Just-in-Time and Lean Operations Developments of jit and Lean Operations 1960’s: Developed as Toyota Production System by Taiichi Ohno and his colleagues


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Just-in-Time and Lean Operations


Developments of JIT and Lean Operations

  • 1960’s: Developed as Toyota Production System by Taiichi Ohno and his colleagues

  • 1970’s: U.S. and European auto makers began to apply JIT to improve quality and productivity

  • 1990’s and beyond: Expanded the JIT concept to streamline all types of operations



Definition of JIT

  • A set of techniques to increase, productivity, improve quality, and reduce cost of an operations

  • A management philosophy to promote elimination of waste and continuous improvement of productivity



What Could Be the Expected Benefits of JIT?



Main Elements of JIT

  • Elimination of waste

  • Quality at the source

  • Balanced and flexible work flow

  • Respect for people

  • Continuous improvement (Kaizen)

  • Simplification and visual control

  • Focus on customer needs

  • Partnerships with key suppliers



What is A “Waste?”



Why is Inventory Reduction Important?



Quality at the Source

  • Jidoka – autonomation (automatic detection of defects, e.g., Poka-yoke)

  • Employee empowerment

  • Statistical process control

  • Prevention orientation (elimination of root causes through PDSA cycle)



Balanced and Flexible Work Flow

  • Yo-i-don (ready, set, go) system

  • Stable production schedule

  • Set-up time reduction

  • Flow-shop and cellular layouts

  • Shojinka (flexible & multi-skilled workforce)

  • Teamwork

  • Total productive maintenance (TPM)



Respect for People

  • Productivity improvement needs employee support

  • Demonstrate by

    • providing cross-training opportunities
    • creating a safe and equitable work environment
    • encouraging people to achieve their potential by giving them greater responsibility and authority
    • promoting teamwork (formal and informal)
    • developing partnerships with unions


Continuous Improvement (Kaizen)

  • Employee suggestion system

  • Process improvement

  • 5S’s

    • Seiri - organization
    • Seiton - tidiness
    • Seiso - purity
    • Seiketsu - cleanliness
    • Shitsuke - discipline


Simplification and Visual Control

  • Standard and simple product designs

  • Andon boards

  • Kanban pull system

  • Flag systems

  • Music as signals

  • Performance display systems



Focus on Customer Needs

  • Customer needs determine the “value” of a product or service

  • Be responsive to customers needs (present and future)

  • Strive to “delight,” not just “satisfy” customers



Partnerships with Suppliers

  • Reduce number of suppliers

  • Use long-term contracts

  • Emphasize price, delivery, and services

  • Improve communication

  • Share information

  • Develop local just-in-time delivery

  • Provide technical support to suppliers



JIT Implementation

  • Top management commitment

  • Steering committee

  • Education program

  • Pilot project planning

  • Employee training

  • Pilot implementation

  • Pilot post mortem

  • Feedback to steering committee

  • Expansion to next project



Advancements in JIT (JIT II)

  • Backwards Integration of staff and line functions to suppliers (e.g., purchasing)

  • Requires EDI or web access to materials and logistics systems

  • On-site supplier representative(s) with transaction processing authority

  • Goal: link suppliers’ cycle to firm’s cycle to mutually reduce wait and move times



How Can JIT Be Applied to Non-Manufacturing Operations?



What Are Toyota’s Secrets of Success?




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