Maps have two features to help you read and understand the map: a series of symbols called a map legend, and a ratio, which establishes the map scale


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Lesson 1-1


Lesson 1-1

  • A map legend is a key that lists all the symbols used on the map that help you interpret the symbols.



Lesson 1-1



Lesson 1-1

  • Model builders typically use scale to make the model measurements accurate to the measurements of the real object.



Lesson 1-1

  • A map scale is the relationship between a distance on the map and the actual distance on the ground.



Lesson 1-2



Lesson 1-2

  • The half of this vertical circle that passes through Greenwich, England, is known as the prime meridian.

  • The other half of this vertical circle is the 180° meridian.



Lesson 1-2

  • Similar circles are drawn at every degree east and west of the prime meridian. These lines are referred to as lines of longitude.



Lesson 1-2

  • A location’s longitude is the distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian.

  • The prime meridian and the 180° meridian divide Earth into the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere.



Lesson 1-2

  • The lines east of the prime meridian are called east longitude, and the lines west of the prime meridian are called west longitude.



Lesson 1-2

  • Mapmakers also drew horizontal lines from east to west around Earth. The equator is the center and largest circle of these horizontal lines.

  • The equator divides Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere.



Lesson 1-2

  • Parallel circles are drawn at every degree north and south of the equator. These lines are referred to as lines of latitude.

  • The North Pole and the South Pole are each indicated by a dot at 90° N and 90° S.

  • A location’s latitude is the distance in degrees north or south of the equator.



Lesson 1-2

  • Together, longitude and latitude are used to pinpoint a location on Earth.



Lesson 1-2



Lesson 1-3

  • Any location on Earth can be described by the intersection of the closest line of latitude and the closest line of longitude.

  • Because longitude and latitude lines are far apart, we divide each degree into 60 minutes (') and each minute into 60 seconds (") to help pinpoint locations.



Lesson 1-3



Lesson 1 - VS



Lesson 1 – LR2



Lesson 1 – LR3



Lesson 2-1

  • A topographic map shows the detailed shapes of Earth’s surface, along with its natural and human-made features.



Lesson 2-1

  • A topographic map helps give you a picture of what the landscape looks like without seeing it.



Lesson 2-1



Lesson 2-1

  • Contour lines are lines on a topographic map that connect points of equal elevation.



Lesson 2-1



Lesson 2-1



Lesson 2-1



Lesson 2-2

  • The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a group of 24 satellites orbiting Earth used for navigation.



Lesson 2-2

  • The signals relayed by GPS satellites are used to calculate the distance to the satellite based on the average time of the signal.

  • GPS is used by mapmakers to accurately locate reference points.



Lesson 2-2

  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are computerized information systems used to store and analyze map data.

  • GIS creates different map layers of the same location using database view, map view, and model view.



Lesson 2 - VS



Lesson 2 - VS



Lesson 2 – LR1



Lesson 2 – LR3



Chapter Review – MC1



Chapter Review – MC3



Chapter Review – MC4



Chapter Review – MC5



Chapter Review – STP1



Chapter Review – STP2



Chapter Review – STP4



Chapter Review – STP5




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