Mid-Atlantic Soil Testing & Plant Analysis Work Group Hybrid Gas Streaming


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Mid-Atlantic Soil Testing & Plant Analysis Work Group

  • Hybrid Gas Streaming

  • Sandy Hughes

  • elementar Americas, Inc.


Who is Elementar?

  • Who is Elementar?

  • Hybrid Gas Streaming offerings in 2010

  • Core Operations

    • Combustion
    • Gas separation
    • Gas detection
  • Chemistry

  • Details of the Hybrid Gas Streaming



Manufacturing, Research and Development

  • Manufacturing, Research and Development

  • elementar Analysensysteme GmbH

    • Elemental analyzers (CHNS/O)
    • Located in Hanau, Germany (30 minutes from Frankfurt Airport)
    • R&D, applications and training lab, manufacturing, administration
    • Subsidiary - Isoprime Ltd
        • Isotope Ratio Mass Spectometers
        • Located near Manchester, U.K
        • R&D, applications and training lab, manufacturing, administration
  • elementar Americas Inc

    • Sales, Service, Applications & Supplies - USA and Canada
    • opened in 1998 in Mt. Laurel, NJ (30 minutes from Philadelphia )
    • 18 employees


Micro scale CHNS/O

  • Micro scale CHNS/O

    • vario MICRO cube
    • vario EL cube
  • Macro scale CHNS/O

  • TOC

    • LiquiTOC
    • vario TOC cube








Combustion

  • Combustion

    • Sample combusts in furnace at 950 deg C to 1200 deg C
    • Sample drops into crucible
    • Jet injection of oxygen via lance right over/at sample
      • Creates turbulent flow around sample
      • like blowing on a fire


Gas Separation

  • Gas Separation

    • Helium carrier gas pushes combustion gases through analyzer. Argon is alternate gas.
    • C, H and S combustion gases are trapped in separate columns, then sequentially released (aka “purge and trap”).
    • N2 gas is not trapped. It flows straight thru columns.


Gas Detection

  • Gas Detection

    • TCD – Thermal Conductivity Detector. Combustion gases and reference gas have different thermal conductivities.
    • R3 and R4 are thermistors (resistors whose resistance changes with temperature).
    • TCD creates voltage signal which is integrated over time and calibrated to elemental mass.
    • The voltage signal is created as follows:
      • Electric current in R3 and R4 thermisters increases their temperatures relative to TCD metal mass surrounding path of gas flow.
      • R3 thermister is cooled by thermal conductivity of column gas. R4 thermister is cooled by thermal conductivity of reference gas.
      • R3 vs R4 temperature difference creates difference in thermister resistance which creates voltage signal.


Combustion

  • Combustion

    • R-N + O2 ----> N2 + NOx + O2 + CO + CO2 + CH4 + X- + SOx + H2O
  • Post Combustion

    • CO + CH4 ---CuO & Pt --> CO2 + H2O
  • Reduction

    • NOx+O2 +SO2--tungsten--> N2+WO3 +CO (trace)
    • CO + CuO --------> CO2


Removal of other gases

  • Removal of other gases

    • X- via reaction with silver wool
    • H2O via condensation, membrane dryer and Sicapent
    • Tr S02 via reaction with tungsten
  • Nitrogen

    • detected by TCD
  • Carbon Dioxide

    • rapid N – “fades” into carrier gas
    • Max and Macro – separated on purge and trap column, then released and detected by TCD.


This option enables elementar CN and N analyzers to stream only a portion of the combustion gases to the reduction tube for reduction and subsequent detection. The reduction tube accordingly has a longer life.

  • This option enables elementar CN and N analyzers to stream only a portion of the combustion gases to the reduction tube for reduction and subsequent detection. The reduction tube accordingly has a longer life.



Operator control

  • Operator control

    • Operator turns on gas streaming and defines the streaming ratio
    • User can optimize analyzer performance for customer’s mix of samples
      • Turn off gas streaming for very small samples or low concentrations
      • Turn on gas streaming for long runs of larger samples
  • Continuous Process

    • The gas steaming process uses a mass flow controller. There is no ballast tank and no aliquot loop.
    • Maintenance is very low.
  • Reduction tube life is extended

    • Up to three times longer life for reduction tube.
    • Lower Consumables cost.
      • Fast payback – depends on samples per day, see attached.
    • Longer runs. Less downtime.






Mid-Atlantic Soil Testing & Plant Analysis Work Group

  • Questions, Comments, or Suggestions



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