New Zealand, but also Aotearoa, which means „Land of long white cloud“


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  • New Zealand

New Zealand, but also Aotearoa, which means „Land of long white cloud“

  • New Zealand, but also Aotearoa, which means „Land of long white cloud“
  • New Zealand is situated in Pacific Ocean, 1600km east of Australia. It consists of two main islands and many smallest islands on 266 200 km2 of area. Although is land commensurate like a Japan or Great Britain, there live only 3,5 millions habitants, mostly posterity of Britisher but also Maors.
  • New Zealand

The first discoverer was Dutch seafarer Abel Janszoon Tasman in 1642, but first human, who explored it was British explorer James Cook in 1769.

  • The first discoverer was Dutch seafarer Abel Janszoon Tasman in 1642, but first human, who explored it was British explorer James Cook in 1769.
  • In the year 1864 there was found a gold. Grande wave of settlers came to land to gain Invaluable riches. Later, settlers and Maors were wrangled for land and came to cruel wars and Maors had to give up their laws and ancestral territory.
  • In 1907 New Zealand had became independent state, but it had politically and economic commitments to Great Britain. In 1931 the land had became real independent state in terms of Commonwealth. Later, New Zealand grew together with australia and other state South Pacific.
  • History

Realm of New Zealand is territory, where is head of state Queen New Zealand. Kingdom includes Cook Islands, New Zealand, Niue, Tokelau and disputable territory in Antarctica referred to as Ross Dependency

  • Realm of New Zealand
  • Realm of New Zealand is territory, where is head of state Queen New Zealand. Kingdom includes Cook Islands, New Zealand, Niue, Tokelau and disputable territory in Antarctica referred to as Ross Dependency

Head of State – Queen Elizabeth II.

  • Head of State – Queen Elizabeth II.
  • Governor-General – Anand Satyanand
  • Prime Minister – Helen Clark
  • Official languages
  • English (98%)
  • Mãori (4,2%)
  • NZ Sign Language (0,6%)
  • Currency: New Zealand dollar (NZD)
  • If you call to New Zealand so calling code is +64.
  • Government Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy

Elizabeth II. is the current Queen of New Zealand and is represented in the country by a non-partisan Governor-General. De facto political power is held by Prime Minister Helen Clark who, as leader of the government, requires the confidence of the democratically elected New Zealand House of Representatives. The Realm of New Zealand also includes the Cook Islands and Niue, which are entirely self-governing; Tokelau, and New Zealand‘s claim in Antarctica.

  • Elizabeth II. is the current Queen of New Zealand and is represented in the country by a non-partisan Governor-General. De facto political power is held by Prime Minister Helen Clark who, as leader of the government, requires the confidence of the democratically elected New Zealand House of Representatives. The Realm of New Zealand also includes the Cook Islands and Niue, which are entirely self-governing; Tokelau, and New Zealand‘s claim in Antarctica.
  • New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. Although it has no codified constitution, the Constitution Act 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealand's constitutional structure. Queen Elizabeth II.I is the head of state and is titled Queen of New Zealand under the Royal Titles Act 1974. She is represented by the Governonr-General, who she appoints on the exclusive advice of the Prime Minister. The current Governor-General is Anand Satyanand.
  • Government

New Zealand comprises two main islands which are called the North and South Islands.

  • New Zealand comprises two main islands which are called the North and South Islands.
  • The North and South Islands are separated by the Cook Strait, which is 20km wide.
  • Totar area is aboute 270 000 km square.
  • The South Island is the largest land mass of New Zealand. On the South Island is Southern alps. The most Highest point is Mount Cook. There are eighteen peaks of more than 3000 metres The soutu island is full of rough coastlines, very high proportion of native bush, and Fox. On the South Island is colder than on North Island.
  • North Islandis less mountainous than the South, but is marked by volcanism. The highest North Island mountain, Mount Ruapehu is active vulcanism. There is many hot stream and gusher. On The north Island is hot and rainy weather.
  • Surface of New Zealand

Waters

  • New Zealand has a great number of rivers because of high rainfall in many parts of the country. The longest river is The Waikato at 425 km long, and is the location of the Huka Falls. The Whanganui is another prominent river in the North Island and is the longest navigable river.
  • The South Island contains many rivers that drain away the melted snow from the Southern Alps mountains. These rivers usually have a strange light blue colour, due to the glaciated eroded particles of rock suspended in the water which reflect sunlight. Fiordland National Park is famous for it's multitude of waterfalls side by side, and the water is reputed to be the cleanest in the world.
  • Te Waikoropupu springs near Takaka in the South Island has a stunning 62 metres of horizontal visibility making it the worlds clearest fresh water, and the second clearest water in the world after the sea-water under the Antartica ice shelf.
  • Most New Zealand lakes are situated in the south of New Zealand's South Island. The largest lake on this island is Lake Te Anau. However, the largest lake in New Zealand is situated in the central North Island, and is called Lake Taupo. Lake Taupo is actually the crater of the worlds most destructive volcano. The Rotorua area in the North Island also contains over 30 lakes, some of them have thermal activity such as steam rising from cliffs that enclose those lakes. New Zealand's deepest lake is Lake Hauroko (462m).

Mountains

  • 75% percent of New Zealand's surface is mountainous or hilly. New Zealand is situated on two techtonic plates, the Australian Indian plate and the Pacific Plate. In the North Island one plate is slipping under the other, this causes one major mountain range that stretches from the East Cape and extends south to Wellington. This process also causes the intense volcanic activity that the North Island is famous for. In the South Island the process is different as the two plates are smashing into each other, (the same process that created the Himilaya's and this has given New Zealand its most spectacular natural feature the Southern Alps.
  • The Southern Alps, is 650-kilometres long and rises abruptly along the west coast of the South Island and only reaches the east coast at Kaikoura. The highest peak in this chain is Mt Cook, which measures 3,684 meters.
  • New Zealand also contains some deeply indented fiords along the south west coastline, and give the country some of its most spectacular scenery.
  • The North Island's highest peak is Mt Ruapehu which is 2,797 metres. This mountain is actually a volcano, and erupted as recently as 1995 and 1996. Mt Ruapehu is also the location for the best skiing in the North Island. Most of New Zealand's ski fields are located in the South Island however.

Flora

  • New Zealand is one of the worlds richest bio-diverse flora areas on earth. It is home to a large variety of beautiful flora of which 84% are endemic. The forests range from sub tropical to temperate, evergreen rainforest and beech forests. Native trees include Rimu, Totara, Matai, Kahikatea and many species of ferns including some giant tree ferns. Other notable trees include, the Cabbage Tree, the Nikau Palm which is New Zealand's only palm tree, and the Giant Kauri, which hold the record for the greatest timber volume of any tree.

Fauna

  • With the exception of two species of bat, no indigenous mammals are native to New Zealand. The only other wild mammals at present are those that have been introduced and they are usually considered as pests. These includes deer, goats, pigs, rabbits, weasels, ferrets, and the Australian opossum, as well as domesticated animals such as dogs and cats. New Zealand contains no snakes and has only one poisonous spider called the Katipo, which is related to the Australian Redback. The Katipo is very rare and its bite is never lethal.
  • Other insects include the Weta which is extremely frightening in appearance, but is relatively harmless and the cicada, the loudest insect in the world.
  • New Zealand's most unigue animal is the Tuatara, which is a lizard-like reptile that predates the Dinosaur and is considered a living fossil.
  • There are some 70 species of birds found nowhere else in the world, more than a third of them are flightless, and almost a quarter of them nocturnal. Notable New Zealand birds include the Tui, Bellbird, Kiwi, Kakapo, Takahe, and Weka. New Zealand is also home to many seabirds including the Albatross, which has the longest wing span of any bird in the world.

Northland

  • Northland
  • Auckland
  • Waikato
  • Bay of Plenty
  • East Cape
  • Hawke's Bay
  • Taranaki
  • Manawatu-Wanganui
  • Wellington
  • Tasman
  • Nelson
  • Marlborough
  • West Coast
  • Canterbury
  • Otago
  • Southland
  • Regions

Wellington is New Zealand capital and it is surrounded by mountains from some of whitish them is a magnificent view over the city. There is the good quarters of the parliament politically commercially and geographically Wellington is the most important city in the country. Victorian University is located in hilly suburb Kelburn. On same hill is botanic garden. There is line Massey University in Wellington.Wellington is famous for windy weather.Wellington is ganglion culture and art. Tourist here can found much of restaurants, riches night clubs, much of sports and cultural used. City is bulding about exquisite bay, which is formation enormous out of blast and afloat crater. In the city are lots of monuments for example old builds of parlaments, government offices, and others woodens houses and pubs.Interesting attraction is funicular which move out from valley at top of city.

  • Wellington is New Zealand capital and it is surrounded by mountains from some of whitish them is a magnificent view over the city. There is the good quarters of the parliament politically commercially and geographically Wellington is the most important city in the country. Victorian University is located in hilly suburb Kelburn. On same hill is botanic garden. There is line Massey University in Wellington.Wellington is famous for windy weather.Wellington is ganglion culture and art. Tourist here can found much of restaurants, riches night clubs, much of sports and cultural used. City is bulding about exquisite bay, which is formation enormous out of blast and afloat crater. In the city are lots of monuments for example old builds of parlaments, government offices, and others woodens houses and pubs.Interesting attraction is funicular which move out from valley at top of city.
  • In this area almost always blow strong wind, that’s why people don’t wear umbrellas.
  • Wellington has rich cultural usage
  • There is national museum Te Papa Tongarewa.
  • In Wellington are many streets festivals, concerts, shows and theatre.
  • Wellington

Auckland is the largest city in NZ there are many modern shopping centres with a lot of cafeterias and restaurants. relaxation can be found in many parks. Auckland City of Sails nickname city got thanks to fact, than is almost among from all sides sea. Auckland famous for bigges polynés city on the world. 20% population espousing with maors aboriginal. Attractions of city are Auckland Museum ( ta Papa Whakahiku) which mount to cultural and history Maors and other nations of Pacific Oceans. Sky tower – is biggest building in south hemisphere high 328 m. Construction had endure wind about size 200km/h. Make it possible to view as far as 80 kilometers. Waitakere Regional Park – There are 250 kilometres footpaths.Auckland´s international aiport is biggest aiport on the world and is located near Manukau´s port in south suburb Mangere.

  • Auckland is the largest city in NZ there are many modern shopping centres with a lot of cafeterias and restaurants. relaxation can be found in many parks. Auckland City of Sails nickname city got thanks to fact, than is almost among from all sides sea. Auckland famous for bigges polynés city on the world. 20% population espousing with maors aboriginal. Attractions of city are Auckland Museum ( ta Papa Whakahiku) which mount to cultural and history Maors and other nations of Pacific Oceans. Sky tower – is biggest building in south hemisphere high 328 m. Construction had endure wind about size 200km/h. Make it possible to view as far as 80 kilometers. Waitakere Regional Park – There are 250 kilometres footpaths.Auckland´s international aiport is biggest aiport on the world and is located near Manukau´s port in south suburb Mangere.
  • One Tree Hill or Mount Eden offer familie´s walk from city centre. Auckland is city of entertainment. Tourists here can yachting, surfing or diving.
  • Aucland

Christchurch is biggest city on south island of NZ. Great combines benefits of cities and natural´s environment. Christchurch is garden´s city. is the 5th largest city which is often said to have the most English character outside of England. Christchurst is located near the Catenbury Plains, Pacific Ocean. Christchurch is composedly, and safely city with friendly people and well net cities mass transpotion. City has got 345 000 population. Famous peninsula akaora peninsula be situated closeness to Christchurch.

  • Christchurch is biggest city on south island of NZ. Great combines benefits of cities and natural´s environment. Christchurch is garden´s city. is the 5th largest city which is often said to have the most English character outside of England. Christchurst is located near the Catenbury Plains, Pacific Ocean. Christchurch is composedly, and safely city with friendly people and well net cities mass transpotion. City has got 345 000 population. Famous peninsula akaora peninsula be situated closeness to Christchurch.
  • Christchurch is full of parks and gardens it is named “The Garden City”.
  • Interesting places are Christchurch Cathedral, Air Force Museum and many aquaparks
  • Christchurch

Rotorua – it is a place visited by almost every tourist it is a famous thermal area with gassers of boiling water. You can also see ho water lake and ho mud it is dangerous to have the marked paths, because there is the risk of falling into hot mud.Rotorua is one of admire and resort place on northerh island. It is located on river even on lake.Eyot Mokoia Island is it relevant to fable about maors miss Hinemoe.Rotorua are bays for improvement kinetic apparaturs. Therea ara pools, their termal´s temperature of water has got between 33° - 43°, beause all territory is centre of area. Near scene you can find colors lakes, craters and minerals platform. Rotorua has got 65 000 population and maors cultur gueues in magnetism for tourists.

  • Rotorua – it is a place visited by almost every tourist it is a famous thermal area with gassers of boiling water. You can also see ho water lake and ho mud it is dangerous to have the marked paths, because there is the risk of falling into hot mud.Rotorua is one of admire and resort place on northerh island. It is located on river even on lake.Eyot Mokoia Island is it relevant to fable about maors miss Hinemoe.Rotorua are bays for improvement kinetic apparaturs. Therea ara pools, their termal´s temperature of water has got between 33° - 43°, beause all territory is centre of area. Near scene you can find colors lakes, craters and minerals platform. Rotorua has got 65 000 population and maors cultur gueues in magnetism for tourists.
  • Rainbow Springs Park is famous for fauna and flora which you can admire here. There are trout, tigers and typical birds kivi. They have special exposition about alive symbol of New Zealand´s. His aviary has got special atmosphere – in cave behind glass are two kivi.
  • Then there are 4 capital thermals areas Waiotapu, Waimangu, Whakarawarewa .
  • Rotorua

Hamilton is the biggest in-country city.

  • Hamilton is the biggest in-country city.
  • There are many high-quality schools, that is why this city named “City of students”, but there are lovers of sports and funny, for example rugby and motoring, in August there is race best-loved Australian set V8 Supercars in road cars.
  • There is five-day festival of hot-flue balloons with big show and races.
  • In the city is interest museum, very pretty parks and gardens
  • Nice place for rest is Hamilton’s lake or river Waikato River.
  • Hamilton

National Park Mt Cook

  • National Park Mt Cook
  • It is world monument, belongs to most beautiful parks in NZ.
  • There is possibility skiing on Tasman’s ice-slope
  • There are mountain small
  • lakes, forests and good
  • conditions for alpine tourism
  • Memories

New Zealand has a modern, prosperous, developed economy with an estimated nominal Gross domestic product. The country has a relatively high standard of living. Since 2000 New Zealand has made substantial gains in median household income. New Zealand, along with Australia, largely escaped the early 2000s recession that impacted upon most other advanced countries. The combination of high growth in New Zealand, along with negative growth in United States, has allowed New Zealand to reduce the income gap.

  • New Zealand has a modern, prosperous, developed economy with an estimated nominal Gross domestic product. The country has a relatively high standard of living. Since 2000 New Zealand has made substantial gains in median household income. New Zealand, along with Australia, largely escaped the early 2000s recession that impacted upon most other advanced countries. The combination of high growth in New Zealand, along with negative growth in United States, has allowed New Zealand to reduce the income gap.
  • New Zealand is a country heavily dependent on trade, particularly in agricultural products. Exports account for around 24% of its output, which is a relatively high figure. This makes New Zealand particularly vulnerable to international commodity prices and global economic slowdowns. Its principal export industries are agriculture, horticulture, fishing and forestry. These make up about half of the country's exports.
  • Tourism plays a significant role in New Zealand's economy
  • Economy and agriculture

  • Lead role of agriculture have sheeps and it’s fleece, milk, cheese, butter, beef etc. Main produce of fields is wheat, maize, bere, pea and apples. Important is wino, too. Integral part of livestock production is breeding of deers.
  • Industry of this land is based on elaboration dairy produce, meat and fish. Other branch of industry is production of aluminium and plastics.
  • Country utilizes its natural assets, like local rude rivers, which are sources of waterpower. It also disposes reserves of crude oil, coal, gold, silver and iron ore. Most recently, Tourism plays a significant role in New Zealand's economy

Sport has a major role in New Zealand's culture, with the unofficial national sport of rugby union being particularly influential. Other popular participatory sports include cricket, bowls, netball, soccer, golf , swimming and tennis.New Zealand has strong international teams in several sports including rugby union, netball, cricket, rugby league, and softball. New Zealand also does traditionally well in the sports of rowing, yachting and cycling.

  • Sport has a major role in New Zealand's culture, with the unofficial national sport of rugby union being particularly influential. Other popular participatory sports include cricket, bowls, netball, soccer, golf , swimming and tennis.New Zealand has strong international teams in several sports including rugby union, netball, cricket, rugby league, and softball. New Zealand also does traditionally well in the sports of rowing, yachting and cycling.
  • Sports
  • Australia

Australia

  • Australia is the smallest, flattest and driest continent on earth. It is a place where small numbers of people are spread over a large area of land. Land is situated below Asia and bordered by the Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans. Two thirds of Australia is desert, yet it has one of the richest and most varied ecosystems to be found anywhere. Australia was isolated for at least 55 million years and so it created a sanctuary for plants and wildlife with many species not found anywhere else on earth.

The first human habitation of Australia is estimated to have occurred between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago. These first Australians were possibly the ancestors of the current Indigenous Australians; they may have arrived via land bridges and short sea-crossings from present-day South-East Asia. Most of these people were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime

  • The first human habitation of Australia is estimated to have occurred between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago. These first Australians were possibly the ancestors of the current Indigenous Australians; they may have arrived via land bridges and short sea-crossings from present-day South-East Asia. Most of these people were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime
  • History

  • The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland was made by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, who sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in 1606. During the 17th century, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines of what they called New Holland, but made no attempt at settlement. In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast of Australia, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The expedition's discoveries provided impetus for the establishment of a penal colony there.

The Indigenous Australian population, estimated at 350,000 at the time of European settlement, declined steeply for 150 years following settlement, mainly because of infectious disease combined with forced re-settlement and cultural disintegration.

  • The Indigenous Australian population, estimated at 350,000 at the time of European settlement, declined steeply for 150 years following settlement, mainly because of infectious disease combined with forced re-settlement and cultural disintegration.
  • A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850‘s, and the Eureka Stockade rebellion against mining licence fees in 1854 was an early expression of civil disobedience.
  • Monarch Queen Elizabeth II.
  • Governor-General Michael Jeffery
  • Prime Minister Kevin Rudd
  • Official languages: English
  • Government Parliamentary democracy
  • constistutional monarchy
  • and

Australian federation is constitution monarchy with parliamentary system governances. Queen Elizabeth II. is the Queen of Australia, whose a role is similar her a role in Canada and more countries. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General at federal level and by the Governors at state level. Although the Constitution gives Governor-General executive powers, these are normally exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister. The most notable exercise of the Governor-General's reserve powers outside the Prime Minister's direction was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975.

  • Australian federation is constitution monarchy with parliamentary system governances. Queen Elizabeth II. is the Queen of Australia, whose a role is similar her a role in Canada and more countries. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General at federal level and by the Governors at state level. Although the Constitution gives Governor-General executive powers, these are normally exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister. The most notable exercise of the Governor-General's reserve powers outside the Prime Minister's direction was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975.

There are three branches of government:

  • There are three branches of government:
  • The legislature: the Commonwealth Parliament, comprising the Queen, the Senate, and the House of Representatives; the Queen is represented by the Governor-General, who by convention acts on the advice of his or her Ministers.
  • The executive: the Federal Executive Council (the Governor-General as advised by the Executive Councillors); in practice, the councillors are the Prime Minister and Ministers of State.
  • The judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts. Appeals from Australian courts to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom ceased when the Australia Act was passed in 1986.

The bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists is consists of the senate (the upper house) of 76 senators, and a House of Representatives (the lower house) of 150 members and its constituent is Queen. Seats in the House of Representatives are allocated to states on the basis of population, with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats. In the Senate, each state is represented by 12 senators, and each of the territories (the ACT and the NT) by two. Elections for both a House of Parliament is take place every three years. Changes always only middle senate because senators have overlapping six-year terms. The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms government and its leader becomes Prime Minister.

  • The bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists is consists of the senate (the upper house) of 76 senators, and a House of Representatives (the lower house) of 150 members and its constituent is Queen. Seats in the House of Representatives are allocated to states on the basis of population, with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats. In the Senate, each state is represented by 12 senators, and each of the territories (the ACT and the NT) by two. Elections for both a House of Parliament is take place every three years. Changes always only middle senate because senators have overlapping six-year terms. The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms government and its leader becomes Prime Minister.
  • Australia has a prosperous, Western-style mixed economy, with a per capita GDP slightly lower than the UK, but higher than Germany, and France in terms of purchasing power parity. The absence of an export-oriented manufacturing industry has been considered a key weakness of the Australian economy. More recently, rising prices for Australia's commodity exports and increasing tourism have made this criticism less relevant. However, Australia has the world's fourth largest current account deficit in absolute terms. This is considered problematic by some economists, especially as it has coincided with the high terms of trade and low interest rates that make the cost of servicing the foreign debt low.
  • Economy and agriculture

Australia is industrial agricultural country with important mining mineral raw materials. There mine high-quality pit-coal in New South Wales and Queensland, soft coal in Victoria, iron-stone, bauxite, crude oil, slug, zinc, tin, cooper, manganese, gold, silver, diamonds, nickel, jack, palladium, zircon, rutile, ilmenite, salt, uranus and opals. Most important industries are metallurgy, petrochemical use, chemistry, machine, textile and food-processing industry. Industrial centre are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Newcastle and Geelong. Important is electrical energy too.

  • Australia is industrial agricultural country with important mining mineral raw materials. There mine high-quality pit-coal in New South Wales and Queensland, soft coal in Victoria, iron-stone, bauxite, crude oil, slug, zinc, tin, cooper, manganese, gold, silver, diamonds, nickel, jack, palladium, zircon, rutile, ilmenite, salt, uranus and opals. Most important industries are metallurgy, petrochemical use, chemistry, machine, textile and food-processing industry. Industrial centre are Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide, Newcastle and Geelong. Important is electrical energy too.
  • Arable land contain only 6,5%, meadows and grasslands 54% and timber 19% of Australia area. There are cultivate wheat, bere, oats, rice, sugar cines, cottons, pulses, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sun-flowers, soya, hops and tabac. Most important for livestock production are sheeps, oxens, pigs, mounts, fowls breeding and fishing. Lumber is important too. For reason of extent of land is important fly-in, railage and automobile conveyance.

Australia is own continent, which is smallest on the world And is on the Indo-Australian Plate. Australia is separated from Asia by sea and is full of native wonder. Australia has more than 34000 kilometres of coastline.

  • Australia is own continent, which is smallest on the world And is on the Indo-Australian Plate. Australia is separated from Asia by sea and is full of native wonder. Australia has more than 34000 kilometres of coastline.
  • .
  • The great Barrier reef are world´s larges coral reef. It spreads by north-east coast.
  • Mont August, claimed to be world´s largest monolith is located in the western australia.
  • The western half of Australia consists of the Western Platea, which rises to mountain heights near the west coast.
  • The Eastern Highlands, or Great Dividing Range, lie near the eastern coast of Australia, separating the relatively narrow eastern coastal plain from the rest of the continent. The Eastern Highlands have the greatest relief, the most rainfall.
  • Only the south-east and south-west corners of the continent have a temperate climate.
  • the northern part of the country consist of rainforest, woodland, grassland. Australia has extremely variable weather.
  • Surface of Australia

Mountains

  • Australia is a very flat continent where the average elevation is just 330 metres, the lowest in the world. What Australia lacks in height is more that made up for in the variety, geological age and unique appearance of its mountains and rocky outcrops - some of the oldest and most interesting exposed rocks in the world.
  • The highest point in Australia is Mount Kosciuszko in New South Wales, at 2,228 metres above sea level. Mount Kosciuszko is part of the Great Dividing Range.

Uluru

  • Uluru is located in the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park about 335km to the south-west of Alice Springs in Northern Territory, Australia. It is part of a massive rock feature that stretches underground for many kilometres, and is part of the Kata Tjuka (Olgas) outcrop.
  • Uluru is 9.4km around the base, and about 345 metres high. Above the ground it is 3.6km long, 2km wide, and is roughly oval in shape. It is made of sedimentary arkosic sandstone and is renowned for the way it changes colour in the light and is particularly spectacular at sunrise and sunset.

Mount Augustus

  • The visible portion of the sandstone and conglomerate structure which makes up Mount Augustus, is twice the size of Uluru. Sitting on a bedrock of granite, the mountain stands 858 metres above the surrounding plain and 1105 metres above sea level and is eight kilometres long. It can be seen clearly from 160 kilometres away and is sometimes described as the world's largest monocline, part of Mount Augustus National Park.
  • The granite rock which lies beneath Mount Augustus is said to be 1650 million years old.

Australian fauna

  • Early in geological history, Australia was cut off from the rest of the world's land masses. This allowed a range of animals to establish successful populations in Australia - animals that were unable to do so in other parts of the world.
  • Almost all of Australia's native mammals are
  • marsupials. Marsupials give birth to their young and then carry them in a pouch near their belly until the infant is old enough to survive on its own.
  • The most knows australia animalas are Koala and Kangaroo and freshwater crocodile an emu. The kangaroo is an Australian icon: it is featured on the Australian coat of arms. Emu is the largest bird native to Australia

One of Australia's greatest treasures is her flora - a staggering 24,000 species of native plants have been identified compared to England's 1700 native plants.

  • One of Australia's greatest treasures is her flora - a staggering 24,000 species of native plants have been identified compared to England's 1700 native plants.
  • The largest part of australia is desert but there are many alpine heaths to tropical rainforests. Most Australian woody plant species are evergreen and many are adapted to fire and drought, including many eucalypts and acacias. Australia has a rich variety of endemic legume species
  • Australia's native plants vary across the many different natural environments of the country. In the tropical regions of north Queensland, Arnhem Land and the Kimberleys there are many native fruit trees, such as figs and green plums. Where water is scarce in central Australia, the plants are spread thinly over the land and Aborigines rely on fruits such as bush tomatoes and quandong or native peach. While fruits are seasonal, roots can usually be dug up all the year round. This regular digging-over of the soil meant that the whole country was, in a way, an Aboriginal garden.
  • Plants were used for many other things besides food. Medicines also came from plants. Native mints were remedies for coughs and colds, and the gum from gum-trees, which is rich in tannin, was used for burns.
  • Australian flora

Rivers of Australia

  • The Murray river and its main tributary, the Darling River, are the two main rivers in the Murray-Darling River Basin. A river basin is the area of land that surrounds a river and all of its tributaries, from the headwaters to the mouth. The Murray-Darling Basin measures over one million square kilometres, which is almost one-seventh of all the land in Australia. When measured from its source in Queensland to its mouth in South Australia, the Murray is over 2,500 kilometres long.
  • The Snowy River starts in the Australian Alps in New South Wales. It runs south until it reaches the ocean at Marlo in eastern Victoria. Along the way, it passes through the Snowy river National Park.
  • The Snowy River is probably Australia's most famous river, known through Banjo Patterson's poem the Man from Snowy river. The poem tells the story of a man whose skill as a horse-rider allows him to ride through mountainside country to recapture an escaped horse.
  • Murrimbidgee means 'big river' in the local Aboriginal language. It flows for over one and a half thousand kilometres through New South Wales, from the Australian Alps to the point where it enters the Murray River. This makes it one of the largest and most significant tributaries of the Murray.
  • Other rivers
  • Other major river systems in Australia include the Fitzroy in Queensland, Ord and Swan Rivers in Western Australia, the Derwent and Tamar Rivers in Tasmania, and the Hawkesbury in New South Wales.

CAPITALS CITIES OF AUSTRALIA AND THEIR MONUMENTS

  • The Australian capital territory The Australian Capital Territory is the smallers state in Australia and the capital is Canberra. Situated slightly inland between Sydney and Melbourne, Canberra i salso the capital of Australia. The name Canberra comes from the Aboriginal word Kanbarra meaning meeting place. Canberra is where the national goverment sits in Parliament House as does the highest court in Australia. Another famous structure is the Aboriginal Tent Embassy in the grounds of the originál Parliament House. These unofficial tent – like buildings were placed here to symbolize Aboriginal efforts to maket he government recognize its past treatment of the Indigenous population. Now many people commemorate this history with a National Sorry Day held every year.

The first state This is Australia´s rdest state and is situated on the East coast of Australia between Victoria in the South and Queensland in the North. Sydney is the capital and has five World Heritage. Sites including the amazing Sydney Opera House that looks somewhat like a white mailing ship and the Sydney Harbour Bridge, affectionately known as the chat hanger. The state of New South Wales has the highest mountain – Kosciuzsko at 2228 metres. There are also beatiful Blue Mountains, endless sandy beaches and red rugged outback where top grade opals are mined.

  • The first state This is Australia´s rdest state and is situated on the East coast of Australia between Victoria in the South and Queensland in the North. Sydney is the capital and has five World Heritage. Sites including the amazing Sydney Opera House that looks somewhat like a white mailing ship and the Sydney Harbour Bridge, affectionately known as the chat hanger. The state of New South Wales has the highest mountain – Kosciuzsko at 2228 metres. There are also beatiful Blue Mountains, endless sandy beaches and red rugged outback where top grade opals are mined.
  • NEW SOUTH WALES

Melbourne with the population of 3,4 million is the second largest city in Australia ( after Sydney). It was the capital of Australia until the Parliament moved to Canberra in 1927. I tis home to signifiant cultural and sporting events, and to one of the most impressive crickets grounds in the world – the famous MCG ( Melbourne Cricket Ground). Since the 19 th century, trams have operated in the city, and today it has the second largest tram network in the world. The trams are tourist attraction as well, and there are even restaurant trams running trough the city.

  • Melbourne with the population of 3,4 million is the second largest city in Australia ( after Sydney). It was the capital of Australia until the Parliament moved to Canberra in 1927. I tis home to signifiant cultural and sporting events, and to one of the most impressive crickets grounds in the world – the famous MCG ( Melbourne Cricket Ground). Since the 19 th century, trams have operated in the city, and today it has the second largest tram network in the world. The trams are tourist attraction as well, and there are even restaurant trams running trough the city.
  • Melbourne

The garden state Victoria is located in the south eastern Conner of Australia and its capital city is Melbourne, which is renowned for being multicultural, with excellent food and wine. For those who want a taste of the outdoors there are lot sof possibilities like the best rock climbing and abseiling in the Grampian Mountains. The state of Victoria is famous for towering rainforest ski resorts, gulden bays, ocean clils, rolling green hills and red sandy deserts. I tis also famous for its historici attractions such as the gold fields where the gold rush of the 1850´s began when large deposit sof gold were found in the region.

  • The garden state Victoria is located in the south eastern Conner of Australia and its capital city is Melbourne, which is renowned for being multicultural, with excellent food and wine. For those who want a taste of the outdoors there are lot sof possibilities like the best rock climbing and abseiling in the Grampian Mountains. The state of Victoria is famous for towering rainforest ski resorts, gulden bays, ocean clils, rolling green hills and red sandy deserts. I tis also famous for its historici attractions such as the gold fields where the gold rush of the 1850´s began when large deposit sof gold were found in the region.
  • Victoria

The sunshine state

  • The sunshine state
  • Queensland is large and diverse and also includes tropical beaches, islands, lush rainforests and a vast outback region. Brisbane is the capital of this state and Australia´s third largest and fastest growing city. Northe i n Queensland wet tropics you can find the oldest rainforest in the world – The Daintree Rainforest 135 million years old. Here lives the Southern Cassuary Bird, one of the mocst primitive and oldest species on earth. Off the coast of Northern Queensland is the Worl Heritage Great Barrier Reef which is the largest coral reef in the world. Queensland has the world´s largest sand island, Fraser Island, which is the whale watching capital of Australia.Other mining areas include MT ISA, one of the largest mining areas in the world for copper and zinc.Way trough 1000 kilometres of luminous tunnels looking rather like scene from the film Mad Max.
  • Queensland

The state of festivals and fine wines South Australia is the only state to be settled entirely by free settlers. However, at the beginning there were not enough people to build the city ad so ironically, they had to import convicts to do the worik. Adelaide the capital of SOuth Australia , is known all around the world for its famous wines form Barrosa Valley. Many world class festivals are held here every year with such events as The tower down under for cycling and Clipsal 500 one of the world´s greatest motor sports festivals with the V8 Supercars. The largest artes festival in the Southern Hemisphere the Adelaide Fringe is a great from 4, 000 independent artists.

  • The state of festivals and fine wines South Australia is the only state to be settled entirely by free settlers. However, at the beginning there were not enough people to build the city ad so ironically, they had to import convicts to do the worik. Adelaide the capital of SOuth Australia , is known all around the world for its famous wines form Barrosa Valley. Many world class festivals are held here every year with such events as The tower down under for cycling and Clipsal 500 one of the world´s greatest motor sports festivals with the V8 Supercars. The largest artes festival in the Southern Hemisphere the Adelaide Fringe is a great from 4, 000 independent artists.
  • South Australia

Wildflower state

  • Wildflower state
  • Covering one third of kontinent, Western Australia is the largest and least populated of Australia´s states. The capital city Perth is the most isolated city in the world. The Southern part of WA is renowned as one of the world´s most bio – diverse floral regions with many species occurring nowhere else in the world. The Soutwest coastal area has some of the tallest tree in the world the Karri. These are found in the Tingle Forest where the Valley of thi Giants Tree Top Walk is located. The state is also renowned for its mining industry and has the larges amounts of mineral deposits in the world and the largest open – cut gold mine.
  • Western Australia

Tasmania is separand from mainland Australia by a 240 –kilometre stretch of water called Bass Strait.This channel of water is notoriously rough and hundreds of ships have been wrecked off the Tasmanian and Victorian coastlines. Tasmania is land apart – a green island of wild, mountainous beauty. It has a temperate chmate, quality wine and cheese, creative arts community and a spirited history.Tasmania is home of the infamous Tasmanian YDevil, black furry animal with large mouth and sharp teeth. Tasmania´s capital Hobart is situated on the East side of the island.

  • Tasmania is separand from mainland Australia by a 240 –kilometre stretch of water called Bass Strait.This channel of water is notoriously rough and hundreds of ships have been wrecked off the Tasmanian and Victorian coastlines. Tasmania is land apart – a green island of wild, mountainous beauty. It has a temperate chmate, quality wine and cheese, creative arts community and a spirited history.Tasmania is home of the infamous Tasmanian YDevil, black furry animal with large mouth and sharp teeth. Tasmania´s capital Hobart is situated on the East side of the island.
  • Tasmania

Outback Australia The Northern Territory is one of the most sparsely settled environment on the planet, spanning more 1, 4 milion square kilometre from The Centre to Northerly coast Australia.

  • Outback Australia The Northern Territory is one of the most sparsely settled environment on the planet, spanning more 1, 4 milion square kilometre from The Centre to Northerly coast Australia.
  • Darwin is the tropical capital of the NT. More than 60 bombing raids were conducted by the Japanse . Darwing has a relaxed outdoor lifestyle and enjoys warm weather all year round. Arnhem Land covers area.The Dreaming Cliffs can be found here, scarred by waterfalls. These sandstone clils rice dramatically to a height of 300 metres. Kakadu National Park is Australia´s largest national Park. Within this park are monsoon forests, flood plains, paper bark swamps and 500 kilometres of coast, tidal flats and estuaries.
  • Northern Territory
  • Old houses in section The Rocks, Sydney
  • House of Captain Jamese Coook in Melbourne
  • Ballarat was gold-digger´s village
  • Monuments
  • University in Adelaine
  • The Sydney Harbour Bridge is one of Australia's most well known and photographed landmarks. It is the world's largest (but not the longest) steel arch bridge with the top of the bridge standing 134 metres above the harbour.
  • Opera house in Sydney is best known Australian building and is one of best admired produce of modern architecture of 20th century. In 1973 Queen Elizabeth II opened this building. This nice building was insert to cultural heritage of Australia. It´s roof remind white dune of sea. Opera is symbol of Australia.
  • In small seaport Bunbury we can find lighthouse. This iron narrow staff is 15 metres tall and is studded with chessboard black-and-white paint.
  • . This is new Building of parliament. It has huge grass plot on roof and Australians can walk beyond heads of their politician. Beyond parliament is high staff with flag which is big as camion
  • Chinatown Way in is embroider with two stone lions. There are many chinese shops, Chinese products and Chinamans
  • Powerhouse museum is in section along Darling Harbour
  • New South Wales Art Gallery
  • Live statue in Circular Quay

Sport plays an important part in Australian culture, assisted by a climate that favours outdoor activities; 23.5% Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organised sporting activities. At an international level, Australia has strong teams in cricket, hockey, netball, rugby league, and rugby union, and it performs well in cycling, rowing, and swimming. Nationally, other popular sports include Australian rules football, horse racing, soccer, and motor racing. Australia has participated in every summer Olympic Games of the modern era, and every Commonwealth Games. Australia hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, and has ranked among the top five medal-takers since 2000. Australia has also hosted the 1938, 1962, 1982, and 2006 Commonwealth Games. Other major international events held in Australia include the Grand Slam Australian Open tennis tournament, international cricket matches, and the Formula One Australian Grand Prix. Viewing televised sport is popular; the highest-rating television programs include the summer Olympic Games and the grand finals of local and international football (various codes) competitions.

  • Sport plays an important part in Australian culture, assisted by a climate that favours outdoor activities; 23.5% Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organised sporting activities. At an international level, Australia has strong teams in cricket, hockey, netball, rugby league, and rugby union, and it performs well in cycling, rowing, and swimming. Nationally, other popular sports include Australian rules football, horse racing, soccer, and motor racing. Australia has participated in every summer Olympic Games of the modern era, and every Commonwealth Games. Australia hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, and has ranked among the top five medal-takers since 2000. Australia has also hosted the 1938, 1962, 1982, and 2006 Commonwealth Games. Other major international events held in Australia include the Grand Slam Australian Open tennis tournament, international cricket matches, and the Formula One Australian Grand Prix. Viewing televised sport is popular; the highest-rating television programs include the summer Olympic Games and the grand finals of local and international football (various codes) competitions.
  • SPORT

Karolína Šímová

  • Karolína Šímová
  • (Capital cities + cities)
  • Veronika Palátová
  • (History, economy, agriculture)
  • Žaneta Štěpánková
  • (New Zealand‘s Monuments, cities)
  • Bára Vopeláková
  • ( Australia‘s Monuments, cities)
  • Martin Vávra
  • (Government, sport + presentation)
  • Josef Řihák
  • (Surface, animals)
  • Worked up



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