Monarchy: The Czar (Tsar)


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Monarchy: The Czar (Tsar)

  • Monarchy: The Czar (Tsar)

  • Until 1905 the Tsar's powers were unlimited.

  • Russia had no constitution,

  • No political party system to check the Tsar's power

  • A strong secret police which terrorized the people.











Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary

  • Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary

  • War becomes unpopular

  • Rationing leads to starvation

  • Nicholas II leaves St. Petersburg to war front



1917- protests spread through St. Petersburg and the Royal palace is taken over.

  • 1917- protests spread through St. Petersburg and the Royal palace is taken over.

  • Czar abdicates

  • Provisional government (Duma) takes control lead by Alexander Keresnky

  • Provisional government unpopular after decision to stay in WWI



Lead by VI Lenin “Peace, Land, and Bread”

  • Lead by VI Lenin “Peace, Land, and Bread”

  • Won support of people (especially peasants)



  • 1918 March The Bolsheviks accept the peace of Brest Litovsk, ending WWI with Germany.



Economic Reforms included the New Economic Plan (NEP)

  • Economic Reforms included the New Economic Plan (NEP)

  • -moderate mix of capitalism and socialism

  • Political Reforms

  • -Bolshevik party became Communist Party

  • -Russia becomes the United Soviet Socialist Republics





A Form of Socialism

  • A Form of Socialism

    • Central Planning of the Economy by the State
  • Gov’t (Communist Party) makes decisions on individual jobs and pay



Lenin Dies

  • Lenin Dies

  • Power Vaccuum

  • Leon Trotsky vs. Joseph Stalin

  • Stalin takes control

  • Now must decide how he will maintain power

  • Decides to create a totalitarian state





Dictatorship- Absolute Authority

  • Dictatorship- Absolute Authority

  • Dynamic Leader- Vision for the nation

  • State Control Over All Sectors of Society

  • State Control Over the Individual

  • Organized Violence

    • Uses force to crush opposition


State Control of the Economy

  • State Control of the Economy

  • Police Terror

    • Great Purge, crush opposition
  • Religious Persecution

  • Propaganda (socialist realism)

    • Molding peoples minds
  • Education

    • Controlled by the government








Russian novelist, whose work was suppressed while he lived in Russia.

  • Russian novelist, whose work was suppressed while he lived in Russia.

  • Fierce critic of totalitarianism

  • Brought worldwide attention (and acclaim) for One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, based on his own experiences in the Soviet Union’s forced labor camp system under Stalin




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