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A Joint Report by
the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency
and the International Atomic Energy Agency
Uranium 2001:
Resources, Production
and Demand
NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY
ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT
Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into force on
30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policies
designed:

 
to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in
Member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the
world economy;

 
to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as non-member countries in the process of
economic development; and

 
to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with
international obligations.
The original Member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United
Kingdom and the United States. The following countries became Members subsequently through accession at the dates
indicated hereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969), Australia (7th June 1971), New Zealand (29th
May 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994), the Czech Republic (21st December 1995), Hungary (7th May 1996), Poland (22nd
November 1996), Korea (12th December 1996) and the Slovak Republic (14 December 2000). The Commission of the
European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of the OECD Convention).
NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) was established on 1st February 1958 under the name of the OEEC
European Nuclear Energy Agency. It received its present designation on 20th April 1972, when Japan became its first
non-European full Member. NEA membership today consists of 28 OECD Member countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium,
Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,
Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the
United Kingdom and the United States. The Commission of the European Communities also takes part in the work of the
Agency.
The mission of the NEA is:

 
to assist its Member countries in maintaining and further developing, through international co-operation, the
scientific, technological and legal bases required for a safe, environmentally friendly and economical use of
nuclear energy for peaceful purposes, as well as

 
to provide authoritative assessments and to forge common understandings on key issues, as input to
government decisions on nuclear energy policy and to broader OECD policy analyses in areas such as energy
and sustainable development.
Specific areas of competence of the NEA include safety and regulation of nuclear activities, radioactive waste
management, radiological protection, nuclear science, economic and technical analyses of the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear law
and liability, and public information. The NEA Data Bank provides nuclear data and computer program services for
participating countries.
In these and related tasks, the NEA works in close collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency in
Vienna, with which it has a Co-operation Agreement, as well as with other international organisations in the nuclear field.
Cover photos: Courtesy of CAMECO Corporation, Canada.
©
 
OECD 2002
Permission to reproduce a portion of this work for non-commercial purposes or classroom use should be obtained through the Centre
français d’exploitation du droit de copie (CCF), 20, rue des Grands-Augustins, 75006 Paris, France, Tel. (33-1) 44 07 47 70, Fax (33-1) 46
34 67 19, for every country except the United States. In the United States permission should be obtained through the Copyright Clearance
Center, Customer Service, (508)750-8400, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA, or CCC Online: http://www.copyright.com/.
All other applications for permission to reproduce or translate all or part of this book should be made to OECD Publications, 2, rue
André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France.

3
PREFACE
Since the mid-1960s, with the co-operation of their Member countries and states, the OECD
Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have jointly
prepared periodical updates (currently every two years) on world uranium resources, production and
demand. These updates have been published by the OECD/NEA in what is commonly known as the
“Red Book”. This 19
th
 edition of the Red Book replaces the 1999 edition and reflects information
available as of 1 January 2001.
The Red Book offers a comprehensive assessment of the uranium supply and demand situation
worldwide up to the year 2020. It includes information and data on uranium resources in several
categories of existence and economic attractiveness, uranium exploration and production,
environmental aspects, installed nuclear capacity and related uranium requirements, uranium stocks
and relevant uranium policies. Long-term projections of uranium demand, based on expert opinion
rather than on information submitted by national authorities, are qualitatively discussed. Detailed
national reports are also provided.
This publication has been prepared on the basis of data obtained through questionnaires sent by
the NEA to its Member countries (20 countries responded) and by the IAEA for those states that are
not OECD Member countries (27 countries responded). The opinions expressed in Parts I and II do not
necessarily reflect the position of the countries or international organisations concerned. This report is
published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.
Acknowledgement
The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Paris, and the International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA), Vienna, would like to acknowledge the co-operation of those organisations (see Annex 2),
which replied to the questionnaire.

5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...................................................................................................................
9
DEFINITIONS AND TERMINOLOGY .............................................................................................
13
I.
 
URANIUM SUPPLY ....................................................................................................................
21
A.
 
Uranium resources..................................................................................................................
21

 
Known conventional resources .................................................................................
21

 
Distribution of known conventional resources by categories and cost ranges..........
24

 
Availability of resources ...........................................................................................
24

 
Undiscovered conventional resources.......................................................................
26

 
Unconventional resources and other materials .........................................................
28

 
Uranium resources and sustainability .......................................................................
28
B.
 
Uranium exploration...............................................................................................................
29

 
Current activities and recent developments ..............................................................
29
C.
 
Uranium production................................................................................................................
33

 
Present status of uranium production........................................................................
34

 
Production techniques...............................................................................................
35

 
Projected production capabilities..............................................................................
42

 
Changes in production facilities ...............................................................................
43
D.
 
Environmental activities and socio-cultural issues................................................................
45
II. URANIUM DEMAND..................................................................................................................
49
A.
 
Current nuclear generating capacity programmes and commercial reactor-related
uranium requirements.............................................................................................................
49
B.
 
Projected nuclear power growth and related uranium requirements.....................................
56
C.
 
Uranium supply and demand relationships............................................................................
58

 
Secondary sources of supply .........................................................................................
59

 
Uranium market developments......................................................................................
65

 
Outlook to 2020 .............................................................................................................
68

 
Analysis of uranium supply to 2050..............................................................................
69
D.
 
The impact of recent developments on the long-term perspective........................................
74

6
III. NATIONAL REPORTS ON URANIUM EXPLORATION, RESOURCES,
PRODUCTION, DEMAND AND THE ENVIRONMENT........................................................
79
Algeria ............................................................................................................................................
80
Argentina ........................................................................................................................................
81
Armenia ..........................................................................................................................................
89
Australia .........................................................................................................................................
90
Belgium ..........................................................................................................................................
110
Brazil ..............................................................................................................................................
113
Canada ............................................................................................................................................
121
Chile................................................................................................................................................
134
China...............................................................................................................................................
138
Czech Republic ..............................................................................................................................
144
Finland............................................................................................................................................
154
France .............................................................................................................................................
159
Gabon .............................................................................................................................................
168
Germany .........................................................................................................................................
170
Hungary ..........................................................................................................................................
175
India ................................................................................................................................................
180
Indonesia ........................................................................................................................................
189
Iran, Islamic Republic of................................................................................................................
192
Japan ...............................................................................................................................................
194
Jordan .............................................................................................................................................
197
Kazakhstan .....................................................................................................................................
199
Korea, Republic of .........................................................................................................................
209
Kyrgyzstan......................................................................................................................................
211
Lithuania.........................................................................................................................................
212
Malaysia .........................................................................................................................................
214
Namibia ..........................................................................................................................................
215
Netherlands.....................................................................................................................................
221
Niger ...............................................................................................................................................
222
Philippines ......................................................................................................................................
226
Poland .............................................................................................................................................
228
Portugal...........................................................................................................................................
230
Romania..........................................................................................................................................
236
Russian Federation .........................................................................................................................
243
Slovak Republic .............................................................................................................................
250
Slovenia ..........................................................................................................................................
252
South Africa ...................................................................................................................................
255
Spain ...............................................................................................................................................
263
Sweden ...........................................................................................................................................
268
Switzerland.....................................................................................................................................
271
Tajikistan ........................................................................................................................................
273
Thailand..........................................................................................................................................
275
Turkey.............................................................................................................................................
276
Ukraine ...........................................................................................................................................
278
United Kingdom.............................................................................................................................
287
United States ..................................................................................................................................
292
Uzbekistan ......................................................................................................................................
313
Viet Nam ........................................................................................................................................
323

7
ANNEXES
1.
Members of the Joint NEA-IAEA Uranium Group and contributors to the publication.............
327
2.
List of reporting organisations.......................................................................................................
330
3.
Geologic types of uranium deposits ..............................................................................................
333
4.
Index of national reports in Red Books 1965-2001 ......................................................................
336
5.
Energy conversion factors..............................................................................................................
341
6.
Currency exchange rates ................................................................................................................
344
7.
Grouping of countries and areas with uranium-related activities .................................................
346
8.
Technical Acronyms ......................................................................................................................
348

9
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Uranium 2001 – Resources, Production and Demand, presents results of the 2001 review of
world uranium supply and demand and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry as
of 1 January 2001. This is the 19
th
 edition of what has become known as the “Red Book”, which first
appeared in 1965. It contains official data provided by 45 countries along with unofficial data for two
countries on uranium exploration activities, resources, production and reactor-related requirements.
For the first time, a report for Tajikistan is included. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and
reactor-related uranium requirements through 2020 are provided. In addition, a perspective on uranium
supply and demand through 2050 is presented.
Exploration
Worldwide exploration expenditures in 2000 totalled about USD 87 million, a decrease of over
50% from the recent high of over USD 178 million reached in 1997. Exploration was concentrated in
areas with potential for unconformity-related deposits and ISL-amenable sandstone deposits.
Exploration was largely focused in close proximity to known resources, with limited expenditures
being directed toward “grass roots” exploration. In addition, in 2000, over 95% of expenditures were
concentrated on domestic exploration, representing an over 84% decrease in exploration abroad
compared to 1997 levels. The decline in exploration spending is expected to continue in 2001 with
expenditures projected to total about USD 55 million, a 37% decrease from the 2000 total.
Resources
Total Known Conventional Resources (RAR & EAR-I) in both the 
”USD 80/kgU  (about
3 107 000 tonnes U) and 
”USD 130/kgU (about 3 933 000 tonnes U) categories were little changed in
2001 compared to their 1999 levels. However, Known Resources in the 
”USD 40/kgU increased by
about 66% compared to those reported in 1999, largely because Australia reported resources in this
cost category for the first time. Total Undiscovered Conventional Resources (EAR-II & Speculative
Resources) are estimated at about 12 271 000 tonnes U (tU) in 2001. There were no significant
changes in Undiscovered Resources among any of the countries reporting resources.
The fact that resource totals remained relatively unchanged between 1999 and 2001 suggests that
new discoveries or transfer of resources to higher confidence categories approximately kept pace with
production.
Production
Uranium production in 2000 totalled 36 112 tU compared to 32 179 tU in 1999, an increase of
about 12%. A total of 21 countries reported production in 2000 compared to 23 producing countries in
1998 with Argentina, Belgium and Gabon ceasing production and Brazil restarting production.
Australia and Kazakhstan had the most significant gains in production between 1998 and 2000, with
increases of about 55% and 47%, respectively. Conversely, the United States and Niger had the largest
decreases in output at about 16% and 22%, respectively. Production in 2001 is expected to increase

10
slightly compared to that in 2000. Production is planned to end in France and Portugal during 2001,
but this loss of capacity is expected to be offset by increased production elsewhere. In 2000,
underground mining accounted for 43% of total production; open pit mining, 28%; in situ leach
mining, 15%; with co-product and by-product recovery from copper and gold operations and other
unconventional methods accounting for most of the remaining 14%.
Environmental aspects of uranium production
The growing awareness of the importance of the environmental aspects of uranium production is
very apparent from the increasing number of countries reporting environmental-related cost
information and activities in their individual country reports. The reports mostly focus on
decommissioning and reclamation of inactive sites, though there is also information on ongoing
reclamation at active sites. Additional information on the environmental aspects of uranium
production can be found in a separate report produced by the joint NEA/IAEA Uranium Group titled
Environmental Remediation of World Uranium Production Facilities, Paris, OECD, 2002.
Uranium demand
At the end of 2000, a total of 438 commercial nuclear reactors were operating with a net
generating capacity of about 360 GWe with uranium requirements estimated at about 64 014 tU. The
world nuclear capacity is projected to grow in the high demand case to about 464 GWe net or to
slightly decline in the low case to about 334 GWe net by the year 2020. Accordingly, world reactor-
related uranium requirements are projected to rise in the high case to about 80 249 tU or to decrease in
the low case to about 58 010 tU by the year 2020.
Within these broad projections there is significant regional variation. Nuclear energy capacity and
attendant uranium requirements are expected to grow significantly in the Central, Eastern and South
East Europe region (increasing up to 97% in the high case); the East Asia region (80-90% increases
projected); and the Middle East, Central and South Asia region (113-394% increases projected). In the
Central and South America and African regions capacity and requirements are projected to remain
essentially unchanged in the low case or increase as much as 250% in the high case. Nuclear capacity
and requirements are expected to hold approximately steady or decline in North America and Western
Europe and Scandinavian regions. However, there is great uncertainty as to the projections in these
regions as there is ongoing debate on the magnitude of the future role of nuclear energy to meet energy
requirements.
Several factors, including a potential increased emphasis on plant security, security of supply and
the importance given in the future to the role of nuclear energy in the debate on global warming, may
likely have a significant impact on these projections. Concerns about longer-term security of supply of
fossil fuels and the heightened awareness that nuclear power plants are environmentally clean with
respect to acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions might contribute to even higher than projected
growth in uranium demand over the long-term.
Supply and demand relationship
At the end of 2000, world uranium production (36 112 tU) provided about 56% of world reactor
requirements (64 014 tU). The rest of the requirements were met by secondary sources including
civilian and military stockpiles, uranium reprocessing and re-enrichment of depleted uranium.
However, by 2025, secondary sources will decline in importance and provide only about 4-6% of
requirements, depending on the demand projections used.

11
The uranium market over the mid-term remains uncertain due to a lack of information on the
nature and extent of secondary supplies. The increasing availability of new supplies from the
conversion of warhead material, together with recent increases in commercial inventories, implies a
continuing oversupplied, low-priced market. It is expected that low production levels and the draw
down of civilian and military inventories may continue for several years. The low prices for uranium
have impacted the production sector resulting in consolidations, mine closures, and deferment of
investment and projects. Production and exploration are likely to remain low until sufficient evidence
exists that secondary supplies, particularly inventories, are being exhausted, or that significant new
requirements are emerging.
As currently projected, uranium production capabilities including existing, committed, planned
and prospective production centres supported by Known Conventional Resources (RAR and EAR-I)
recoverable at a cost of 
”USD 80/kgU cannot satisfy projected future world uranium requirements in
either the low or high demand cases. Thus, in the near-term, secondary sources, i.e. excess commercial
inventories, the expected delivery of LEU derived from HEU warheads, re-enrichment of tails and
spent fuel reprocessing, will continue to be necessary to ensure adequate supplies.
In the longer-term, when supplies from excess stockpiles are no longer available, reactor
requirements will need to be met through the expansion of existing production capacity, together with
the development of additional production centres or the introduction of alternate fuel cycles. However,
significant and sustained near-term increases in uranium market prices will be needed to stimulate
timely development of that resource base. Because of the long lead-times necessary to discover new
resources and develop new production capabilities, there exists the potential for uranium market
distortions to develop as secondary sources become exhausted. Significant new exploration and
development activities will likely be needed within the next two decades if adequate resources are to
remain available at stable prices. Improved information on the nature and extent of world uranium
inventories and other secondary sources will be necessary to permit the more accurate forecasting that
would permit timely production decisions.
Conclusions
World electricity use is expected to continue growing over the next several decades to meet the
needs of an increasing population and anticipated sustained economic growth. Nuclear electricity
generation will continue to play a significant role, although the magnitude of that role remains
uncertain.
Ultimately, the future of nuclear energy and, thus the demand for uranium will likely be
determined by the resolution of the tension between several major competing themes: the continued
growth in electricity demand, the competitiveness of nuclear energy in increasingly open electricity
markets, and the need to minimise impacts on the environment. If it can be demonstrated that nuclear
energy is clean, economically competitive, safe, and that acceptable solutions for wastes exist, then it
is likely that a period of strong growth in nuclear power will ensue. If that case cannot be made
satisfactorily then nuclear power will likely decline slowly in importance. Whichever path is taken the
total projected uranium resource base, including known and undiscovered resources, is adequate to
meet future requirements.

13


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