Journal of Language Relationship • Вопросы языкового родства • 9 (2013) • Pp. 37-54 • Blažek V., 2013


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tral Cushitic *k- does not correspond to Egyptian g­. For the same reason Egyptian gw cannot

be a cognate of IE *g



oHu­, unlike kꜣ.



28. IE *por(w/stH)i- ‘young bull, calf’: ?Old Indic pthuka- m. ‘Rind, Kalb, Tierjunges’; Os-

setic  firt‘on  ‘Vieh, grössere vierfüssige Haustiere’; Armenian ort‘, ­ow  ‘calf, young deer’ <

*pthu- < *pH

1/2


­tu- (Olsen 1999, 108); Greek πόρις, πόρταξ, πόρτις ‘Kalb, junge Kuh’; Welsh

erthyl ‘abortus’; Old High German far, farro, Old English fearr, Old Icelandic farri (*farz­) ‘Stier’,

further Middle High German verse, German Färse ‘junge Kuh’ (Germanic *fársī, gen. *fársjōs), in

compound form cf. Old English héah-fore, English heifer (Pokorny 1959, 818).

AA *par(r)- ‘bull’ > Semitic *parr-: Akkadian parru ‘lamb, young sheep’, parratu ‘female

lamb’, cf. also pārum

 ‘ein Rind’ (AHw 834, 836), Ugar pr ‘young cattle’, prt ‘young cow’, He-

brew par ‘bull, bullock, steer’, pārā(h) ‘cow’, Jewish Aramaic par



ṯā id., Syrian par-ō ‘ewe lamb’,



Arabic farr

 ‘calf’, farīr, furār ‘lamb, wild calf, young gazelle’, Mehri fōr ‘bull’ (Aistleitner 1965,

159–60; Klein 1987, 522; Fox, Zeitschrift f

ür Althebraistik 11[1998], 20; he separates it from the

word *par(a)’- ‘onager’) ||| Chadic: (Central) Margi fúr ‘buffalo’ (Hoffmann), Kilba fur

  id.


(Meek) ||| Egyptian (Middle Kingdom) pry

 ‘Bezeichnung des Kampfstiers’ (Wb. I, 526). Orel

& Stolbova (1995, 418, #1950) mention an isolated form in Mbara (Central Chadic): fàrày ‘bétail,

dot’, i.e. ‘bride wealth’ (Tourneux, Seignobos & Lafarge 1986, 260).

Further cf. Kartvelian *pur- ‘cow’ (Fähnrich 2007, 445) ||| Dravidian *pōri ‘bull’ (DEDR

4593).


29. IE *steuro-: Avestan staora- ‘large cattle (horse, camel, ass, bovine)’, Khotanese stūra-

‘large cattle, horse’, Khwarezmian ʼscwr /stōr/ ‘large animal’, Buddhistic Sogdian ʼstʼwr, Yagh-

nobi  s

u

tūr  ‘sheep, ram’, Ossetic Iron stur, Digor (æ)stor  ‘cow & bull’, Shughni s tūr, Munjan



Indo-European zoonyms in Afroasiatic perspective

49

s





tūr ‘large cattle’, Sarykoli staur ‘yak’, Middle Parthian (Tumshuq) ‘stwr, Middle Persian stōr

‘draught animal, horse’, Persian sutōr, Kurdic hastur, (h)istir, estir, estor ‘horse’; Gothic stiur m.

‘calf, young steer’; Old High German stior, Old English stēor, Old Icelandic stiōrr ‘steer’

(Pokorny 1959, 1010; Bailey 1979, 434; Abaev III, 155–56).

AA  *čawar-/*čaraw-  ‘bull, steer’: Semitic *ṯáwar-: Akkadian šūru(m)  ‘Stier’; Eblaic šu-lum

/ṯōrum/ ~ /ṯūrum/ = Sumerian GU

4

.TUR ‘(Jung­)Stier’; Ugaritic ṯr, pl. ṯrm ‘bull; epithet of Il’;



Phoenician θωρ ‘divine steer’; Hebrew šṓr ‘ox, bull’; Samalean šwrh  ‘cow’, Old Aramaic swr

‘bull’, šwrh ‘cow’, Official Aramaic of the Persian empire twr, status emphaticus twr’, Biblical

Aramaic pl. tōr-īn, Jewish Aramaic tōr, status emphaticus tōr-ā ‘ox, bull, steer’, pl. tōr-īn, status

emphaticus tōra(y)yā, West Syriac tawr-ā, East Syriac tōr-ā id., Mandaic taura ‘bull, ox’; Arabic

ṯawr, pl. ṯiwarat, ṯiyarat, ṯiyār, ṯirat, ṯīrān ‘bull’, also ‘antelope bubalis’, ṯawrat ‘cow’; Sabaic ṯwr,

ṯr, pl. ʼṯwr(m/n)  ‘bull(­statuette); divine epithet’, Qatabanian, Minean ṯwr  ‘bull, steer’; Mehri

ṯawr ‘bull; big, stupid blundering strong fellow, brave but useless man’, Harsusi ṯawer, pl.

heṯwéret ‘bull’; Geez sor, also śor, pl. ʼaswār(āt)  ‘ox, bull’, Tigre sor  ‘ox’, Tigrinya sor  ‘castrated

goat’ (SED II, 307–10) ||| Egyptian (Old Kingdom) sꜣ ‘taurillon’? (Meeks 1977[80], #3325) |||

Cushitic: (East) East Cushitic: Tsamay sawr-o, Gollango sawr-ó & sayr-ó ‘antelope dikdik’ (Am-

born, Minker & Sasse 1980, 221; Blažek 2003, 7–12: Semitic+Egyptian+Cushitic).

Note: IE *tauro- ‘bull’ (Pokorny 1959, 1083; Abaev I, 390–91; Bailey 1979, 132) looks as a di-

rect borrowing from Semitic *ṯáwar- ‘bull, ox, steer’; cf. Illič-Svityč 1964, 3.

30. IE *tel- ‘calf’: ?Armenian tłaj ‘child’; Lithuanian tẽlias ‘new-born calf’, Latvian teļš ‘bull-

calf’; Slavic *telę, pl. *telęte ‘calf’ (Mann 1984–87, 1375–76).

AA *ṭaly- > Semitic *ṭalay-: Hebrew ṭālǣ ‘lamb’, Aramaic ṭalyā id., Arabic ṭala

n

 ‘young of an



animal’, Sabaic ṭly  ‘yearling lamb’, Geez ṭali  ‘goat, kid’, Tigre ṭel  ‘goat’, Harari ṭāy  ‘sheep’

(Leslau 1987, 590) ||| Cushitic: (East) *ḍal- ‘to beget’: Bayso ṭaltu idaado f. ‘sheep’ : idaado ‘ewe’;

Sidamo ḍala/ṭala ‘she-donkey’ (Sasse 1982, 123; Hudson 1989, 52) ||| ?Berber: Iullemiden ā-ḍēl

‘tout jeune veau’ (Nicolas 1957, 59), but other records and relatives are without the emphatic ḍ:

Iullemiden of Udalan & East Iullemiden edăll, pl. idălăn ‘calf (newborn to three months)’ (Sud-

low 2009, 29; Alojaly 1980, 22); Ahaggar éhedel  ‘veau de lait’ (DRB 329); Hausa t8líyṓ ‘young

animal following its mother’ (Bargery) is borrowed from Arabic tāliyat ‘one who follows’ (SED

II, 298–99).

Cf. Elamite tila ‘calf’ (Hinz & Koch 1987, 329); Altaic *t‘ḗlV: Turkic *Tẹ̄l ‘to put the kid or

calf to a different milch-ewe or cow; a kid or calf sucking two milch-ewes or cows’; Written

Mongolian tölüge(n) ‘last year´s lamb’ (EDAL 1415); Dravidian *taḷ- ‘to shoot, sprout’, cf. Kota

tayḷ ‘breed of cattle’ (DEDR 3131).

Lit.: Illič-Svityč 1967, 359: Semitic+IE+Dravidian+Altaic.

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