Lasted from 1914-1918 and the Paris Peace Conference was in 1919. Lasted from 1914-1918 and the Paris Peace Conference was in 1919


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Lasted from 1914-1918 and the Paris Peace Conference was in 1919.

  • Lasted from 1914-1918 and the Paris Peace Conference was in 1919.

  • People knew that the “Great War” was coming and evidence can be seen in art and literature leading up to the war.

  • Turning Point in warfare due to new technology

  • To try to ease tensions, Europe brought back the Olympic games in Athens 1896.

  • In addition the Hague Tribunal is created. This organization was an pen forum where countries could discuss their problems without warfare.



Rival alliances:

  • Rival alliances:

  • Triple Alliance vs. Triple Entente

  • 1870: Balance of power of Europe upset by decisive Prussian victory in Franco-Prussian War.

  • Bismarck feared French revenge; negotiated treaties to isolate France; also feared Russia after the Congress of Berlin 1878

  • 1879 Dual Alliance: Germany and Austria

    • Wanted to stop Russian expansion
    • Germany supported Austria in struggle of expansion in the Balkans
    • Became a feature of European diplomacy until after World War I


Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty of 1887:

  • Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty of 1887:

    • promised neutrality if other was attacked
    • Kaiser Wilhelm II refused to renew reinsurance treaty after removing Bismarck in 1890
    • Germany developed closer ties to Austria
    • France courted Russia and the two became allies
  • "Splendid Isolation":

    • After 1891, Britain was the only uncommitted power
  •  Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902):

    • Britain sought Japanese agreement to "benevolent neutrality" to counter possible Russian threat in India.


Militarism and the Arms Race

  • Militarism and the Arms Race

    • Anglo-German arms race
      • Militarism led to a belief in the inevitability of European war.
      • Germany overtook Britain industrially in the 1890s
      • British policy was have their fleet larger than combined fleets of any two rival nations
      • 1898, Kaiser Wilhelm II began expansion of German navy to protect a growing international trade and colonialism
      • Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz led the naval buildup for Germany.
  • Bertha von Suttner (Austrian) – first woman to win Nobel Peace Prize; opposed arms race

    • Lay Down Your Arms (1889) contributed to founding of Peace Societies in Austria & Germany
  • Haldane Mission (1912): British tried unsuccessfully to end naval arms race with Germany

  • By World War I, both Britain and Germany possessed Dreadnoughts – new super battleships with awesome firing range and power



Imperialism

  • Imperialism

  • Imperialism led to increased tensions between the Great Powers over Africa

    • Berlin Conference, 1885: Germany's late coming into imperialism led Bismarck to establish rules for carving up Africa
  • Kruger Telegram (1902): triggered British anger at Germany for congratulating Boers on their victories over British troops in South Africa.

  • 1906: Algeciras Conference settled First Moroccan Crisis

    • Kaiser had urged Moroccan independence despite it being a French colony
    • Britain and Italy supported French hegemony in Morocco and Tunisia
    • Britain, France, Russia, & U.S. saw Germany as potential threat to dominate all Europe
    • Germany isolated (except for Austria's support)
    • Cried "encirclement" by other powers to block Germany's emergence as world power
  • Second Moroccan Crisis (1911)

    • German gunboat sent to Morocco to protest French occupation of the city of Fez.
    • Britain supported France again; Germany backed down for minor concessions in equatorial Africa.


Nationalism

  • Nationalism

  • Nationalism created a "powder keg" in the Balkans

  • The Ottoman Empire (“the sick man of Europe”) receded from the Balkans

  • Pan-Slavism, a nationalist movement to unite all Slavic peoples, encouraged the Serbs, Bosnians, Slovenes, and Croats to seek a single political entity in Southern Europe

    • As southern Slavs’ “big brother” to the east, Russia focused on Balkan regions in Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires after its humiliating loss in the Russo-Japanese War.
  • First Balkan Crisis

  • Young Turks led by Ataturk (Mustafa Kemal Pasha) set up parliamentary gov't in Ottoman Empire; seemed weak to others

  • 1908 Austria annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina while Russia failed to gain access, Serbia frustrated

    • Austria's action violated the Congress of Berlin (1878)
  • 1911-12, Italy took Turkish province of Libya; showed how weak Ottomans had become

  • War was averted because Russia was not yet ready and Franc was not willing to fight over the Balkans    



First Balkan War (1908)

  • First Balkan War (1908)

  • Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria allied to drive the Turks out of the Balkans

  • Serbia sought spot on the Adriatic; rebuffed when Austria created Albania to deter Serbia.

  • Second Balkan War (1913)

  • Bulgaria was angered that Serbia and Greece had acquired significant territory in Macedonia and thus attacked both countries.

  • Serbia defeated Bulgaria over Macedonia and gained Albania;

    • Russia backed Serbia
  • Austria, with German support against Russia, prevented Serbia from holding Albania

  • Serbia frustrated it had no access to Adriatic Sea; Russia humiliated

  • "Third Balkan War" between Austria and Serbia became World War I



Serbia wanted to create a South Slav State (Pan-slavism) and wanted to annex Bosnia which belonged to Austria

  • Serbia wanted to create a South Slav State (Pan-slavism) and wanted to annex Bosnia which belonged to Austria

  • June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Austrian heir to throne, assassinated by Serbian nationalist Princip (member Serbian "Black Hand") while visiting Bosnia-Herzegovina.

  • Austria Issues Serbia an ultimatum: Punish those involved and end all anti-Austrian aggression or else.

  •  



Kaiser Wilhelm II pledges unwavering support to Austria to punish Serbia: "the blank check"

  • Kaiser Wilhelm II pledges unwavering support to Austria to punish Serbia: "the blank check"

  • July 28, Austria declares war on Serbia

    • Claimed that Serbia did not meet the ultimatum
    • First military act of the war was the Austrian bombing of Belgrade.
  • Russia mobilizes against Austria & Germany;

  • France mobilizes on Germany's western border



Aug 1, German declares war on Britain and France

  • Aug 1, German declares war on Britain and France

  • Aug. 3, Germany invades Belgium; France declares war on Germany

  • Aug 4, Britain declares war on Germany



Two opposing alliances

  • Two opposing alliances

  • Central Powers (Triple Alliance): Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire (also Bulgaria)

  • Allies (Triple Entente): Britain, France, Russia (later, Japan, Italy and U.S.)





Schlieffen Plan: German plan to invade France through Belgium, defeat France quickly (6 weeks) by sweeping around Paris, and then move to the east to defeat Russia

  • Schlieffen Plan: German plan to invade France through Belgium, defeat France quickly (6 weeks) by sweeping around Paris, and then move to the east to defeat Russia

  • Why did it fail?

    • Belgian resistance slowed German advance
    • German line could not lure French into Alsace Lorraine
    • Russia mobilized too quickly.


Battle of the Marne (Sept. 1914): After Germans came within sight of Paris, French and British forces pushed German forces back. Led by General Joseph Joffre

  • Battle of the Marne (Sept. 1914): After Germans came within sight of Paris, French and British forces pushed German forces back. Led by General Joseph Joffre



Trench warfare developed after Battle of the Marne; lasted four bloody years

  • Trench warfare developed after Battle of the Marne; lasted four bloody years









1916: Battle of Verdun

  • 1916: Battle of Verdun

  • Germans wanted to “Bleed France White” and force it to sue for peace

  • Franc lost 540,000 men and Germany lost 430,000

  • and Battle of the Somme; horrific casualties; neither side could break through

  • British and French offensive to break through German lines

  • Losses men: Britain 420,000; France 200,000; Germany 650,000



Erich Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front (1929) illustrated horrific trench warfare.

  • Erich Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front (1929) illustrated horrific trench warfare.



  Technological advancements in war: machine gun, tanks, airplane, poison gas, Zeppelins, U-boats

  •   Technological advancements in war: machine gun, tanks, airplane, poison gas, Zeppelins, U-boats



General Von Hindenburg & General Von Ludendorf defeated invading Russian armies at Tannenburg; turned the tide of the war in the east

  • General Von Hindenburg & General Von Ludendorf defeated invading Russian armies at Tannenburg; turned the tide of the war in the east

  • Gallipoli Campaign: British and Australian forces failed to take Dardanelles as a step toward taking Constantinople and defeating the Turks



What is genocide?

  • What is genocide?

    • Coined by Dr. Raphael Lemkin after the Holocaust to describe the atrocities in Turkey and in Nazi Europe
  • Definition according to the UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide:

    • Any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such as:
      • Killing members of the group;
      • Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
      • Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
      • Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
      • Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.


Armenians were a Christian group living in the Middle East for hundreds of years.

  • Armenians were a Christian group living in the Middle East for hundreds of years.

  • Treated as second class citizens under the Seljuk then Ottoman Turks.

  • Rise of nationalism in the 1800s led to groups such as Serbians and Greeks seeking autonomy and independence.

  • Armenians started to protest for rights and against discrimination in the late 1800s

  • First recorded massacre under the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Abdul – Hamid II)

    • 100,000-300,000 Armenians killed in the Hamidian Massacres
  • Armenians hopeful for change and a solidification of their rights in a constitution after Young Turks overthrow sultan.

    • However radicalism emerged instead.
    • 1909 – Adana Massacre


Causes:

  • Causes:

    • Russia was an enemy of the Ottomans and Turks & they had supported rights for the Armenians and even had Armenians living in Russia and serving in their military.
      • Used this connection to convince others against the Armenians
    • Scapegoated the losses in World War I on them.


Leaders of the ruling party decide to deal with Armenians while Europe is preoccupied with World War I

  • Leaders of the ruling party decide to deal with Armenians while Europe is preoccupied with World War I

  • Intellectuals, doctors, artists, civil leaders, etc are rounded up and murdered.

  • New technology such as railroads and telegraphs assist in sending orders and deporting Armenians to concentration camps and/or their death.

  • Armenian children were abducted, sold, or raised by Turkish families.



Some organizations tried to help as early as 1908

  • Some organizations tried to help as early as 1908

    • This was the first international mission of the Red Cross
    • Near East Relief raised millions of dollars during the genocide to save lives
  • Arabs and Muslims risked their lives to hide and save Armenians including hiding children.

  • The early massacres and then the actual genocide did gain attention in the international press such as the New York Times

  • US Diplomat Henry Morgenthau, Sr. wrote numerous letters to the White House about the atrocities he was witnessing in Turkey.





Ninth World Congress of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation

  • Ninth World Congress of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation

    • Track down and execute genocide leaders
  • Allies formally accuse the Ottomans of “Crimes Against Humanity.”

  • Britain set up war crimes tribunal in Malta (Malta International Tribunals) instead of holding them in Constantinople (Istanbul)

    • British Style Trials
    • How do you try another country under your own laws?
    • Need international law – not created yet
  • Some were convicted many others were not brought to justice



Denial

  • Denial

    • Turkey denies the Armenian Genocide today – some reasons are:
      • Claim the massacres does not fit the definition of genocide.
      • Claimed the massacres were not preconceived by the Ottoman government
  • Remembrance

    • France as well as other counties have laws that make it crime to claim the genocide did not take place.
    • Date of remembrance: April 24th


Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Dec. 1917): Lenin took Russia out of the war but forced to give Germans 1/4 of Russian territory

  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Dec. 1917): Lenin took Russia out of the war but forced to give Germans 1/4 of Russian territory



T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia): scored major victories in the middle east to weaken the Turks

  • T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia): scored major victories in the middle east to weaken the Turks



British and Allied Naval Blockade:

  • British and Allied Naval Blockade:

  • Goal was to strangle Central Powers

  • Starting in 1914, used superior fleet & sea mines to cut Central Powers off from overseas trade and caused Germany to lose control of its colonial empire.

  • Germany responded by sinking Allied vessels

  • Lusitania, 1915: U-boats sank passenger liner killing 1,200 including 128 Americans

  • Germany began unrestricted submarine warfare in 1917 sinking all ships with its U-boats

  • Most important reason for U.S. entry into the war



Allies “unknown war” against Russia: Archangel expedition

  • Allies “unknown war” against Russia: Archangel expedition

  • Sought to prevent Bolshevik victory during Russian civil war by invading from Murmansk

  • Allies also sent troops into Siberia to prevent Japanese control of the region, rescue thousands of marooned Czech soldiers and prevent the Bolsheviks from getting new weapons supplies

  • Actually prolonged the Russian Civil War



involved mass civilian populations in the war effort

  • involved mass civilian populations in the war effort

  • Massive conscription drafted most able-bodied men in their youth

  • ·News was censored; propaganda lionized the men at the front and dehumanized the enemy

  • British propaganda effectively demonized Germany as the “Hun”









Economic production was focused on the war effort

  • Economic production was focused on the war effort

  • Free-market capitalism was abandoned in favor of strong central planning of the economy

  • Labor Unions supported the war effort – demand for labor

  • Rationing of food and scarce commodities was instituted.

    • People financed the war by buying bonds.
  • Each side aimed at “starving out” the enemy by cutting off vital supplies to the civilian population.



Women replaced male factory workers who were now fighting the war.

  • Women replaced male factory workers who were now fighting the war.

    • 43% of the labor force in Russia
    • Changing attitudes about women resulted in increased rights after the war (Britain, Germany, Austria and U.S.)
    • War promoted greater social equality, thus blurring class distinctions and lessening the gap between rich and poor


In France, Georges Clemenceau created a dictatorship during the war

  • In France, Georges Clemenceau created a dictatorship during the war

  • Germany became the world's first totalitarian regime in order to control the war effort



1915: Neutral Italy entered the war against the Central Powers (its former allies) with the promise of Italia Irredenta (“unredeemed Italy”) and some German colonies and Turkish territories.

  • 1915: Neutral Italy entered the war against the Central Powers (its former allies) with the promise of Italia Irredenta (“unredeemed Italy”) and some German colonies and Turkish territories.

  • Zimmerman Note: Germany proposed an alliance with Mexico; would return most of southwestern U.S. to Mexico if Central Powers won.

  • Balfour Note (1917) Arabs & Jews in Palestine promised autonomy if they joined the Allies.

    • Britain declared sympathy for idea of Jewish homeland in Palestine.
    • New policy seemed to contradict British support for Arab nationalism.


secret 1916 agreement between Great Britain and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.

    • secret 1916 agreement between Great Britain and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.
    • The agreement defined their mutually agreed spheres of influence and control in Southwestern Asia.
    • The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Entente would succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I.
    • Given Ottoman defeat in 1918 and the subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, the agreement effectively divided the Ottoman Arab provinces outside the Arabian peninsula into areas of British and French control and influence
    •  The British gained control of the territory in 1920 and ruled it as Mandatory Palestine from 1923 until 1948. They also ruled Mandatory Iraq from 1920 until 1932, while the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon lasted from 1923 to 1946.
    • The terms were negotiated by British diplomat Mark Sykes and a French counterpart, François Georges-Picot.
    • The agreement is seen by many as a turning point in Western and Arab relations. It negated the UK's promises to Arabs made through Colonel T. E. Lawrence for a national Arab homeland in the area of Greater Syria, in exchange for supporting the British against the Ottoman Empire.


Wilson’s 14 Points (Jan. 1918) -- plan to end the war along liberal, democratic lines

  • Wilson’s 14 Points (Jan. 1918) -- plan to end the war along liberal, democratic lines

  • Provisions:

    • Abolish secret treaties
    • Freedom of the seas
    • Remove economic barriers (e.g. tariffs)
    • Reduction of armament burdens
    • Promise of independence (“self-determination”) to oppressed minority groups (e.g. Poles, Czechs), millions of which lived in Germany and Austria-Hungary.
    • Adjustment of colonial claims in interests of both native peoples and colonizers
    • German evacuation of Russia; restoration of Belgium; return of Alsace-Lorraine to France; evacuation and restoration of the Balkans; return of Schleswig to Denmark
    • Adjustment of Italy’s borders along ethnic lines.
    • Autonomy for non-Turkish parts of the Turkish Empire.
    • 14th point: International organization to supply collective security
  • Foreshadowed League of Nations



Argonne offensive (spring 1918: Germans transferred divisions from east (after defeating Russia) to the western front and mounted a massive offensive.

  • Argonne offensive (spring 1918: Germans transferred divisions from east (after defeating Russia) to the western front and mounted a massive offensive.

    • U.S. entered war in time to help stop the German offensive
  • Central Powers sought peace based on 14 Points (believing they would get fair treatment)

    • Germany and Austria-Hungary wracked with revolution
    • Austria surrendered on Nov. 3
    • Germany surrendered on Nov. 11(Armistice signed at 11 pm); Wilhelm II abdicates and flees to Holland


Big Four: Lloyd George (Br.), Clemenceau (Fr.), Wilson (US), Orlando (It)

  • Big Four: Lloyd George (Br.), Clemenceau (Fr.), Wilson (US), Orlando (It)

  • Central powers excluded from negotiations

  • France concerned with its future security

  • Italy left the conference angry it would not get some territories promised in 1915

  • Italy wanted territory once in the Austro-Hungarian empire

  • Ethnic groups once in the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empire wanted to form their own states. Some borders overlapped so it was impossible to satisfy everyone



New German Republic – Weimar Republic: Why did the Allies not want to sign a peace agreement with an autocratic government?

  • New German Republic – Weimar Republic: Why did the Allies not want to sign a peace agreement with an autocratic government?

  • Versailles Treaty, 1919

    • Article 231: placed sole blame for war on Germany; Germany would be severely punished
    • Germany forced to pay huge reparations to Britain and France
    • German army and navy severely reducedGermany was only allowed 100, 000 standing troops and had to reduce their navy to six ships and Germany could have no submarines or military aircraft
    • Rhineland would be demilitarized; Saar coal mines taken over by France
    • Germany lost all its colonies and Alsace Lorraine returned to France


League of Nations:

  • League of Nations:

  • Germany and Russia not included

  • U.S. Senate failed to ratify resulting in U.S. isolationism

  • The league thus was born as a mere shadow of what it had originally been intended to achieve.



Italy was angry because they did not get t the lands promised to them

  • Italy was angry because they did not get t the lands promised to them

  • Japans claim to Chinese territory was not recognized by Europeans

  • mandates for former colonies and territories of the Central Powers

    • territories administered by Western Powers
    • (See next 2 slides)


One of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I.

  • One of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I.

  • The Sèvres treaty marked the beginning of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, and its ultimate annihilation.

  • The terms it stipulated included the renunciation of all non-Turkish territory that was part of the Ottoman Empire and its cession to the Allied administration.  

    • Notably, the ceding of Eastern Mediterranean land allowed the creation of, amongst others, Mandatory Palestine and the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon.
  • The terms of the treaty brewed hostility and nationalist feeling amongst Turks.

  • The treaty ultimately led to the Turkish War of Independence, following which Atatürk and most Turkish nationalists accepted a new treaty, &effectively brought into being the modern-day Republic of Turkey.





Peace agreement of 1920 to formally end World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.[ 

  • Peace agreement of 1920 to formally end World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.[ 

  • The treaty regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state and defined its borders.

  • Five of the pre-war kingdom's ten largest cities were drawn into other countries.

  • The treaty limited Hungary's army to 35,000 officers and men, while the Austro-Hungarian Navy ceased to exist.



The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine required Bulgaria to cede various territories, after Bulgaria had been one of the Central Powers defeated in World War I. 

  • The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine required Bulgaria to cede various territories, after Bulgaria had been one of the Central Powers defeated in World War I. 

  • The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed by the Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.

    • Like the Treaty of Trianon with Hungary and the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, it contained the Covenant of the League of Nations and as a result was not ratified by the United States but was followed by the US–Austrian Peace Treaty of 1921.


 Other Settlements

  •  Other Settlements

    • Baltic States: Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia
    • Poland gained independence
    • Three New Republic: Czechoslovakia, Austria and Hungry
    • New South Slav State: Yugoslavia
  • Members of Paris Peace conference only applied self-determination to Europe



Massive casualties:

  • Massive casualties:

    • 10 million soldiers dead;
    • 10 million civilians dead, many from influenza epidemic;
    • 15 million died in Russian Revolution
  • End to political dynasties

    • Hapsburg dynasty removed in Austria (had lasted 500 years)
    • Romanov dynasty removed in Russia (had lasted 300 years)
    • Hohenzollern dynasty removed in Germany (had lasted 300 years)
    • Ottoman Empire destroyed (had lasted 500 years)


War promoted greater social equality, thus blurring class distinctions and lessening the gap between rich and poor

  • War promoted greater social equality, thus blurring class distinctions and lessening the gap between rich and poor

    • The Russian Revolution abolished the nobility and gave women more rights than any other country in Europe
    • Women received the right to vote in Britain the same year that the war ended; Germany soon followed
    • The nobility in Germany, Austria, and Russia lost much of its influence and prestige


Dissent Increased as the war continued

  • Dissent Increased as the war continued

  • Tsar was overthrown by the Provisional government who was then overthrown by the Bolsheviks due to the mounting war casualties

  • Irish Republicans staged an insurrection – The Easter Rebellion – in England in 1916

  • In Germany, militant socialists and anti-war activists Rosa Luxembourg and Clara Zetkin were imprisoned for trying to convince fellow socialists not to support the war effort.

  • Large crowds of Women in France, Austria, and Italy protested working conditions and high prices

  • Government censorship existed in virtually every country and people increasingly grew dissatisfied with the integrity of their governments.



Russian Revolution resulted in world's first communist country

  • Russian Revolution resulted in world's first communist country

  • German nationalist resentment of harsh Versailles Treaty doomed the Weimar Republic

    • German anger with treaty partially responsible for rise of Hitler in early 1930s
  • The U.S. became the world’s leading creditor and greatest producer due to the drain of Europe’s resources.

  • Unresolved differences lead to WWII





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