Lasted from 1914-1918 and the Paris Peace Conference was in 1919. Lasted from 1914-1918 and the Paris Peace Conference was in 1919
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Lasted from 1914-1918 and the Paris Peace Conference was in 1919.
Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty of 1887:
Militarism and the Arms Race
First Balkan War (1908)
Serbia wanted to create a South Slav State (Pan-slavism) and wanted to annex Bosnia which belonged to Austria
Kaiser Wilhelm II pledges unwavering support to Austria to punish Serbia: "the blank check"
Aug 1, German declares war on Britain and France
Two opposing alliances
Schlieffen Plan: German plan to invade France through Belgium, defeat France quickly (6 weeks) by sweeping around Paris, and then move to the east to defeat Russia
Battle of the Marne (Sept. 1914): After Germans came within sight of Paris, French and British forces pushed German forces back. Led by General Joseph Joffre
Trench warfare developed after Battle of the Marne; lasted four bloody years
1916: Battle of Verdun
Erich Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front (1929) illustrated horrific trench warfare.
Technological advancements in war: machine gun, tanks, airplane, poison gas, Zeppelins, U-boats
General Von Hindenburg & General Von Ludendorf defeated invading Russian armies at Tannenburg; turned the tide of the war in the east
What is genocide?
Armenians were a Christian group living in the Middle East for hundreds of years.
Leaders of the ruling party decide to deal with Armenians while Europe is preoccupied with World War I
Some organizations tried to help as early as 1908
Ninth World Congress of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Dec. 1917): Lenin took Russia out of the war but forced to give Germans 1/4 of Russian territory
T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia): scored major victories in the middle east to weaken the Turks
British and Allied Naval Blockade:
Allies “unknown war” against Russia: Archangel expedition
involved mass civilian populations in the war effort
Economic production was focused on the war effort
Women replaced male factory workers who were now fighting the war.
In France, Georges Clemenceau created a dictatorship during the war
1915: Neutral Italy entered the war against the Central Powers (its former allies) with the promise of Italia Irredenta (“unredeemed Italy”) and some German colonies and Turkish territories.
secret 1916 agreement between Great Britain and France, to which the Russian Empire assented.
Wilson’s 14 Points (Jan. 1918) -- plan to end the war along liberal, democratic lines
Argonne offensive (spring 1918: Germans transferred divisions from east (after defeating Russia) to the western front and mounted a massive offensive.
Big Four: Lloyd George (Br.), Clemenceau (Fr.), Wilson (US), Orlando (It)
New German Republic – Weimar Republic: Why did the Allies not want to sign a peace agreement with an autocratic government?
League of Nations:
Italy was angry because they did not get t the lands promised to them
One of a series of treaties that the Central Powers signed after their defeat in World War I.
Peace agreement of 1920 to formally end World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter being one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.[
The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine required Bulgaria to cede various territories, after Bulgaria had been one of the Central Powers defeated in World War I.
War promoted greater social equality, thus blurring class distinctions and lessening the gap between rich and poor
Dissent Increased as the war continued
Russian Revolution resulted in world's first communist country
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