Nobel Prize awar ds: 1950–99


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Science & Engineering Indicators – 2000

ࡗ 

A–1



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950–99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Physics

1950


The development of the photographic method of studying nuclear pr

ocesses and the discoveries

Cecil Frank Powell

regar


ding mesons made with this method.

1951


The pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles.

Sir John Douglas Cockcr

oft;

Er

nest Thomas Sinton W



alton

1952


The development of new methods for nuclear magnetic pr

ecision measur

ements and discoveries in

Felix Bloch;

connection ther

ewith.


Edwar

d Mills Pur

cell

1953


Demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contract

Frits (Fr

ederik) Zer

nike


micr

oscope.


1954

Fundamental r

esear

ch in quantum mechanics, especially for the statistical interpr



etation of the

Max Bor


n; W

alther Bothe

wavefunction; and for the coincidence method and the discoveries made ther

ewith.


1955

Discoveries concer

ning the fine structur

e of the hydr

ogen spectrum; and pr

ecision determination of

Willis Eugene Lamb;

the magnetic moment of the electr

on.

Polykarp Kusch



1956

Resear


ches on semiconductors and the discovery of the transistor ef

fect.


William Shockley;

John Bar


deen;

W

alter Houser Brattain



1957

Penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries

Chen Ning Y

ang;


regar

ding the elementary particles.

T

sung-Dao Lee



1958

The discovery and the interpr

etation of the Cher

enkov ef


fect.

Pavel Alekseyevich Cher

enkov;

Il

’ja Mikhailovich Frank;



Igor Y

evgenyevich T

amm

1959


The discovery of the antipr

oton.


Emilio Gino Segr

e;

Owen Chamberlain



1960

**

The invention of the bubble chamber



.

Donald A. Glaser

1961

**

Pioneering studies of electr



on scattering in atomic nuclei and for the ther

eby achieved discoveries

Robert Hofstadter;

concer


ning the structur

e of the nucleons; and r

esear

ch concer



ning the r

esonance absorption of

Rudolf Ludwig M

ö

ssbauer



gamma radiation and the discovery in this connection of the ef

fect which bears his name.

1962

Pioneering theories for condensed matter



, especially liquid helium

Lev Davidovich Landau

1963

**

Contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly thr



ough

Eugene P


. Wigner;

the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles; and discoveries concer

ning

Maria Goeppert-Mayer;



nuclear shell structur

e.

J. Hans D. Jensen



1964

Fundamental work in the field of quantum electr

onics, which has led to the construction of oscillators

Charles H. T

ownes;

and amplifiers based on the maser



-laser principle.

Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov;

Aleksandr Mikhailovich Pr

okhor


ov

See explanatory notes, if any

, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 1 of 12



A–2

 ࡗ

Appendix Tables



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Physics, continued



1965

Fundaments work in quantum electr

odynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics

Sin-Itir


o T

omonaga;


of elementary particles.

Julian Schwinger;

Richar

d P


. Feynman

1966


The discovery and development of optical methods for studying hertzian r

esonances in atoms.

Alfr

ed Kastler



1967

**

Contributions to the theory of nuclear r



eactions, especially the discoveries concer

ning the ener

gy

Hans Albr



echt Bethe

pr

oduction in stars.



1968

**

Decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a lar



ge number

Luis W


. Alvar

ez

of r



esonance states, made possible thr

ough the development of the technique of using hydr

ogen

bubble chamber and data analysis.



1969

**

Contributions and discoveries concer



ning the classification of elementary particles and their

Murray Gell-Mann

interactions.

1970


Fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydr

odynamics with fruitful applications in dif

fer

ent


Hannes Alfv

é

n; Louis N



é

el

parts of plasma physics; and fundamental work and discoveries concer



ning antiferr

omagnetism and

ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics.

1971


Invention and development of the holographic method.

Dennis Gabor

1972

**

Theory of super



conductivity

, usually called the BCS-theory

.

John Bar


deen; Leon N. Cooper;

J. Robert Schrief

fer

1973


Experimental discoveries r

egar


ding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and super

conductors,

Leo Esaki; Ivar Giaever;

respectively; and theor

etical pr

edictions of the pr

operties of a super curr

ent thr


ough a tunnel barrier

,

Brian D. Josephson



in particular those phenomena which ar

e generally known as the Josephson ef

fects.

1974


Pioneering r

esear


ch in radio astrophysics: observations and inventions, in particular of the apertur

e

Sir Martin Ryle; Antony Hewish



synthesis technique, and decisive r

ole in the discovery of pulsars.

1975

*

Discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the



Aage Bohr; Ben Mottelson;

development of the theory of the structur

e of the atomic nucleus based on this connection.

James Rainwater

1976

*

Pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind.



Burton Richter; Samuel C.C. Ting

1977


Fundamental theor

etical investigations of the electr

onic structur

e of magnetic and disor

der

ed

Philip W



. Anderson; Sir Nevill F

. Mott;


systems.

John H. V

anVleck

1978


*

Basic inventions and discoveries in the ar

ea of low-temperatur

e physics; and the discovery of

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa;

cosmic micr

owave backgr

ound radiation.

Ar

no A. Penzias; Robert W



. Wilson

1979


*

Contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electr

omagnetic interaction between elementary

Sheldon L. Glashow; Abdus Salam;

particles, including inter alia the pr

ediction of the weak neutral curr

ent.

Steven W


einber

g

1980



*

Discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons.

James W

. Cr


onin; V

al L. Fitch

See explanatory notes, if any

, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 2 of 12


Science & Engineering Indicators – 2000

ࡗ 

A–3



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Physics, continued



1981

*

Contribution to the development of laser spectr



oscopy; and contribution to the development of

Nicolaas Bloember

gen;

high-r


esolution electr

on spectr

oscopy

.

Arthur L. Schawlow;



Kai M. Siegbahn

1982


*

Theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions.

Kenneth G. Wilson

1983


*

Theor


etical studies of the physical pr

ocesses of importance to the structur

e and evolution of the

Subramanyan Chandrasekhar;

stars; and theor

etical and experimental studies of the nuclear r

eactions of importance in the

William A. Fowler

formation of the chemical elements in the universe.

1984


Decisive contributions to the lar

ge pr


oject, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z,

Carlo Rubbia;

communicators of weak interaction.

Simon V


an Der Meer

1985


Discovery of the quantized Hall ef

fect.


Klaus V

on Klitzing

1986

Fundamental work in electr



on optics, and the design of the first electr

on micr


oscope; and the

Er

nst Ruska; Ger



d Binnig;

design of the canning tunneling micr

oscope.

Heinrich Rohr



er

1987


Important br

eakthr


ough in the discovery of super

conductivity in ceramic materials.

J. Geor

g Bednorz; K. Alexander M



ü

ller


1988

*

The neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structur



e of the leptons thr

ough the


Leon M. Lederman; Melvin Schwartz;

 discovery of the muon neutrino.

Jack Steinber

ger


1989

*

Invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydr



ogen maser and other

Norman F


. Ramsey; Hans G. Dehmelt;

atomic clocks; and the development of the ion trap technique.

W

olfgang Paul



1990

Pioneering investigations concer

ning deep inelastic scattering of electr

ons on pr

otons and bound

Jer


ome I. Friedman; Henry W

. Kendall;

neutr

ons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in



Richar

d E. T


aylor

particle physics.

1991

Discovery that methods developed for studying or



der phenomena in simple systems can be

Pierr


e-Gilles de Gennes

generalized to mor

e complex forms of matter

, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers.

1992

Invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwir



e pr

oportional chamber

.

Geor


ges Charpak

1993


*

Discovery of a new type of pulsar

, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of

Russell A. Hulse;  Joseph H. T

aylor

, Jr


.

gravitation.

1994

*

Pioneering contributions to the development of neutr



on scattering techniques for studies of condensed

Bertram N. Br

ockhouse;

matter: the development of neutr

on spectr

oscopy


, and for the development of the neutr

on dif


fraction

Clif


for

d G. Shull

technique.

1995


*

Pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics: for the discovery of the tau lepton, and the

Martin L. Perl; Fr

ederick Reines

detection of the neutrino.

1996


*

Discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.

David M. Lee; Douglas D. Osher

of

f;



Robert C. Richar

dson


See explanatory notes, if any

, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 3 of 12


A–4

 ࡗ

Appendix Tables



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Physics, continued



1997

*

D



evelopment of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light.

Steven Chu; Claude Cohen-T

annoudji;

William D. Phillips

19

98

    



   

   


   

  

*  



  

   


  

  

  



D

iscovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally char

ged excitations.

Robert B. Laughlin; Horst L. St

ö

rmer;


Daniel C. T

sui


19

99

    



    

   


   

  

  



    

   


   

 E

lucidation of the quantum structur



e of electr

oweak interactions in physics.

Gerar

dus 


‘t Hooft;

Martinus J.G. V

eltman

See explanatory notes, if any



, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 4 of 12



Science & Engineering Indicators – 2000

ࡗ 

A–5



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Chemistry

1950


Discovery and development of the diene synthesis.

Otto Paul Hermann Diels;

Kurt Alder

1951


**

Discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements.

Edwin Mattison McMillan;

Glenn Theodor

e Seabor

g

1952



Invention of partition chr

omatography

.

A

rcher John Porter Martin;



Richar

d Laur


ence Millington Synge

1953


Discoveries in the field of macr

omolecular chemistry

.

Hermann Staudinger



1954

Resear


ch into the natur

e of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of

Linus Carl Pauling

 the structur

e of complex substances.

1955


W

ork on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a

V

incent du V



igneaud

polypeptide hormone.

1956

Resear


ches into the mechanism of chemical r

eactions.

Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;

Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov

1957

W

ork on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.



Lor

d Alexander R. T

odd

1958


W

ork on the structur

e of pr

oteins, especially that of insulin.



Fr

ederick Sanger

1959

Discovery and development of the polar



ographic methods of analysis.

Jar


oslav Heyr

ovsky


1960

**

Method to use carbon-14 for age determination in ar



chaeology

, geology

, geophysics, and other

Willar


d Frank Libby

branches of science.

1961

Resear


ch on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants.

Melvin Calvin

1962

Studies of the structur



es of globular pr

oteins.


Max Fer

dinand Perutz;

Sir John Cowdery Kendr

ew

1963



Discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers.

Karl Zeigler; Giulio Natta

1964

Determinations by X-ray techniques of the structur



es of important biochemical substances.

Dor


othy Cr

owfoot Hodgkin

1965

**

Outstanding achievements in the art of or



ganic synthesis.

Robert Bur

ns W

oodwar


d

19

66



    

   


   

   


 **

  

  



  

   


  

 Fu


ndamental work concer

ning chemical bonds and the electr

onic structur

e of molecules by the

Robert S. Mulliken

molecular orbital method.

1967

Studies of extr



emely fast chemical r

eactions, ef

fected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very

Manfr


ed Eigen; Ronald Geor

ge

short pulses of ener



gy

.

W



reyfor

d Norrish; Lor

d Geor

ge Porter



1968

Discovery of the r

ecipr

ocal r


elations bearing his name, which ar

e fundamental for the

Lars Onsager

thermodynamics of irr

eversible pr

ocesses.


See explanatory notes, if any

, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 5 of 12


A–6

 ࡗ

Appendix Tables



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Chemistry



, continued

1969


Contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its applications in chemistry

.

Sir Der



ek H.R. Barton; Odd Hassel

1970


Discovery of sugar nucleotides and their r

ole in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates.

Luis F

. Leloir


1971

Contributions to the knowledge of electr

onic structur

e and geometry of molecules, particularly fr

ee

Gerhar


d Herzber

g

radicals.



1972

**

W



ork on ribonuclease, especially concer

ning the connection between the amino acid sequence and

Christian B. Anfinsen; Stanfor

d Moor


e;

the biologically active conformation; and the contribution to the understanding of the connection

William H. Stein

between chemical structur

e and catalytic activity of the active center of the ribonuclease molecule.

1973


Pioneering work, performed independently

, on the chemistry of the or

ganometallic, so-called

Er

nst Otto Fischer;



sandwich compounds.

Sir Geof


fr

ey Wilkinson

1974

**

Fundamental achievements, both theor



etical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the

Paul J. Flory

macr

omolecules.



1975

W

ork on the ster



ochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed r

eactions; and r

esear

ch into the ster



eochemistry of

Sir John W

a

rcup Cor


nforth;

or

ganic molecules and r



eactions.

Vladimir Pr

elog

1976


*

Studies on the struction of boranes illuminating pr

oblems of chemical bonding.

William N. Lipscomb

1977

Contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structur



es.

Ilya Prigogine

1978

Contribution to the understanding of biological ener



gy transfer thr

ough the formulation of the

Peter D. Mitchell

chemiosmotic theory

.

1979


*

Development of the use of bor

on- and phosphorus-containing compounds, r

espectively

, into

Herbert C. Br



own; Geor

g Wittig


important r

eagents in or

ganic synthesis.

1980


*

Fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular r

egar

d to r


ecombinant-DNA;

Paul Ber


g; W

alter Gilbert;

and contributions concer

ning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids.

Fr

ederick Sanger



1981

*

Theories, developed independently



, concer

ning the course of chemical r

eactions.

Kenichi Fukui; Roald Hof

fmann

1982


Development of crystallographic electr

on micr


oscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically

Sir Aar


on Klug

important nuclei acid-pr

otein complexes.

1983


*

W

ork on the mechanism of electr



on transfer r

eactions, especially in metal complexes.

Henry T

aube


1984

**

Development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix.



Robert Bruce Merrifield

1985


*

Outstanding achievements in the development of dir

ect methods for the determination of crystal

Herbert A. Hauptman; Jer

ome Karle

structur


es.

1986


*

Contributions concer

ning the dynamics of chemical elementary pr

ocesses.


Dudley R. Herschbach; Y

uan T


. Lee;

John C. Polanyi

See explanatory notes, if any

, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 6 of 12


Science & Engineering Indicators – 2000

ࡗ 

A–7



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Chemistry



, continued

1987


*

Development and use of molecules with structur

e-specific interactions of high selectivity

.

Donald J. Cram; Jean-Marie Lehn;



Charles J. Pedersen

1988


The determination of the thr

ee-dimensional structur

e of a photosynthetic r

eaction center

.

Johann Deisenhofer; Robert Huber;



Hartmut Michel

1989


*

Discovery of catalytic pr

operties of RNA.

Sidney Altman; Thomas R. Cech

1990

*

Development of the theory and methodology of or



ganic synthesis.

Elias James Cor

ey

1991


Contributions to the development of the methodology of high r

esolution nuclear magnetic

Richar

d R. Er


nst

resonance (NMR) spectr

oscopy

.

1992



*

Contributions to the theory of electr

on transfer r

eactions in chemical systems.

Rudolph A. Mar

cus


1993

Contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry: invention of the

Kary B. Mullis; Michael Smith

polymerase chain r

eaction (PCR) method; and fundamental contributions to the establishment of

oligonucleiotide-based, site-dir

ected mutagenesis and its development for the pr

otein studies.

1994

*

Contribution to carbocation chemistry



.

Geor


ge A. Olah

1995


*

W

ork in atmospheric chemistry



, particularly concer

ning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

Paul J. Crutzen; Mario J. Molina;

F.

 Sherwood Rowland



1996

*

Discovery of fuller



enes.

Robert F


. Curl, Jr

.;

Sir Har



old W

. Kr


oto;

Richar


d E. Smalley

1997


*

Elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (A

TP);

Paul D. Boyer; John E. W



alker;

and for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+,K+-A

TPase.

Jens C. Skou



19

98

    



   

   


  

  

*  



  

   


  

  

  



D

evelopment of the density-functional theory; and development of computational methods

W

alter Kohn; John A. Pople



in quantum chemistry

.

1999



*

Studies of the transition states of chemical r

eactions using femtosecond spectr

oscopy


.

Ahmed H. Zewail

See explanatory notes, if any

, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 7 of 12


A–8

 ࡗ

Appendix Tables



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Physiology or medicine

1950


Discoveries r

elating to the hormones of the adr

enal cortex, their structur

e and biological ef

fects.

Edwar


d Calvin Kendall;

T

adeus Reichstein;



Philip Showalter Hench

1951


Discoveries concer

ning yellow fever and how to combat it.

Max Theiler

1952


Discovery of str

eptomycin, the first antibiotic ef

fective against tuber

culosis.


Selman Abraham W

aksman


1953

Discovery of the citric acid cycle; and discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary

Sir Hans Adolf Kr

ebs;


metabolism.

Fritz Albert Lipmann

1954

Discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to gr



ow in cultur

es of various type of tissue.

John Franklin Enders;

Thomas Huckle W

eller;

Fr

ederick Chapman Robbins



1955

Discoveries concer

ning the natur

e and mode of action of oxidation enzymes.

Axel Hugo Theodor Theor

ell


1956

Discoveries concer

ning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the cir

culatory system.

Andr

é

 Fr



é

d

é



ric Cour

nand;


W

e

rner Forssmann;



Dickinson W

. Richar


ds

1957


Discoveries r

elating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and

Daniel Bovet

especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles.

1958

Discovery that genes act by r



egulating definite chemical events; and discoveries concer

ning genetic

Geor

ge W


ells Beadle;

recombination and the or

ganization of the genetic material of bacteria.

Edwar


d  Lawrie T

atum;


Joshua Lederber

g

19



59

  

   



   

   


  

 **


  

  

  



   

  

 Discovery of the mechanism in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid.



Sever

o Ochoa;


Arthur Kor

nber


g

1960


Discovery of acquir

ed immunological tolerance.

Sir Frank MacFarlane Bur

net;


Sir Peter Brian Medawar

1961


Discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea.

Geor


g V

on B


é

k

é



sy

1962


Discoveries concer

ning the molecular structur

e of nuclear acids and its significance for information

Francis Harry Compton Crick;

transfer in living material.

James Dewey W

atson;

Maurice Hugh Fr



ederick Wilkins

1963


Discoveries concer

ning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral

Sir John Car

ew Eccles;

and central portions of the nerve cell membrane.

Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;

Sir Andr

ew Fielding Huxley

1964

**

Discoveries concer



ning the mechanism and r

egulation of the cholester

ol and fatty acid metabolism.

Konrad Bloch; Feodor L

ynen

1965


Discoveries concer

ning genetic contr

ol of enzyme and virus synthesis.

Fran


ç

ois Jacob; Andr

é

 Lwof


f;

Jacques Monod

See explanatory notes, if any

, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 8 of 12


Science & Engineering Indicators – 2000 

ࡗ 

A–9



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Physiology or medicine, continued



1966

Discovery of tumor

-inducing viruses; and discoveries concer

ning hormonal tr

eatment of pr

ostatic


Peyton Rous;

cancer


.

Charles Br

enton Huggins

1967


Discoveries concer

ning the primary physiological and chemical visual pr

ocesses in the eye.

Ragnar Granit; Haldan Kef

fer Hartline;

Geor


ge W

ald


1968

Interpr


etation of the genetic code and its function in pr

otein synthesis.

Robert W

. Holley;

Har Gobind Khorana;

Marshall W

. Nir

enber


g

1969


**

Discoveries concer

ning the r

eplication mechanism and the genetic structur

e of viruses.

Max Delbr

ü

ck; Alfr


ed D. Hershey;

Salvador E. Luria

1970

Discoveries concer



ning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their

Sir Ber


nar

d Katz; Ulf V

onEuler;

storage, r

elease, and inactivation.

Julius Axelr

od

1971


Discoveries concer

ning the mechanisms of the action of hormones.

Earl W

. Sutherland, Jr



.

1972


*

Discoveries concer

ning the chemical structur

e of antibodies.

Gerald M. Edelman; Rodney R. Porter

1973


Discoveries concer

ning or


ganization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patter

ns.


Karl V

on Frisch; Konrad Lor

enz;

Nikolaas Tinber



gen

1974


**

Discoveries concer

ning the structural and functional or

ganization of the cell.

Albert Claude; Christian deDuve;

Geor


ge E. Palade

1975


*

Discoveries concer

ning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell.

David Baltimor

e; Renato Dulbecco;

Howar


d Martin T

emin


1976

*

Discoveries concer



ning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.

Baruch S. Blumber

g;

D. Carleton Gajdusek



1977

Discoveries concer

ning the peptide hormone pr

oduction of the brain; and the development of

Roger Guillemin; Andr

ew V


. Schally;

radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones.

Rosalyn Y

alow


1978

*

Discovery of r



estriction enzymes and their application to pr

oblems of molecular genetics.

W

e

rner Arber; Daniel Nathans;



Hamilton O. Smith

1979


**

Development of computer

-assisted tomography

.

Allan M. Cormack;



Sir Godfr

ey N. Hounsfield

1980

Discoveries concer



ning genetically determined structur

es on the cell surface that r

egulate

Baruj Benacerraf; Jean Dausset;



immunological r

eactions.

Geor

ge D. Snell



1981

*

Discoveries concer



ning the functional specialization of the cer

ebral hemispher

es; and discoveries

Roger W


. Sperry; David H. Hubel;

concer


ning information pr

ocessing in the visual system.

T

orsten N. Wiesel



See explanatory notes, if any

, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 9 of 12


A–10

 ࡗ

Appendix Tables



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Physiology or medicine, continued



1982

Discoveries concer

ning pr

ostaglandins and r



elated biologically active substances.

Sune K. Ber

gstr

ö

m;



Bengt I. Samuelsson;

Sir John R. V

ane

1983


Discovery of mobile genetic elements.

Barbara McClintock

1984

Theories concer



ning the specificity in development and contr

ol of the immune system and the

Niels K. Jer

ne; Geor


ges J.F

. K


ö

hler;


discovery of the principle for pr

oduction of monoclonal antibodies.

C

é

sar Milstein



1985

Discoveries concer

ning the r

egulation of cholester

ol metabolism.

Michael S. Br

own;

Joseph L. Goldstein



1986

Discoveries of gr

owth factors.

Stanley Cohen; Rita Levi-Montalcini

1987

Discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity



.

Susumu T


onegawa

1988


Discoveries of important principles for drug tr

eatment.


Sir James W

. Black; Gertrude B. Elion;

Geor

ge H. Hitchings



1989

Discovery of the cellular origin of r

etr

oviral oncogenes.



J. Michael Bishop; Har

old E. V


armus

1990


Discoveries concer

ning or


gan and cell transplantation in the tr

eatment of human disease.

Joseph E. Murray; E. Donnall Thomas

1991


Discoveries concer

ning the function of single ion channels in cells.

Erwin Neher; Bert Sakmann

1992


*

Discoveries concer

ning r

eversible pr



otein phosphorylation as a biological r

egulatory mechanism.

Edmond H. Fischer; Edwin G. Kr

ebs


1993

*

Discoveries of split genes.



Richar

d J. Roberts; Phillip A. Sharp

1994

*

Discovery of G-pr



oteins and the r

ole of these pr

oteins in signal transduction in cells.

Alfr


ed G. Gilman; Martin Rodbell

1995


*

Discoveries concer

ning the genetic contr

ol of early embryonic development.

Edwar

d B. Lewis;



Christiane N

ü

sslein-V



olhar

d;

Eric F



. Wieschaus

1996


Discoveries concer

ning the specificity of the cell-mediated immune defense.

Peter C. Doherty; Rolf M. Zinker

nagel


1997

*

Discovery of prions 



 a new biological principle of infection.

Stanley B. Prusiner

1998


Discoveries concer

ning nitric oxide as a signaling molecule in the car

diovascular system.

Robert F


. Fur

chgott; Louis J. Ignarr

o;

Ferid Murad



1999

Discovery that pr

oteins have intrinsic signals that gover

n their transport and localization in the cell.

G

ü

nter Blobel



See explanatory notes, if any

, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 10 of 12


Science & Engineering Indicators – 2000 

ࡗ 

A–11



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Economics

1969


Development and application of dynamic models for the analysis of economic pr

ocesses.


Ragnar Frisch; Jan Tinber

gen


19

70

  



  

  

   



   

  

*



 Scientific work thr

ough which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively

Paul A. Samuelson

contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science.

1971

Empirically founded interpr



etation of economic gr

owth which has led to new and deepened insight

Simon Kuznets

into the economic and social structur

e and pr

ocess of development.

19

7

2



  

  

   



   

  

  



  

   



  

  

  



 P

ioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfar

e theory

.

Sir John R. Hicks; Kenneth J. Arr



ow

19

73



   

  

   



  

  

  



  

   



   

   


  

D

evelopment of the input



output method and for its application to important economic pr

oblems.

W

assily Leontief



1974

Pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and penetrating analysis

Gunnar Myr

dal;


of the inter

dependence of economic, social, and institutional phenomena.

Friedrich August V

onHayek


1975

*

Contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of r



esour

ces.


Leonid V

italiyevich Kantor

ovich;

Tjalling C. Koopmans



1976

Achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for the

Milton Friedman

demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy

.

1977


Pathbr

eaking contribution to the theory of inter

national trade and inter

national capital movements.

Bertil Ohlin; James E. Meade

1978


*

Pioneering r

esear

ch into the decision-making pr



ocess within economic or

ganizations.

Herbert A. Simon

1979


Pioneering r

esear


ch into economic development r

esear


ch with particular consideration of the

Theodor


e W

. Schultz; Sir Arthur Lewis

pr

oblems of developing countries.



1980

*

C



reation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and

Lawr


ence R. Klein

economic policies.

1981

*

Analysis of financial markets and their r



elations to expenditur

e decisions, employment, pr

oduction,

James T


obin

and prices.

1

9

8



2

  

   



   

  

  



  

   



   

   


  

 S

eminal studies of industrial structur



es, function of markets, and causes and ef

fects of public

Geor

ge J. Stigler



regulation.

1983


*

Incorporating new analytical methods into economic theory and rigor

ous r

eformulation of the



Gerar

d Debr


eu

theory of general equilibrium.

1984

Fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence gr



eat

Sir Richar

d Stone

impr


ovment in the basis for empirical economic analysis.

1985


*

Pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets.

Franco Modigliani

1986


*

Development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political

James M. Buchanan, Jr

.

decision-making.



1

98

7



  

  

  



  

  

   



 *

   


   

  

   



  

Contributions to the theory of economic gr

owth.

Robert M. Solow



See explanatory notes, if any

, and SOURCE at end of table.

Page 11 of 12


A–12

 ࡗ

Appendix Tables



Appendix table 1-1.

Nobel Prize awar

ds:  1950



99

NSF


Y

ear


Funding

Ef

fort for which Nobel Prize awar



ded:

                                      Laur

eate(s)

Economics, continued



1988

Pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and ef

ficient utilization of r

esour


ces.

Maurice Allais

1989

Clarification of the pr



obability theory foundations of econometrics and analyses of simultaneous

T

rygve Haavelmo



economic structur

es.


1990

*

Pioneering work in the theory of financial economics.



Harry M. Markowitz; Merton H. Miller;

William F

. Sharpe

1991


Discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and pr

operty rights for the

Ronald H. Coase

institutional structur

e and functioning of the economy

.

19



92

   


    

   


   

 *

  



  

   


  

  

  



Extension of the domain of micr

oeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behavior and

Gary S. Becker

interaction, including nonmarket behavior

.

1993


*

Renewal of r

esear

ch in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative



Robert W

. Fogel; Douglass C. North

methods in or

der to explain economic and institutional change.

1994

*

Pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of noncooperative games.



John C. Harsanyi; John F

. Nash;


Reinhar

d Selten


1995

*

Development and application of the hypothesis of rational expectations, which have



Robert E. Lucas, Jr

.

transformed macr



oeconomic analysis and deepened understanding of economic policy

.

1996



Fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information.

James A. Mirrlees; William V

ickr

ey

1997



*

New method to determine the value of derivatives.

Robert C. Merton; Myr

on S. Scholes

199

8

   



   

   


   

   


*   

   


  

  

  



C

ontributions to welfar

e economics.

Amartya Sen

1999

Analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under dif



fer

ent exchange rate r

egimes and analysis

Robert A. Mundell

of optimum curr

ency ar


eas.

 * = Funded by NSF befor

e r

eceiving Nobel Prize; ** = Funded by NSF after r



eceiving Nobel Prize

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resour

ces Studies (NSF/SRS) and Of

fice of Legislative and Public Af

fairs (NSF/OLP

A), unpublished tabulations, 1999,

and 

«

http://www



.nobel.se/enm-index.html

»

See page 1-29 in V



olume 1.

Page 12 of 12



Science & Engineering Indicators 



 2000


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