Lo L knowledge in agriculture need to be preserved


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Partoev K., Sulangov M., Melikov K., Jumakhmadov A. 

                           LO

L KNOWLEDGE 

IN AGRICULTURE NEED TO BE PRESERVED 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

 

 

 



 

 

CAL AGRO BIODIVERSITY AND TRADITIONA



LOCAL AGRO BIODIVERSITY AND TRADITIONAL 

KNOWLEDGE NEED TO BE PRESERVED 

UDK: 40.3+41+42.3              Dedicated to the 20

th 

Independent of Republic of Tajikistan 

  P-29 

Authors:  

Kurbonali Partoev – senior staff scientist, 

candidate of agricultural science 

Makhmadzamon Sulangov – senior staff scientist 

Kurbonali Melikov - scientific associate, researcher 

Asomiddin Jumakhmadov – agronomist 

– 

researcher. 

Findings of investigation made by the staff members of the Institute of botany, plant 

physiology and genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Institute of 

gardening and vegetable growing of the  Academy of agricultural sciences of the Republic of 

Tajikistan and Public Organization “Khamkori Bakhri Tarakkiyet”  (“Cooperation for 

Development”)  at  cooperation with Ministry of Agriculture Republic of Tajikistan in 2007 – 2010 

are collected in this book. 

Research on discovering and description of valuable local varieties of fruit, grain and feed 

crops as the main agro biodiversity component in Tajikistan was carried out in the Hissar, Rasht, 

Zarafshan, Istravshan and Vakhsh valleys of Tajikistan under The Christensen Fund sponsorship. 

For this purpose, we had to visit more than 50 villages, 30 jamoats and 18 districts of the republic, 

to meet and interview over 1000 farmers, women, local residents and experts on traditional rural 

knowledge. 

The most important are the results that show the preservation degree of valuable local 

varieties of agricultural crops and agro biodiversity as well as the ways of their preserving in the 

countryside as a genetic material for selection and a local resource for food security in future. 

The given scientific matter and practical examples from the experience of farmers, experts 

and communities on agro biodiversity, traditional knowledge and skills preserving  are of great 

interest to agricultural workers, farmers, students and many readership, devotees of agriculture, 

traditions and customs can be used in their activity and for maintenance of food security in the 

country. 

Consultant:  

Makhmadiyer Sardorov – the Doctor of Agriculture, Corresponding member of the Academy of 

Agricultural Sciences, The Honoured Worker of Tajikistan. 

 

DUSHANBE - 2011 

 

 

Partoev



 K.

, Sulangov M., 



Melikov K., Jumakhmadov A. 

 

LOCAL AGRO BIODIVERSITY AND TRADITIONAL 

KNOWLEDGE NEED TO BE PRESERVED 

 

UDK: 40.3+41+42.3              Dedicated to the 20

th 

Independent of Republic of Tajikistan 

 

  P-29 

 

Authors:  

Kurbonali Partoev – senior staff scientist, 

candidate of agricultural science 

Makhmadzamon Sulangov – senior staff scientist 

Kurbonali Melikov - scientific associate, researcher 

Asomiddin Jumakhmadov – agronomist 

– 

researcher. 

 

Findings of investigation made by the staff members of the Institute of botany, plant 

physiology and genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, the 

Institute of gardening and vegetable growing of the Academy of agricultural sciences of the 

Republic of Tajikistan and Public Organization “Khamkori Bakhri Tarakkiyet” 

 

(“Cooperation for Development”)  at  cooperation with Ministry of Agriculture Republic of 

Tajikistan in 2007 – 2010 are collected in this book. 

Research on discovering and description of valuable local varieties of fruit, grain 

and feed crops as the main agro biodiversity component in Tajikistan was carried out in 

the Hissar, Rasht, Zarafshan, Istravshan and Vakhsh valleys of Tajikistan under The 

Christensen Fund sponsorship. For this purpose, we had to visit more than 50 villages, 30 

jamoats and 18 districts of the republic, to meet and interview over 1000 farmers, women, 

local residents and experts on traditional rural knowledge. 

The most important are the results that show the preservation degree of valuable 

local varieties of agricultural crops and agro biodiversity as well as the ways of their 

preserving in the countryside as a genetic material for selection and a local resource for 

food security in future. 

The given scientific matter and practical examples from the experience of farmers, 

experts and communities on agro biodiversity, traditional knowledge and skills preserving  

are of great interest to agricultural workers, farmers, students and many readership, 

devotees of agriculture, traditions and customs can be used in their activity and for 

maintenance of food security in the country. 

 

Consultant:  

 

Makhmadiyer Sardorov – the Doctor of Agriculture, Corresponding member of the 

Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Honoured Worker of Tajikistan. 

 

 

 

Сontents                                                                                                                            pag.

 

1. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 3



 

2. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................... 4

 

3. METHODOLOGY OF CARRYING OUT THE RESEACH WORK ........................................ 4



 

4.  THE LOCALITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RESEARCH ........................................ 6

 

5. TRIPS TO OTHER COUNTRIES .............................................................................................. 6



 

5.1. A TRIP TO KYRGYZSTAN ............................................................................................... 6

 

5.2. THE DISCUSSION OF THE RESEARCH GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ........................ 8



 

WITH OTHER INSTITUTES AND ORGANIZATIONS ......................................................... 8

 

6. THE RESEARCH RESULTS RECEIVED IN VARIOUS DISTRICTS OF THE REPUBLIC 



OF TAJKISTAN ........................................................................................................................... 10

 

6.1. HISSAR VALLEY ............................................................................................................. 10



 

6.1.1.  HISSAR DISTRICT ................................................................................................... 10 

6.1.2. VARZOB DISTRICT .................................................................................................. 18 

6.1. 3. SHAKHRINAV DISTRICT ....................................................................................... 20 

6.1.4. TURSUNZADE DISTRICT ....................................................................................... 21 

6.1. 5. RUDAKI DISTRICT .................................................................................................. 23 

6.1. 6. VAKHDAT DISTRICT ............................................................................................. 26 

6.1. 7. FAIZABAD DISTRICT ............................................................................................. 28 

6.2. THE RASHT VALLEY ..................................................................................................... 29

 

6.2.1. RASHT DISTRICT ..................................................................................................... 29 



6.2.2. NURABAD DISTRICT .............................................................................................. 35 

6.2.3. TAJIKABAD DISTRICT ............................................................................................ 36 

6.2.4. JIRGITAL DISTRICT ................................................................................................. 37 

6. 3.  THE ZARAFSHAN VALLEY ........................................................................................ 38

 

6.3.1. KUKHISTONI MASTCHOKH DISTRICT ............................................................... 38 



6.3.2. AINI DISTRICT .......................................................................................................... 39 

6.4. THE  ISTRAVSHAN VALLEY ........................................................................................ 42

 

6.4.1. GANCHI DISTRICT ................................................................................................... 42 



6.4.2. ISTRAVSHAN DISTRICT ......................................................................................... 43 

6.4.3. ISFARA DISTRICT .................................................................................................... 44 

6.5. THE VAKHSH VALLEY .................................................................................................. 46

 

6.5.1. JAMOLIDDINI RUMI DISTRICT ............................................................................. 46 



6.5.2. JILIKUL DISTRICT ................................................................................................... 47 

7. THE MAIN FINGINGS OF THE INVESTIGATION  IN DIFFERENT DISTRICTS OF THE 

REPUBLIC .................................................................................................................................... 48

 

7.1. THE HISSAR VALLEY .................................................................................................... 48



 

7.2. THE RASHT VALLEY ..................................................................................................... 49

 

7.3. SUGHD  REGION ............................................................................................................. 49



 

7.4. THE VAKHSH VALLEY .................................................................................................. 49

 

8. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SURVEY RESULTS ......................................................... 50



 

9.SHORT STORIES FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE .......... 51

 

CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................................... 69



 

10. MAIN OF THE PROJECT RESULTS IN THE PHOTOS ..................................................... 71

 

Abstracts ................................................................................................................................ 76 



1. INTRODUCTION  

 

 



 

 fauna 



specim

ls raised by them up till now. 

Tajikistan is one of the ancient states in Central Asia. The republic borders upon China 

(in the east, 430 km), Kyrgyzstan (in the north, 630 km), Uzbekistan (in the west, 910 km), and 

Afghanistan (in the south,1030 km). Population of this mountainous country has been engaging 

in farming and agricultural development since the beginning of time. Agriculture has always 

been a primary source of life 

for the people of this agrarian 

country. Such aero 

environmental conditions of the 

country as the length of 

daylight hours, great 

temperature differences during 

a year and high concentration 

of ultraviolet radiation as well 

are significant factors for 

change in a number of 

morphological and genetic 

indicators of flora and

ens of Tajikistan. 

 

In this connection, 



Tajikistan is the origin land of such crops as wheat, onion, garlic, leguminous plants, melons, 

fruit and other crops (N.I.Vavilov). Ancestors of the modern inhabitants of the district had been 

the authors of many varieties since historic time. Many peoples of the world including 

population of India, China, Afghanistan, Iran, Central Asian and European countries use 

achievements of ancient Tajik people, varieties and hybrids of agricultural crops and breeds of 

anima


Map of Central Asia

However, many native varieties and breeds of animals adapted for a long evolutional 

period were lost due to delivery and introduction of other varieties, forms and breeds of animals 

in the 70-90s of the last century and taking outside the country. At present, the need for study 

and revival of native agro biodiversity, traditional knowledge and skills in the field of agriculture 

on the territory of Tajikistan, Afghanistan and other Central Asian countries arose again. 

Hence, the scientific staff of the Institute of Botany, Plant Physiology and Phytogenetics 

of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Horticulture institute of Academy 

agrarian science Tajikistan together with the specialists of the Public Organization (PO) 

“Khamkori Bakhri Tarakkiyet” under the Christensen Fund financial support carried out 

investigations on study of local agro biodiversity in the Hissar, Rasht, Zarafshan, Istravshan and 

Vakhsh valleys of the republic. When performing the work, we visited Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan 

and Kazakhstan with the view of studying the experience and collecting materials and data on 

traditional knowledge, biodiversity and skills of these countries for further use in social and 

economic life of people in future.   

 


 

 



2. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 

 

            The goal of our research is to detect and study native agro biodiversity of fruit, grain and 



feed crops that are of small quantity or endangered. In addition, in the course of research various 

kinds of traditional knowledge, experience and skills, the ways of their further reviving and 

preserving for future generation and use in the process of sustainable development of the society 

were described. 

To achieve the goal the following objectives were set: 

 



Set up groups from among scientists, elders, women and young people for research and 

study of traditional knowledge of communities in different districts of the republic 

concerning issues of biodiversity and traditional skills. 

 



Organize visits to the pilot areas of Tajikistan for meetings and interviews with elders, 

farmers, women and community members in place.   

 

Collect the necessary information concerning traditional people’s knowledge, experience, 



skills on biodiversity of agricultural crops, breeds of animals and other species of flora 

and fauna.  

 

Conduct an interview with people for identification of existing problems of ecology, 



environmental protection, economy and community relating to traditional knowledge.  

 



Discover traditional knowledge and experience among elders, women, experts on 

biodiversity, species of plants and breeds of animals, traditional treatment methods and 

other forgotten national traditions. 

 



Identify the most important places for growing valuable agricultural plants, fruits, other 

biodiversity forms, breeding and rebirthing national traditions.   

 

Encourage local people’s interest in protecting traditional knowledge, valuable and 



original specimens of plants, breeds of animals and other subjects of research in place. 

 



Create and ensure favourable conditions for preserving and increasing useful knowledge, 

skills and traditions for their further development, summarizing research results concerning 

traditional knowledge and skills in the following years. 

 

3. METHODOLOGY OF CARRYING OUT THE RESEACH WORK 



 

For carrying out the fieldwork, the following methodology was developed. It consisted of the 

next stages: 

1.

 



Visit the pilot districts, hand the official letter on behalf of our public organization 

addressed to the chairpersons of the districts, and discuss the research goals and 

objectives.  

2.

 



Hold meetings with the chairpersons of the Associations of dekhkan farms or deputy 

chairpersons of the Khukumats on agriculture of the districts and the local khukumat 

departments. Discuss the goals and objectives; receive their advice on detecting the oldest 

villages and jamoats, experienced farmers and elders to converse with them about 

traditional knowledge, skills and biodiversity at the districtal level. 


3.

 

Visit the jamoats and organize talks with representatives and workers of local jamoats, 



familiarize them with the goals and objectives.  

4.

 



Receive information on traditional knowledge relating to biodiversity at the jamoat level. 

5.

 



Detect village elders, experienced farmers, women-elders in jamoat. 

6.

 



Visit the villages and organize meetings and talks with experienced farmers and women at 

the rural community level. 

7.

 

Visit the households of experienced farmers, familiarize them with the goals and 



objectives of our work, hold discussions, put questions and answers, take photographs of 

the farmers, varieties of the trees, breeds of animals and birds, as well as fruits and other 

materials on traditional knowledge, experience and skills.  

      8.   Interview on the base of the question list drawn up beforehand. 

      9.   Make and edit the microfilms, and photograph the research process. 

10.


 

Hold meetings and discussions with other farmers, women and other beneficiaries on 

traditional knowledge and experience as well as detect valuable old varieties of 

agricultural crops and trees in different households in different villages. 

11.

 

Organize joint discussions with several farmers, hold mini workshops with the 



participants of the meetings.  

12. Record the results of the discussions and meetings (one researcher asks questions, the 

other one writes the answers down, the third one makes a film or takes photographs of the 

process). 

13. Discuss the findings by the specialists. All the obtained information written in paper is 

entered into the computer to make a database. 

14. Summarize the findings and make a report on the research. 

 

The layout of carrying out the research work in organizations and community: 

 

           

  

 

 



          

 

 NGO “Cooperation for development” 

     


Local goverments 

 

 



   

Jamoats    

 

 



 

 

 



 

 

 



Villages and participants  

(farmers,women, population) 

 

       Thus, our research was aimed at the following: 



 

Identify the people, farmers, and communities with traditional knowledge, experience, 



skills and the villages where biodiversity of flora and fauna has remained. 

 



Hold meetings with the people who have experience in traditional rural knowledge or 

have managed to keep valuable varieties of agricultural crops, trees, breeds of animals 

and birds as biodiversity sources. 


 

Describe the experience and skills on traditional knowledge, valuable varieties of 



agricultural crops, breeds of animals and birds in rural area. 

 



Identify the way of further preservation of traditional knowledge, skills and experience in 

agriculture and use of them for development of the society in future.  



 

4.  THE LOCALITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RESEARCH  



 

          The  research  work  was  carried  out on the territory of the Hissar, Rasht, Zarafshan, 

Istravshan and Vakhsh valleys of the republic of Tajikistan, in 12 districts, 24 jamoats and 50 

villages. The map showing the routes and expeditions is given in photo1. 

     

Photo 1. The map of the routes made when carrying out the research in the valleys of the       

Republic in 2007-2009. 

 

        For  holding  the  meetings,  talks  and  discussions, we used private houses of the villagers, 

fields and farmers’ private plots of land, teahouses, schools, offices and other public places.   

 

5. TRIPS TO OTHER COUNTRIES  



 

 

5.1. 

A TRIP TO KYRGYZSTAN

 

 

 



       Within performing the research, from July 28 to August 4, 2007 we had to visit Kyrgyzstan 

with the view of studying the experience of PO“Bashat”, PO “Ak-Terek” and other organizations 

of the republic. 

         In  the  course  of  the  trip,  we  familiarized ourselves with PO“Bashat” activities on 

implementation of a number of the projects in Aksu district, in the mountainous part of Enelchek 

village. We met with Ms. Cholpon Dekanova, the Head of the organization, Ms. Zharkin 

Samanchina, the Chief Technical Officer, Ms. Jilduz Doolbekova, TCF districtal manager, Mr. 

Jumaboi Shomurodov, TCF districtal coordinator in Tajikistan and Afghanistan who was in 

Bishkek on a business trip at that time. We familiarized ourselves with the work structure of 

these organizations on setting up the Public Organizations and Associations network in a number 

of districts of the Republic of Kirghizia. 

 

   We also held a meeting with Professor Ramesh Shirinvasan and his assistant Adam (on 



making films and reels). Professor Ramesh suggested having some joint work on making films 

and reels in future. 

          We also met with the Head of PO “Ak-Terek”, Ms.Nozgul Esenkilova, the specialist, Mr. 

Edil Mamitbekov and the consultant, Mr. Mantur Jabbarov. PO “Ak-Terek” was registered in 

2004 and its staff members are engaged in the project “Climate Fluctuation and Landscape 

preserving” on the territory of the two villages under FFI support. 

 

     Their  research  was  based  on  interviewing old people of the two villages and watching 



their experience. They introduce adapted gardening, mountain greenhouse, bee farming, oil-

presses as well as cooking over 40 kinds of national dishes. 

           Thus,  our  trip  to  Bishkek  was  quite useful in terms of familiarizing with PO work in 

Kyrgyzstan and obtaining some necessary information for further cooperation. 

 

Photo 2. The meeting in 

PO“Bashat” office, 

Kirghizia – 07.30. 2007 

(left to right: Cholpon 

Dekanova, 

Mukhabbatkhon 

Mamadalieva, Kurbonali 



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