Mission a settlement in Indian territory


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Mission - a settlement in Indian territory

  • Mission - a settlement in Indian territory

  • The goal of the mission was to transform Native Americans into Christians and loyal Spanish subjects.

  • Friars ran the missions. They invited Indians to live there, then taught them about Christianity and the language and customs of Spain. They also taught them Spanish farming methods.

  • Presidio - a fort designed to protect the mission from unfriendly Indians and to help control the Native Americans inside the mission



The First Missions

  • The First Missions

  • Alonso de León and Father Damian Massanet established the first mission in East Texas, called San Francisco de los Tejas.

  • Shortly after, friars started a second mission in East Texas named Santísimo Nombre de María.

  • At first the local Tejas Indians welcomed the Spanish and their missions. But that quickly changed.



A Frenchman named St. Denis, worked with a Spanish missionary, Father Hidalgo, to help build more missions among the Caddo Indians in East Texas.

  • A Frenchman named St. Denis, worked with a Spanish missionary, Father Hidalgo, to help build more missions among the Caddo Indians in East Texas.

  • They established six missions and a presidio. One of these missions, Los Adaes, became the capital of the province of Texas.

  • In 1719, the French raided Los Adaes in an attack known as the Chicken War. This attack forced the Spanish to abandon their East Texas missions once again.

  • They retreated to San Antonio de Valero, a mission located halfway between the Rio Grande and East Texas.

  • When the war between Spain and France ended, the Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo helped Spain regain control of East Texas. He rebuilt old missions and founded new ones, including La Bahía.



Spanish missions in Central Texas were often raided by Lipan Apaches, Comanches, Wichitas, and Tonkawas.

  • Spanish missions in Central Texas were often raided by Lipan Apaches, Comanches, Wichitas, and Tonkawas.

  • In 1749, the Lipans and the Spanish made peace. The Lipans agreed to convert to Christianity if the Spanish would protect them from the Comanches.

  • The Spanish built a mission, Santa Cruz de San Sabá, for the Lipans. They did not realize it was in Comanche territory. The Lipans had told them to build there, hoping to start a war between the Comanches and the Spanish.

  • In 1758, Comanches, Wichitas, and Tonkawas burned down the mission and killed the missionaries.



What was the purpose of the mission-presidio system?

  • What was the purpose of the mission-presidio system?

  • How successful was the Tejas mission in East Texas?

  • How did St. Denis help the Spanish mission system grow?

  • Why did the Spanish build missions for the Lipan Apaches in Central Texas?





Recruiting Native Americans

  • Recruiting Native Americans

  • Most Indians who lived in the missions joined by choice.

  • Friars sometimes offered gifts to draw in the Indians.

  • Some came for a steady supply of food or for protection from their enemies.



Native Americans in the missions studied the catechism, a set of questions and answers about Catholic beliefs.

  • Native Americans in the missions studied the catechism, a set of questions and answers about Catholic beliefs.

  • Many were converted and baptized.

  • Native Americans had to work in the missions. In addition to daily chores, they made goods that could be traded.

  • The Spanish appointed some mission Indians to be local chiefs. These local chiefs carried out the orders of the missionaries.

  • Indians were not allowed to use guns. They could vote in local elections and hold public office.



Disease - Indians had no defense against Spanish diseases. Epidemics, the rapid spread of diseases in a short time, killed thousands of Native Americans in Texas.

  • Disease - Indians had no defense against Spanish diseases. Epidemics, the rapid spread of diseases in a short time, killed thousands of Native Americans in Texas.

  • Indian rejection of mission life - Many Indians rejected life in the missions.

  • Different uses of the missions - Many joined the missions for protection against their enemies or for food, not because they wanted to follow the Christian faith.

  • Problems at the presidio - Soldiers were underpaid and poorly treated by officers. The friars and the soldiers often argued over how to treat the Indians.



When France lost the Seven Years’ War against Great Britain, it ceded the territory of Louisiana to Spain. Spain sent the Marqués de Rubí to Texas in 1767 to review its colonies in North America.

  • When France lost the Seven Years’ War against Great Britain, it ceded the territory of Louisiana to Spain. Spain sent the Marqués de Rubí to Texas in 1767 to review its colonies in North America.

  • Rubí reported that Spanish power was spread too thin in Texas to be effective.

  • On the basis of that report, Spain closed most of the missions and presidios in Texas. By the 1770s, only those in the area of San Antonio and La Bahía remained. Spanish settlers were directed to move to those outposts.

  • Cede - to give up formal ownership of something



Parts of the Spanish culture took root in Texas. The unique blend of cultures found in Texas is termed Tejano.

  • Parts of the Spanish culture took root in Texas. The unique blend of cultures found in Texas is termed Tejano.

  • The Spanish introduced the ranching industry to Texas.

  • Many places in Texas received Spanish names that are still in use today. Every major river in Texas, except for one, has a Spanish name.

  • The Spanish outposts of San Antonio and La Bahía, along with the town of Nacogdoches, remained major Spanish settlements in Texas.



What was daily life like for residents of the missions and presidios?

  • What was daily life like for residents of the missions and presidios?

  • What major problems challenged the missions and presidios?

  • Why did the mission-presidio system decline?

  • How did a unique blend of cultures arise in Texas?





  • In the early 1800s, Comanches, Apaches, and other tribes controlled most of Texas, except for the Spanish cities of Nacogdoches, San Antonio, and La Bahía.

  • In 1803, France sold Louisiana to the United States. For years, the United States and Spain argued over whether or not Texas was part of the Louisiana Territory.

  • In 1810, Mexico began a ten-year struggle with Spain over its independence.



Filibuster - a person who wages an unofficial war on a country for his own benefit:

  • Filibuster - a person who wages an unofficial war on a country for his own benefit:

  • Philip Nolan - Nolan claimed he was capturing and selling wild horses in Texas for the Spanish government. The Spanish worried about Nolan’s ties to the United States. They attacked and killed Nolan.

  • General James Wilkinson - Spain hired Wilkinson, a United States Army general, as a double agent. Wilkinson plotted with Aaron Burr to take Kentucky and Louisiana from the United States and start an independent country. The plot failed.



New Spain (Mexico) resented Spain’s control:

  • New Spain (Mexico) resented Spain’s control:

  • Taxes - Residents of New Spain did not like paying taxes to support the king and his many wars.

  • Poverty - Spain’s class system kept most New Spain residents in poverty.





Why was Spanish control over Texas weak in the early 1800s?

  • Why was Spanish control over Texas weak in the early 1800s?

  • Who were the filibusters?

  • Why did people in Mexico begin to rebel against Spanish rule?

  • How did filibusters take advantage of this rebellion for their own purpose?





José María Morelos y Pavón led a movement for freedom from Spain. In 1814, he issued a declaration of independence and drew up plans for a Mexican republic.

  • José María Morelos y Pavón led a movement for freedom from Spain. In 1814, he issued a declaration of independence and drew up plans for a Mexican republic.

  • He won control of large areas of southern New Spain. Most of his supporters were people from the lower classes.

  • He was killed by government forces in 1815.

  • It would be several years before Mexico’s rebel spirits would rise again.

  • Republic - In a republic, citizens elect representatives to make laws.



Peace in Spain

  • Peace in Spain

  • When French troops were driven from Spain, King Ferdinand IV took back his throne. For several years, people in New Spain seemed willing to accept the old ways of royal rule. But in 1816, the king cancelled the Constitution of 1812. That constitution limited his power and gave rights to the Spanish people.



The Plan of Iguala - The conservatives’ leader, Agustín de Iturbide and rebel leader Vicente R. Guerrero agreed on the Plan of Iguala in 1821.

  • The Plan of Iguala - The conservatives’ leader, Agustín de Iturbide and rebel leader Vicente R. Guerrero agreed on the Plan of Iguala in 1821.

    • Mexico would become an independent nation.
    • Peninsulares and criollos would be equal.
    • The Catholic Church would keep its power.
  • With this plan, Spain lost control of New Spain. On August 24, 1821, the Treaty of Córdoba made Mexico an independent nation.



How did Father Morelos keep the dream of Mexican independence alive?

  • How did Father Morelos keep the dream of Mexican independence alive?

  • How did events in Spain lead to Mexican independence?

  • What challenges did Mexico face after independence?




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