Northern Bobwhite Quail


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Northern Bobwhite Quail

  • Northern Bobwhite Quail

  • Scaled Quail

  • Gambel’s Quail

  • Montezuma Quail

  • Eastern Wild Turkey

  • Rio Grande Wild Turkey

  • Lesser Prairie Chicken

  • Plain Chachalaca

  • Ring-Neck Pheasant



Post popular and abundant quail in Texas

  • Post popular and abundant quail in Texas

  • Adults-10 to 11 inches in length

  • Wingspan-14 to 15 inches

  • Weight-5 to 6 ounces

  • Habitat – mixed brush &

  • grasslands

  • Range – most of Texas



Wide-ranging

  • Wide-ranging

  • Prefers abandoned farms fields, brushy cover

  • Widely hunted

  • Life expectancy >1 year



Usually form a weak pairing bond

  • Usually form a weak pairing bond

  • Hens not always faithful to roosters and vice versa.

  • Rooster or Hen can incubate eggs-not shared

  • The parent not incubating will leave the nest in search of another mate

  • Hens can nest up to three times



Begins about 2 weeks after pairing and may last until August

  • Begins about 2 weeks after pairing and may last until August

  • Most nesting occurs through May and early June

  • About 12-15 eggs per clutch

  • Incubation about 21-23 days



Young leave nest as soon as down dries and after a couple weeks they began to fly around

  • Young leave nest as soon as down dries and after a couple weeks they began to fly around

  • Quail mature from 14-16 weeks of age and stay in coveys until April when they pair off for mating



High Mortality Rate

  • High Mortality Rate

    • 70-80 percent turnover annually is not uncommon
    • Causes-food shortage, cold, weather, predators, disease
    • Fire ants have been blamed for high mortality rates
  • Life span 4-5 yrs but expectancy is less than 1



Food, Cover and Space

  • Food, Cover and Space

  • Food-about 15% animal matter and 85% plant matter

  • Predominantly insects-beetles, weevils, caterpillars, and crickets

  • Young feed exclusively on insects



Plant matter

  • Plant matter

    • Seeds, fruits, but some green vegetation is consumed.
    • Smooth, hard seed-croton, ragweed, and partridge pea
    • Agricultural crops such as: corn, grain sorghum, legumes, soybeans, and other small grains


Edge animals and also prefer early stage vegetation

  • Edge animals and also prefer early stage vegetation

  • They occupy idle fields, open woodland, crop fields that have weedy edges, and some pastures

  • Necessary requirements-loafing, escape, and protective cover near dusting and feeding areas



Resting cover utilized in the day periodically between feeding

  • Resting cover utilized in the day periodically between feeding

  • Low growing woody plants provide resting cover away from predators such as Hawks and need not be more than 200 to 300 feet apart

  • Nest location is near edge of rough grass

  • Fence rows are favorites amongst quail

    • Problem for quail


Escape cover-shrub thickets needed on about every 15 acres

  • Escape cover-shrub thickets needed on about every 15 acres

  • Roosting cover-needs too provide warmth at ground level but not restrict flight

  • Birds roost in a circle, their heads look outwards and tails are positioned inward



Water is typically not a factor when dealing with quail management

  • Water is typically not a factor when dealing with quail management

  • Usually obtain water through food or dew on plants

  • However, some present day managers are constructing watersheds or trickle systems to attract soft bodied insects for quail consumption



The range of a covey is generally confined to ¼ square mile and seldom exceeds a full square mile.

  • The range of a covey is generally confined to ¼ square mile and seldom exceeds a full square mile.

  • The closer together Food, Cover, and Water the smaller the home range

  • Proper management can result in maximum carrying capacities of >3 per acre



Needs can be met with range management practices

  • Needs can be met with range management practices

  • Grazing management will likely be need to maintain low growing weeds and brush

  • Brush management must be used as well because quail are not adapted to dense stands of brush

  • Burning is one possible answer to this problem and will also promote new growth



Regardless of hunted or non hunted lands, theses areas still display the same mortality rate of 70-80%

  • Regardless of hunted or non hunted lands, theses areas still display the same mortality rate of 70-80%

  • These numbers fluctuate widely due to the simple fact that quail are so sensitive to their environment

  • Hunting of these birds takes place to cull “surplus” birds that would otherwise be lost during the cold winter season



Leave crop residue on surface rather than disking, will allows the plants to leave grain on the surface during the fall and winter when food for quail is scarce

  • Leave crop residue on surface rather than disking, will allows the plants to leave grain on the surface during the fall and winter when food for quail is scarce

  • Delay mowing around the edges of fields until mid summer to prevent nest disturbance

  • Leave fence row, with only occasional thinning

  • Prescribe Burning-promote new growth



Common names-Blue Quail and Cotton top

  • Common names-Blue Quail and Cotton top

  • Two sub species in Texas-Arizona form and the Chestnut-bellied

  • Arizona form inhabits-Trans-Pecos, West Central, and Panhandle

  • Chestnut form inhabits-South Texas

  • Coloration and markings similar but Chestnut is darker with a chestnut colored belly patch, and Scaled quail are only slightly larger than bob whites



Habitat Western 1/3rd of Texas

  • Habitat Western 1/3rd of Texas

  • Known to run from danger

  • Different flight patterns than Bobwhite Quail





Dry brushy rangelands-they need open space to run quickly

  • Dry brushy rangelands-they need open space to run quickly

  • Seldom fly unless pressured

  • Nest in clumps of grass or bushes

  • Clutch size of about 12

  • Incubation period is about 21 days

  • Incubation fluctuates due to rainfall



Mostly seeds, but will eat insects

  • Mostly seeds, but will eat insects

  • Croton, mesquite, bristle grass, and millets

  • Frequently eat grass hoppers, beetles, and other insects of similar form

  • Available water is limiting factor



Occur in arid rangelands of Texas with limited livestock carrying capacities

  • Occur in arid rangelands of Texas with limited livestock carrying capacities

  • Prescribed burning to control junipers

  • Disking, food plots, and cover are not typically constructed for these birds due to unreliable rainfall

  • These quail are adapted to natural rangelands



Homeland-Extreme West Texas

  • Homeland-Extreme West Texas

  • Dry desert-like shrub lands

  • Black belly patch

  • Black face bordered with white strips

  • Teardrop-shaped topknot near front of the head

  • Has a three slurred call





Average length is 11 inches with a wingspan of 14-16 inches.

  • Average length is 11 inches with a wingspan of 14-16 inches.

  • Diet consists primarily of plant matter & seeds.

  • Primarily move about by walking, and can move surprisingly fast through brush and undergrowth.



They are a non-migratory species and are rarely seen in flight.

  • They are a non-migratory species and are rarely seen in flight.

  • Any flight is usually short and explosive, with many rapid wingbeats followed by a slow glide to the ground.

  • These birds have relatively short, rounded wings and long, featherless legs.



In the late summer, fall and winter, the adults and immature young congregate into coveys of many birds.

  • In the late summer, fall and winter, the adults and immature young congregate into coveys of many birds.

  • In the spring, they pair off for mating and become very aggressive toward other pairs.

  • Chicks more insectivorous than adults and gradually consume more plant matter as they mature.



Monogamous and rarely breed in colonies.

  • Monogamous and rarely breed in colonies.

  • Female typically lays 10-15 eggs in a simple scrape concealed in vegetation, often at the base of a rock or tree.

  • Incubation lasts from 21-24 days, usually performed by the female and rarely by the male.



Chicks are precocial leaving the nest within hours of hatching.

  • Chicks are precocial leaving the nest within hours of hatching.

  • Precocial - young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching.



No open hunting season

  • No open hunting season

  • Also called the Montezuma quail

  • Lives in far West Texas

  • Striking harlequin / clowns face color pattern



Sometimes confused with the African Harlequin

  • Sometimes confused with the African Harlequin

  • Nesting does not start till July or August, the season of "monsoon" rains throughout its range.

  • The long delay between pairing and nesting is unusual for quails.



The nest is also unusual: a grass dome with one entrance, more elaborate than most nests in the family.

  • The nest is also unusual: a grass dome with one entrance, more elaborate than most nests in the family.

  • The clutch comprises about 11 eggs (ranging from 6 to 12), which are "whitish or chalky”

  • Incubation lasts about 25 days (two days longer than that of most American quail).



Two main subspecies found in Texas

  • Two main subspecies found in Texas

    • Eastern Turkey
    • Rio Grande Turkey


Found in deciduous or pine forests of east Texas

  • Found in deciduous or pine forests of east Texas

  • Range is expanding with TPWD and Wild Turkey Federation efforts



Lighter color than Easter Turkey

  • Lighter color than Easter Turkey

  • Inhabits riparian areas and mesquite and scrub oak forests

  • Widely range across Texas except East Texas and far West texas



Largest game bird native to US forests

  • Largest game bird native to US forests

  • Adapt to running and flying;

  • They do not fly very long distances

  • Rio Grande is most abundant and largely distributed, occupying a 400 mile east to west band in the central part of Texas

  • The Eastern Wild Turkey lives in humid forests of east Texas



Wild Turkeys were found every before the European immigrants settled in the states

  • Wild Turkeys were found every before the European immigrants settled in the states

  • Thorough land clearing and extensive hunting almost eradicated these birds from the eastern forests in the early 1900’s

  • Restoration programs within the last 10 years are on the rise and the future looks bright for the Turkey



Large, long-legged bird, but trimmer than the domestic turkey

  • Large, long-legged bird, but trimmer than the domestic turkey

  • Gobblers (adult males) weigh between 12 and 20 pounds and have spurs on their legs, beards, and dark iridescent plumage on their breast.

  • Hens (Females) weigh anywhere from 8-12 pounds and are less iridescent. They may have a smaller beard or may not have one at all



Prefer walking rather than flying

  • Prefer walking rather than flying

  • Can run up to 15 mph and can fly up to 40 mph if necessary

  • Tracks

    • Gobblers are larger than hens
    • Droppings-gobblers are larger and more elongated
    • Hens droppings are spiral and resemble popcorn


Turkey are promiscuous

  • Turkey are promiscuous

  • Mating begins in the spring, but gobbler does not establish a strict territory, but drives other Toms out of “his territory”

  • Gobbler’s strut, to announce their local superiority and simultaneously attracting his harem (3-10 hens) per gobbler.

  • Each female breeds only once each spring, and will isolate her self from to tend to her clutch



Nests are constructed on the ground and are made of leaves, straws, and grass -- Built on top of tall grasses and vegetation

  • Nests are constructed on the ground and are made of leaves, straws, and grass -- Built on top of tall grasses and vegetation

  • Clutch is 8-26 eggs and takes 28 days of incubation for hatching -- If interrupted re-nesting is almost always unsuccessful

  • Once all are hatched, they are led away by the hen

  • Poults begin roosting in trees at just two weeks and can fly at just 10 days

  • Predation is high during this period



Turkeys are opportunistic feeders

  • Turkeys are opportunistic feeders

  • In spring main food sources are green grasses, forbs, buds, flowers, seed and insects

  • Poult diets during the first two weeks is 90% insects

  • Fall and Winter feeds include; seed, green grasses, forb shoots, acorns, and agricultural crops



Roosting sites require mature timber and shelter from bad weather

  • Roosting sites require mature timber and shelter from bad weather

  • Escape Cover-big brush, timer stands, dense grassy fields, and thickets

  • Ideal cover is a diversity of mixed timber and openings.

  • Turkeys need the timber for roosting and to conceal AND openings for feeding are also needed.



Turkey must have water daily, but for short terms can obtain water from plants and insects.

  • Turkey must have water daily, but for short terms can obtain water from plants and insects.

  • Prefer to roost near water sources

  • Proper nesting space should have running water within 400 feet of the nest



The yearly range of Turkey is usually 8-10 miles, from winter roost sites to summer nesting sites (about 20,000 acres)

  • The yearly range of Turkey is usually 8-10 miles, from winter roost sites to summer nesting sites (about 20,000 acres)

  • Birds are extremely sensitive to human disturbances, and they should not be hunted or tampered with within a quarter mile of their roost or nest



The biggest problem with Turkey is that they move around so much.

  • The biggest problem with Turkey is that they move around so much.

  • Landowners can make conditions favorable so that turkey are more likely to come to the area and stay there longer

  • Range characteristics such as size, shape, plant species composition and density affect turkey habitat



Maintaining openings will enhance turkey habitat.

  • Maintaining openings will enhance turkey habitat.

  • This area needs to contain 10-50 percent openings scattered around.

  • These need to be less than 20 acres and should be shaped for maximum edge effect to limit long movements of hens with broods



Supplemental food planting and watering sites enhance turkey habitat.

  • Supplemental food planting and watering sites enhance turkey habitat.

  • Plantings need to simulate natural food in order to draw Turkeys in to a foreign area

  • Legume planting is great for birds in the winter and spring, and small grain crops in the summer



Several soil and water conservation practices that can benefit Turkey

  • Several soil and water conservation practices that can benefit Turkey

  • Proper Grazing

  • Brush Management

  • Prescribed Burning

  • Protecting certain trees and shrubs



Upland, grassland-nesting bird found in Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Texas.

  • Upland, grassland-nesting bird found in Kansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, New Mexico and Texas.

  • Best know for courtship displays and “gobbling”grounds

  • Highly social animal





Native rangeland in different stages of plant succession with a diversity of native, short- to mid-height grasses and forbs interspersed with low-growing shrubby cover

  • Native rangeland in different stages of plant succession with a diversity of native, short- to mid-height grasses and forbs interspersed with low-growing shrubby cover

  • Sand sagebrush communities dominated by sand dropseed side oats grama, little bluestem and shinnery oak make up the most preferred habitat



Display grounds, or leks, are established in open areas of low-growing vegetation and generally are located within or close to grassland nesting cover.

  • Display grounds, or leks, are established in open areas of low-growing vegetation and generally are located within or close to grassland nesting cover.

  • Adequate cover is among the greatest factors affecting lesser prairie-chicken populations, and the continued loss of shrub/grassland habitat remains the greatest threat to the lesser prairie chicken’s future.

  • See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JHuYt_Wx9yQ



Diet consists of insects, seeds, and leaves, catkins, and buds of forbs (broad-leaved plants) and cultivated crops.

  • Diet consists of insects, seeds, and leaves, catkins, and buds of forbs (broad-leaved plants) and cultivated crops.

  • Juveniles less than 10 weeks old feed primarily on insects such as short-and long-horned grasshoppers and beetles

  • Leafhoppers and other smaller insects are eaten in the initial weeks following hatching.



Insects make up more than half of the spring and summer diet of adult lesser prairie-chickens.

  • Insects make up more than half of the spring and summer diet of adult lesser prairie-chickens.

  • Sand sage leaves and buds and various forbs are consumed in spring and summer as well.

  • Seeds are primary foods in autumn, supplemented with vegetative matter and insects.

  • Shinnery oak acorns, sage leaves, wild buckwheat, rye and seeds from native wild plants, fruits, and flowers are eaten in winter months.

  • Corn, oats, wheat, rye, grain sorghum, and other small grain crops left as waste grain after harvest, or left standing as a food plot.



Live in deep South Texas-near Rio Grande River

  • Live in deep South Texas-near Rio Grande River

  • Large chicken-like, dark greenish to brown bird

  • Light pink skin on throat

  • Long green tail

  • Lives in thickets, or dense vegetation





Chicken-like bird

  • Chicken-like bird

  • Weighs 2-3 pounds

  • Male’s plumage is bright browns, gold colorss, buffs, blues, and blacks with a greenish-purple iridescence around the head and neck and bright red wattles and eye patch,

    • Male has distinctive white ring around neck
  • Tail-long sweeping and pointed





Ancestry in the U.S. is a mixture of Chinese, Korean, and Manchurian birds

  • Ancestry in the U.S. is a mixture of Chinese, Korean, and Manchurian birds

  • Exotic, introduced into in the 1790’s

  • Early introductions were unsuccessful

  • First succeeded in Oregon in 1881 and made its way south in 1939 to the Texas Panhandle and to the Texas Gulf Coast in the 1970’s



These birds have established in croplands where grain crops are grown-sorghum, corn, and other small grains

  • These birds have established in croplands where grain crops are grown-sorghum, corn, and other small grains

  • Well adapted to irrigated crops



The mating season in the state of Texas occurs in April with the peak hatching season in generally mid June

  • The mating season in the state of Texas occurs in April with the peak hatching season in generally mid June

  • Clutch sizes vary between 12-15 eggs and incubation roughly requires 23 days

  • Hens produce only one brood per year, but may re-nest if eggs get destroyed early

  • Do not form a pair bond, the males will establish territories



65-75% of fall population will not live to see the hunting season the following year

  • 65-75% of fall population will not live to see the hunting season the following year

  • Playas and small grains are crucial for the nesting hens

  • Alfalfa is a favorite for nesting hens, but they will make do with what is available

  • Wheat is a disadvantage because harvest time conflicts with nesting

  • Planting alfalfa grass mixtures in 10 acre segments within 200 yards of a playa is beneficial



Pheasants are primarily seed eaters

  • Pheasants are primarily seed eaters

    • Corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, and soybeans make up a large percentage of a pheasant’s diet
    • Will feed on insects when they are available and seeds are scarce
    • Chicks diet consist largely of insects
    • Gravel and Calcium-snail shells-are vital during breeding and egg laying


Require several cover types

  • Require several cover types

    • Loafing cover, travel lanes, roosting cover, nesting cover, and winter cover
    • Nesting and winter cover are the most crucial
    • Need protection from the elements in the harsh winter months
    • Weeds, Fencerows, and Windbreaks provide this structural cover


Water is not crucial when looking at a management perspective

  • Water is not crucial when looking at a management perspective

  • Birds eat soft bodied, water containing insects

  • Usually associated with plenty of irrigated croplands to meet their water requirements



Free roaming bird

  • Free roaming bird

  • If there is adequate food and cover throughout the year, this birds have been known to stay within less than one square mile.

  • This will vary from season to season depending on rainfall and irrigation



After the harvest of grain crops these birds are left with a sufficient food source on the ground to last a population through the winter months

  • After the harvest of grain crops these birds are left with a sufficient food source on the ground to last a population through the winter months

  • This only holds true if waste grains are not plowed under but left on the soil after harvest



A good nesting year with good weather conditions will typically produce 8-10 chicks

  • A good nesting year with good weather conditions will typically produce 8-10 chicks

  • 75% of the fall population will not make it through one year.

    • Starvation, predation, accidents, and winter conditions will most likely account for this turnover
    • Hunting makes little or no impact on this mortality rate, hunters are harvest birds that would be culled


Mourning Dove

  • Mourning Dove

  • White-Winged Dove

  • White-Tipped (White-fronted)

  • Rock Doves (Pigeons)

  • American Woodcock



Pigeon-like bird

  • Pigeon-like bird

  • Varies from 11-13 inches in length

  • Weighs three and a half to five ounces

  • Wings bordered with white spots and are five and a half to seven inches long.

  • Long neck and small head





Males more brightly colored

  • Males more brightly colored

  • Difficult to distinguish between the sexes

  • Bare skin around the eyes is bluish, and the iris is dark brown

  • Slender bill, small and black

  • Legs and feet are red

  • Females and juveniles are slightly smaller and have duller colors



Mourning Dove is a native species

  • Mourning Dove is a native species

  • Has the largest range of all North America’s game birds, from Canada to the Bahamas.

  • Usually winters in California to Georgia, south to Panama, and can be in Alaska and Greenland in the summer



Start migrating in September, after nesting is completed and possibly October along the Gulf Coast

  • Start migrating in September, after nesting is completed and possibly October along the Gulf Coast

  • Migration is a leisurely process

  • Roost at night in trees and rest in the middle of the day

  • Most flying occurs early morning and late afternoon

  • Average 15 miles a day and migration is normally completed by December



Dove do not have an exact territory, except when they are nesting

  • Dove do not have an exact territory, except when they are nesting

  • Their roosting cover and availability of food determine their range

  • Move constantly in search of food



Mourning Dove are monogamous and both the female and male will incubate the eggs

  • Mourning Dove are monogamous and both the female and male will incubate the eggs

  • In the north mating will occur in January and February and in the north as late as March and April

  • The males selects nest site and protects it by cooing, flying and pecking

  • The pressure by other males can be intense



Dove will pair off to nest, but will gather in flocks after nesting

  • Dove will pair off to nest, but will gather in flocks after nesting

  • Sometimes groups of 20 will migrate together, but this is often subject to change along the way

  • There appears to be no social conflict between the sexes and juveniles at this point



Dove females are attracted to males by the cooing that the males produce

  • Dove females are attracted to males by the cooing that the males produce

  • This main “cooing” courtship shown by males and it most heard at dawn and late afternoon

  • The female can “coo” too, but the coos are very quite and seldom heard



The male always picks the nesting site and will bring twigs and branches to compete the nest once he finds a companion

  • The male always picks the nesting site and will bring twigs and branches to compete the nest once he finds a companion

  • The female will perform the construction of the nest

  • The first egg is laid, followed the second one two days later

  • Eggs are elliptical-oval, pure white, and are between 21millimeters and 28 millimeters

  • Usually two to five periods of nesting per pair.



Nest are constructed in trees but will not be used until there are leaves in the tree

  • Nest are constructed in trees but will not be used until there are leaves in the tree

  • In some circumstances such as lack of trees or crowding, doves are forced to nest on the ground

  • Most nest are within 5-25 ft off the ground

  • Same sites are used year after year, and also the same location in the tree is typically used

  • May also use the nest of other birds



Incubation last 14-15 days

  • Incubation last 14-15 days

  • Both sexes participate

  • Male sits during daytime and female at night

  • Dove are altricial (young are helpless at hatching and require parental care for a while)

  • Glandular secretion (pigeon milk) from both parent crop-only food young receive while in the nest



The broods are raised about a month

  • The broods are raised about a month

  • Within a week of laying nest, parents either lay another clutch or start their migration

  • Juveniles continue to grow and complete feathering after a couple of weeks after leaving the nest

  • After this they gather in flocks and start migrate, generally before the mature birds, and they do not breed the first year



Hunting of dove generally takes about 30-35% of the population annually

  • Hunting of dove generally takes about 30-35% of the population annually

  • There is also predation, accidents, starvation, disease, and parasites

  • Most predation is accounted for in the nesting stage



Diet consist of seeds of native grasses, cultivated grains, and forbs-croton and sunflower

  • Diet consist of seeds of native grasses, cultivated grains, and forbs-croton and sunflower

  • Insects are a small portion of the diet

  • Gravel or some form of Grit is needed for digestion to break down food



One of the most adaptable species because of its wide home range

  • One of the most adaptable species because of its wide home range

  • Do not inhabit-forest, plains, marshes or prairies

  • Doves prefer to feed on ground vegetation is sparse versus dense grasses

  • Agricultural fields and brush and trees are ideal cover for birds, even urban areas



Water is crucial for birds during the nesting season and you will often find them close to a water source, although they can obtain some water from plants

  • Water is crucial for birds during the nesting season and you will often find them close to a water source, although they can obtain some water from plants

  • Besides the nesting period - water is seldom a limiting factor due to the fact that these birds seem to always be on the move find new places



It is hard to manage Dove because they are migratory birds that are always on the move, but areas can be made desirable in order to attract them

  • It is hard to manage Dove because they are migratory birds that are always on the move, but areas can be made desirable in order to attract them

  • Dove will not feed in dense grasses

  • Disking is great because it encourages natural weeds to grow

  • Planting wheat and sunflower are beneficial



Hunting is one of the biggest population controls on these birds

  • Hunting is one of the biggest population controls on these birds

  • If mortality is 50% or less, then next years breeding population will increase

  • If mortality is 70% or more, it will decrease

  • Texas Parks and Wildlife monitors bird numbers and sets regulations for each hunting year



Similar in appearance to the Mourning Dove

  • Similar in appearance to the Mourning Dove

  • Large white wing-bands

  • Rounded, white-cornered tail



Important game bird in the Lower Rio Grand Valley

  • Important game bird in the Lower Rio Grand Valley

  • Feeding habitats similar to morning dove

  • Prefer older more established residential neighborhoods with large live oak, pecans and ashe trees

  • Range and numbers are increasing



Prefer large shade trees

  • Prefer large shade trees

  • Expanding range into urban areas

  • Food – similar to Mourning Dove

    • Will eat nectar, pollen and cactus fruits
    • Will ingest small stones for digestion
    • Prefers snail shells or bone fragments which provide calcium


Both sexes build nest

  • Both sexes build nest

  • Female selects nesting site – often nesting in groups with other White-wings

  • Male brings materials for nest building and assists female in building process



Will lure predators away from nest with “broken wing”

  • Will lure predators away from nest with “broken wing”

  • Largely gregarious and move in groups

  • May be effected by pesticide residues or contamination from fungal toxins in grain



White-Tipped (White-fronted)

  • White-Tipped (White-fronted)

  • Rock Doves (Pigeons)

  • American Woodcock



Very similar to White-winged dove

  • Very similar to White-winged dove

  • Flies low to ground

  • Suited for citrus groves

  • Range is lower part of Texas



Introduced to North America in 1600’s

  • Introduced to North America in 1600’s

  • Wide range

  • Urban and Rural

  • Up to 5 broods per year

  • Non-migratory



Shorebird that lives in forests

  • Shorebird that lives in forests

  • Eats earthworms

  • Range woods of central and East Texas

  • Similar to Wilson’s snipe



Sometimes pen raised and released for hunting in Texas

  • Sometimes pen raised and released for hunting in Texas

  • Common mid-west US



Coloration serves as a camouflage

  • Coloration serves as a camouflage

    • Mixture of browns, blacks, whites, and grays
  • Have ruffs on neck

  • Have crest on top of head



Prairie Chicken

  • Prairie Chicken

  • Band-tailed Pigeon

  • Greater Road Runner

  • Mockingbird

  • Blue Jay

  • Northern Cardinal

  • American Robin



A.K.A. Lesser Prairie Chicken

  • A.K.A. Lesser Prairie Chicken

  • Brownish in color with brown bars on topside of body, neck, breast, and belly

  • Long wing-like tufts of feathers on sides of neck

  • Males have inflatable dull red air sacs on side of neck



Large, migratory dove

  • Large, migratory dove

  • Plump, small-headed

  • Slender

  • Black-tipped feathers

  • Yellow beaks



Large

  • Large

  • Shaggy-crested

  • Long-necked

  • Short, rounded wings

  • White crescent shows when they fly, however they normally run



Grey colored feathers on back

  • Grey colored feathers on back

  • White underside

  • Large white wing patches

  • Outer tail feathers that are white



Large, bight blue bird

  • Large, bight blue bird

  • Whitish underparts

  • Conspicuous crest



Males are bright red with black throats

  • Males are bright red with black throats

  • Conspicuous crown

  • Beaks are conical and red-colored



Large Thrush

  • Large Thrush

  • Reddish / Orange breast

  • Males have a blackish-gray back and wings

  • Lower belly and throat are white






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