the expected demand is 15,000 units per year, what is the best location?

  • (A) (B)

  • $150,000 + $62Q = $300,000 + $38Q

          • Q = 6,250 units
      • (B) (C)
      • $300,000 + $38Q = $500,000 + $24Q
        • Q = 14,286 units











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