SCULPTURAL PORTRAITS (1960-1970ss)
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- Навигация по данной странице:
- 8.1. Feodor Lopukhov – a grand choreographer
- 8.2. Doctor Grigoriy Smirnov – a severe scientist
- 8.3 Mathematician Fadeev’s portrait – a goal-seeking genius
- 8.4 Andrey Gnezdilov –unique son’s portrait
8. SCULPTURAL PORTRAITS (1960-1970ss)
Portrait is always a double image, - artist’s image and model’s image.
True portraitist (who deserves this name) puts his whole personality into portrait and
above it, eternity.
In the late 1960 – 1970ss Nina Slobodinskaya continues developing and working on
the genre of portrait, remaining loyal to her main subject – a deep study and
psychological analysis of man, seeking for his individuality’s essence and revealing it
in sculpture. The artist’s social circle was truly vast and quickly expanded due to the
active social life which leaded her son (creating at their home a place for gathering
and creative meetings of artists, singers, dancers, poets, scientists, writers). Thus, it’s
not surprising that the sculptor had a rich variety of model’s choice. Therefore the
majority of the portrayed belonged to the social group of so called cultural
In range of interesting personalities which were sculpted appears a legendary
Feodor Lopukhov. Feodor Vasilievich Lopukhov was a Russian ballet dancer, teacher
and choreographer. He was born in 1886, in St. Petersburg and died in1973 in
Leningrad. He was awarded with a title of People’s Artist of the RSFSR (1956) in
Leningrad. Lopukhov graduated from the St. Petersburg Theatrical Academy and
worked at the Mariinsky Theatre from 1905 to 1909 and in 1911; at the Moscow
Bolshoi Theatre in 1909-10. Feodor Lopukhov directed the ballet company of the
Leningrad Theatre of Opera and Ballet from 1922 to 1930. Regarding his approach
Lopukhov was never satisfied with existing standard normative of the classic ballet,
instead he created a number of experimental dance works, introducing into a
dance a symphony The Majesty of the Universe to Beethoven’s Fourth Symphony
(1923); The Night on the Bald Mountain to music by Mussorgsky (1924); the ballet The
Kemeri, S. Visage de Bourdelle. Paris: Chamais, 1931, p.28.
Red Storm by Deshevov (1924) on the revolution; and Stravinsky’s Pulcinella (1926)
and The Fox (1927), the ballet Ice Maiden to Grieg’s music (1927)
. Revealing new
means of expression, Lopukhov further developed the principles of XIX century
academic ballet, reorganizing the classical dance and introducing acrobatic
elements into it; in addition he made character dances more closely resembling the
ethnic dances. Further he staged the ballet The Bolt by Shostakovich. He leaded the
ballet troupe of the Leningrad Maliy Theatre of Opera from 1933 to 1936. In 1920’s he
staged and enlivened in different theatres many ballets of the classical era, thereby
helping to preserve and brighten up Russian ballet traditions. The Soviet Union in the
1920s accepted choreographic experiments of Fyodor Lopukhov and others.
Despite the official imposition of socialist realism as the criterion of artistic
acceptability in 1932, grace to Lopukhov’s efforts ballet gained enormous popularity
with the Soviet people. Lopukhov directed courses for choreographers at the
Leningrad Choreographic School, where he worked from 1937 until 1941. Lately in
1962 he was an artistic director of the choreographic section of the stage being a
head of Leningrad Conservatory department
One of the most impressive Lopukhov ‘s ballets was the Limpid Stream or the Bright
Stream which represents a ballet score, Op. 39, in 3 acts, 4 scenes, composed by
Dmitri Shostakovich on the libretto by Adrian Piotrovsky and Feodor Lopukhov,
choreography prepared by Feodor Lopukhov, premiered in Leningrad (The
Mikhaylovsky Theatre) in 1935. The central line story of the plot tells about a group of
ballet dancers who have been sent to organize a sophisticated entertainment to a
new Soviet collective farm. Suddenly it turns out that the honest country-bumpkins,
controversially, have more to teach the city-folk. The Golden Age in 1930 and The
in a short while after their premieres; this fact heavily damaged Shostakovich’s
reputation, so much that he was reluctant ever to write for the lyric stage again.
Leningrad and Moscow from June 1935 through February 1936 accepted with
Слонимский, Ю. Пути балетмейстера Лопухова. Шестьдесят лет в балете. М.: Искусство, 1966,
Lopuchov, Shest’desiat let v balete: Vospominaniia izapiski baletmeistera in Moscow, The Great
Soviet Encyclopedia, M.: Nauka, 1979, pp.30-40.
success The Bright Stream. Nevertheless, an editorial in Pravda in early 1936 criticized
the ballet and its musical suite; as a result both works were taken out of stage
obligatory sessions for modelling at her studio, Feodr Lopukhov revealed him-self as a
person full of humour and optimism. The choreographer did not stop making the
sculptor laughing. One of the Lopuchov’s anecdotes she shared with her son Andrey
Gnezdilov: at one of his ballets premiere there had to be a real cow at the stage
and a farm-woman had to milk a cow; unexpectedly, it was impossible to find a
cow and the only option left was to bring a real bull. So the artistic decision was
found and the bull was decorated with an artificial udder. But during the spectacle
the ballet dancer, so called farm-woman, unexpectedly pulled away the udder
and, being terrified cried. Meanwhile the bull became furious and started to attack
other ballet dancers from the same troupe. The show had to be stopped. The
premier was a real scandal as a result, but their choreographer was ever so much
laughing in his life as that day.
N. Slobodinskaya, F. Lopuchov, 1970, bronze, 42 x 23 x 46.
Соколов-Каминский, А. Ф.В. Лопухов и его Симфония танца. Сборник Музыка и хореография
современного балета, М.: Искусство, 1974, C.174-190.
Photo of F. Lopuchov, 1970, unknown author. Photo of F. Lopuchov, 1950s, unknown author.
The bronze portrait of the famous choreographer, elaborated 3 years before his
death shows a realistically elaborated, detailed work. Face’s wrinkles are
emphasized and outline the pronounced traits of his face, branching out a straight
nose; a character seems to transmit a dignity and inner will. Despite his oldness the
portrayed expresses inner nobleness; apparently, the whole image is lightened up by
a strong spirit full of honesty and self-respect. Lopuchov looks straight and his gaze
reflects a memory of two last centuries: the Imperial Russian State and the
Communist’s new red era. Sharp, prominent face traits emphasize an impression of
his inner firmness and indicate at a strong life’s core which an old man still preserves.
The sculptor achieves to display a strong complex character and a rich personality
of the portrayed. After the sculptural portrait was over - many Lopuhov’s
apprentices came to visit sculptor’s studio in order to see the final result of her work.
Finally the Lopuhov’s sculptural image was purchased by The State Theatre Museum
in Leningrad where actually belongs.
Among other sculptural portraits of this epoch we find an image of Dr Grigoriy
Smirnov – a professor of the Military-Medical Academy, a colleague of Vladimir
Gnezdilov. A sculptural portrait in bronze was elaborated in a direct contact with a
model. Grace to the friendship of the sculptor’s husband and his colleague N.
Slobodinskaya had an interesting and expressive model for shaping. Aside from
working directly with the model the author used photos of Dr Smirnov in different
focuses in order to achieve a maximum exactitude in its depiction.
N. Slobodinskaya G. Smirnov, 1970s, plasticine, 47 x 28 x 70.
Photos of G. Smirnov, 1970s, unknown author.
The sculptural portrait is shaped in detail. Every trait, every wrinkle is pronounced and
outlined quite naturalistically. The author uses the realistic method of depiction. In
addition to the natural and close similarity of the model’s image the master tends to
catch the character’s essence. The sculptor definitely achieves to uncover the
personality: we may see a perfectly displayed severe serious gaze emphasized by
widely and stubbornly brought together eyebrows, firmly closed mouth. In the
apparently withdrawn appearance we may guess a strong and complex character.
Generally speaking, there was a variety of sculptural portraits elaborated in this
epoch, and as common traits could be determined the following: study of model’s
deep psychological characteristic and its display in realistic style, search of inner
human essence of a portrayed and the task to transmit visually a complexity and a
richness of model’s inner life.
The same approach may be traced in other sculptural portraits of the epoch, such
as the Lenconcert’s Artist’s image, or the mathematician Fadeev’s portrait.
Fadeev has been a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences since 1976, and is
a member of a number of foreign academies, including the U. S. National Academy
of Sciences, the French Academy of Sciences, and the Royal Society. He received
numerous awards, including the USSR State Prize (1971), Danniel Heineman Prize
(1975), Dirac Prize (1990), Max Planck Medal (1996), Demidov Prize (2002 - for
outstanding contribution to the development of mathematics, quantum mechanics,
string theory and solutions) and the State Prize of the Russian Federation (1995, 2004).
He is a former president of the International Mathematical Union (1986–1990). The
Doctor was awarded with the Henri Poincaré Prize in 2006 and the Shaw Prize in
mathematical sciences in 2008. Also the Karpinsky International Prize and the Max
Planck Medal (German Physical Society). He also received the Lomonosov Gold
Medal for 2013
. Fadeev has also received state awards: the Order of Merit for the
Fatherland; 3rd class (25 October 2004) - for outstanding contribution to the
development of fundamental and applied domestic science and many years of
fruitful activity; 4th class (4 June 1999) - for outstanding contribution to the
development of national science and training of highly qualified personnel in
connection with the 275th anniversary of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Faddev also got the Order of Friendship of Peoples (6 June 1994) - for his great
personal contribution to the development of mathematical physics and training of
highly qualified scientific personnel; the Order of the Red Banner of Labour; the
Order of Lenin. Honorary citizen of St. Petersburg (2010); Russian Federation State
Prizes in Science and Technology 2004 (6 June 2005) - for outstanding achievement
in the development of mathematical physics and in 1995 for science and
technology (20 June 1995) - for the monograph Introduction to quantum gauge field
.Fadeev’s sculptural portrait despite of the realistic
depiction is full of expressiveness: a massive chest, wavy hair, a direct gaze – all
reveals a romantic Russian legendary hero-scientific. His image is full of dynamism
and vividness: physic, mental and personal. If we look at a range of the scientist’s
photos we may notice an active energy in his gaze: whether explaining a
mathematic task to his apprentices, or just looking straight at viewer, you may feel
In general terms, the sculptural portrait genre in this epoch played an important role. The main
artistic task was considered to be freed from standards and a stereotypic pompous representative
images which invaded the periodic exhibitions of the post-war period. Life in its dramatic collisions –
became one of the principle subjects. Artists tended to search for new expressive language in sculpture
and found it through developing of voluminous- spatial sculptural forms. Slobodinskaya as many other
sculptors- contemporaries works in a variety of materials. Image’s romanization characterizes this
period. An admiration of pure severe heroism, intimate interior world’s dramatic expressiveness of
personage may be marked as a common trait for sculptors. Nina Slobodinskaya together with other
artists tends to mirror in sculpture aesthetic and spiritual values, which reflect a richness of interior
spiritual life of sculptural models. To see more on the subject: Сарабьянова, Д.В. Ред. История
русского и советского искусства. M.: Высшая школа, 1979; Ильина, Т.В. ИСТОРИЯ ИСКУССТВ:
Отечественное искусствo. Учебник. 3-е изд., М.: Искусство, 2000.
Тахтаджян, Л.А., Фаддеев, Л.Д. Гамильтонов подход в теории солитонов. М.: Наука, 1986, C.39-45.
his constant mental work’s process. In my opinion precisely this deep psychological
characteristic of the mathematician the sculptor successfully achieves to transmit.
N. Slobodinskaya, Mathematician Fadeev, 1970s, plasticine, 38 x 70 x 84.
N. Slobodinskaya, Mathematician Fadeev, 1970s, plaster clay, 38 x 70 x 84.
Photo of Fadeev, 1970s, unknown author.
8.4 Andrey Gnezdilov –unique son’s portrait
Among realistic sculptural images of Slobodinskaya stands out a portrait of her son
N. Slobodinskaya, Andrey Gnezdilov, 1960-1970, granite.
Photo of Andrey Gnezdilov, 1950s, unknown author. Photo of Andrey Gnezdilov, 1970s, unknown author.
Photo of Andrey Gnezdilov with his family, 1986, unknown artist.
In his case a character’s physical characteristics are depicted quite symbolically
and schematically. The form of the head and basic facial features are caught and
had been shaped, but by means of face features’ generalization, avoiding the
detailing, master seems to accentuate viewer’s attention at the psychological
characteristic of the personality, revealing an inner life of the model through the full
of calmness and an inner quietness boy’s gaze. As in previous works the portrayed
remains deep in his thoughts, as if the master would try to commit the personality’s
state of inner meditation and soul’s contemplation – soul’s dialogue with it-self. It lets
the viewer to guess a secret, intimate and a very personal characteristic of the
model – his inner life – his individuality’s inner essence and the young man’s rich
The artist shows himself not only as a mature master in technique – achieving
exactitude and similarity in external appearance depiction of the portrayed, but
what is even more important, - as deep and rich personality, who seeks to transmit
not an exterior expressiveness and similarity but an inner personal life of the model in
its whole complexity and richness. This difficult highest creative task which the
sculptor defines to her-self and, moreover, the capacity which artist shows to
achieve this goal, - all proves that Nina Slobodinskaya pertains by right to the highest
range of sculptors. It is an artistic category which not many artists are able to
achieve. In my regard an artist may be called a real artist, first, if he is a truly
independent personality, with a proper manner of artistic vision, secondly, if he is
sincere and honest, loyal to him-self in his work, following his own visions and life
ideas independently of the social pressure, bravely and fearlessly expressing it in his
Returning to Nina Slobodinskaya, I would dare to assert that the sculptor has got her
proper artistic vision and achieves to transmit it in her sculptures, remaining faithful to
her-self. In addition I would like to mention one moral personality’s characteristic
which may be traced in Slobodinskaya’s sculpture and which unites all her depicted
models – person’s inner dignity and honesty. Perhaps, the sculptor intuitively guessed
this moral trait in people and apart of other qualities, it attracted her. It permits to
suppose that morality and ethic were not just her personal beliefs but also were
attributes of her creative work.
9. THE GLORY OF COMMUNIST FUTURE IN LENINGRAD’S UNDERGROUND.
THE NARVSKAYA METRO STATION
9.1 The Soviet metro’s appearance and a new life quality in the USSR
We construct the best metropolitan in the world, 1930s, poster.
Photo of the Komsomolskaya metro station, 2000s, unknown author, Moscow.
The Metropolitan in Moscow as the first line of the Soviet Union started working in
1935, the Leningrad Metro celebrated the opening of its first underground transport
system in November 1955
. The stylistic similarity of two metropolitans was obvious.
Мотовилов, С. “Ленинградский метрополитэн имени В.И. Ленина вступил в строй" .
Ленинградская правда, 1, 16 ноября, 1955, C.7.
The Leningrad stations were so elegantly decorated with an elaborated art that
often were compared to palaces
pleasing environments for its passengers, the values and priorities of the Soviet
Communism were introduced in the walls of the underground
. The USSR had
changed considerably between the interwar period and the post-war era, and the
messages so far differed accordingly. Such themes as military triumphs, domestic
progress, and the Russian-Soviet history were highly celebrated by its art. The
Leningrad Metro stations displayed especially domestic issues. The mythologizing of
the USSR’s own history was an important purpose for the local artists and the
architects. The Moscow Metropolitan system portrayed the interwar message of the
Soviet Communism’s bright future, the first line of the Leningrad Metro focused on
the story of the politics’ development. It questions the traditional periodization of the
Soviet history that tends to see Nikita Khrushchev’s Thaw as a liberal departure from
Кузнецов, К.А. Метростоевцы идут вперёд. Ленинградский Метрополитэн им.Ленина.
Ленинград: Лениздат,1956, C.22.
The history of Russian and especially Moscow’ metropolitan construction may be conditionally
divided into 4 periods. The first – from 1935 -1938 represents a period of search of image of a new
transport type, it is also a period of new style’s formation in architecture, which in historical retrospective
was called Stalin’s empire; in the synthesis of arts forms of classical heritage were widely used. The
second period from 1943 -1954 – the flourishing of this style, which is visualized in the decorative
pomposity of metro stations. The third period 1950 – 1970ss is based on the decree taken by The CK
KPSS on the destruction of excesses in the projection and construction. Therefore, decorative art almost
disappeared from the traditional decoration of new metro lines. However, sculptural decoration was
preserved, even in the minimalized forms. In order to learn more on the subject:
Аникина, Н.И. Иллюзии и реальность: творчество московских монументалистов 70- 90-х годов
глазами заинтересованного наблюдателя. М. Екатеринбург: Моск. комбинат монумент.-
декоратив. Искусства, 2005. Афанасьев, К.Н. “Новые станции Московского метро и их
скульптурное убранство”. Искусствo, №5, сентябрь октябрь,1950, М.: Стройиздат,1978.
Гинзбург, В.П. Керамика в архитектуре. М.: Стройиздат,1983; Баранова, С.И. Москва изразцовая.
М.: ОАО Московские учебники, 2006; Бассехес, А. Содружество искусств. Архитектура СССР., №
6,1939; Беннет, Д. Метро. История подземных железных дорог. Перевод с англ. М.: Магма, 2005;
Беркман, А.С. и др. Декорирование фарфора и фаянса. М.: Росгизместпром, 1949; Веснин, А.
“О социалистическом реализме в архитектуре”. Советская архитектура, № 8, 1957; Аркин, Д. “О
ложной «классике», новаторстве и традиции. Архитектура СССР”. № 4. 1939; Голубев, Г.Е.
“Архитектура метрополитена и задачи художника”. Декоративноеискусство СССР., №11, 1974;
Голубев Г.Е. Вестибюли метрополитенов (Основные типы и планировочные решения). Дис. канд.
арх., М.: МГУ, 1958; Давыдова, Н., Левинсон, А. “Спор о метро: диалог искусствоведа и социолога.
Декоративное искусство СССР”. № 7, 1987; Егорьева, Е. “Синтез искусств в Московском метро”.
(Конференция Академии художеств СССР). Декоративное искусство СССР., № 11, 1974;
Ермакова, Т. “Первая очередь Московского метрополитена. Техническая эстетика”. № 11, 1967;
Зиновьева, Т.А. “Метро и синтез искусств”. Декоративное искусство СССР., № 4 (353), 1987;
Катцен, И.Е. Метро Москвы. М.: Московский рабочий, 1947; Климов, М.В. Идейно-художественные
Московские учебники, 1952.
the Late Stalinism
. The thematic variety of the underground decoration permits to
suppose that a liberalization process started already during the Late Stalinism. We
may observe a kind of slight political relaxation on workers’ treatment which is
sculpturally displayed in various metro vestibules. So far some of the characteristics
associated with the Thaw were awoken in the Late Stalin period
Photo of the Park Kulturi metro station, 2000s, unknown author, Moscow.
Another important factor of the metropolitan’s appearance – the improvement of
life quality: people increased their mobility throughout Leningrad. From now and on
all citizens had direct communication and access to the city centre and an easy
and quick transport to get to work. Architects and city-planners encouraged the
metro’s passengers to consider the stations’ historical messages, which contained
themes of fixation on the future industrialization, warfare, militarization, reflecting the
early Soviet epoch’s dramatic events and challenges. The metro construction’s
development occurred just before Stalin’s death, but architects and artists had time
to display the post-war demands for a better life. In the end artists filled metro
stations with images of Vladimir Lenin and dedications to the October Revolution,
sometimes with images of Stalin; finally it turned to be a representation of the post-
war Leningrad, and became an important part of public discourse. But there were
another ceremonial messages that some of the metro stations brought to the main
line: for instance, The Ploshchad Vosstania and The Avtovo are dedicated to the
memory and various cultural victories of the Soviet Communism.
Nealy, James Allen. The metro (metroes): shaping soviet post-war subjectivities in the Leningrad
underground. Miami: University p.h.d, 2014, pp.9-17.
Соколов, А.М. Станции Ленинградского метро. Л.: Государственное издательство литературы
по строительству и архитектуре, 1987, C.16-20.
They become a true homage to the Russian-Soviet cultural heroes and history; its
main key subject – a representation of Bolshevik lands, and a monument to the two
wars that made possible the Soviet future
Photo of the Soviet Metro station, 2000s, unknown author, Moscow.
Photo of the Kievskaya metro station, 2000s, unknown author, Moscow.
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