P. O. Box 909 Norwich, vt 05055

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Natural Resources Board

Districts #2&3 Environmental Commission

100 Mineral Street, Suite 305

Springfield, VT 05156-3168

802-885-8855 Telephone


802-885-8890 Fax

December 21, 2012

C.  Daniel Hershenson

Hershenson, Carter, Scott and McGee, P.C.

P.O. Box 909

Norwich, VT  05055 


Re: Jurisdictional Opinion #3-153, Land Use Permit #3W0613

       KVI Holdings, LLC - South Woodstock

Dear Mr. Hershenson:

This jurisdictional opinion is in response to your inquiry as to whether or not an Act 250

permit amendment is required for the construction of two paddle tennis courts at the

Kedron Valley Inn (“KVI”).  It is our opinion that this is a material change requiring an

amendment to the project’s Act 250 permit.  The information we have relied on includes

your various submissions, the Land Use Permit (“LUP”) #3W0613 series files, our joint

visit to a similar facility, a November 28, 2012, site visit by the Assistant District

Coordinator, Stephanie Gile, our telephone conversations and email correspondences

with you about the project, and data from the Natural Resources Atlas. 

In the process of forming this opinion, we relied on our understanding of the facts, as




KVI is located on approximately 10.85 acres at 4778 South Road in South

Woodstock.  KVI has been operating as an inn prior to the enactment of Act 250,

June 1, 1970.  Exhibit 1.


KVI came under Act 250 jurisdiction in 1989.   Act 250 LUP #3W0613 was issued

on May 26, 1989, for the installation of a 17-foot by 25-foot stone patio with an

awning and an increase in seating capacity for dining by 32 seats.  Condition

number 6 of the permit reads as follows:

6. No further subdivision or development of any parcels of land approved

herein shall be permitted without the written permission of the District

Environmental Commission.

This permit was not appealed.


 LUP #3W0613-1 was issued on April 4, 1991, for the construction of an 18-foot by

29-foot addition. This permit included Condition 6 as cited above. This permit was

not appealed.

802-885-8855 Telephone


802-885-8890 Fax

Kedron Valley Inn Jurisdictional Opinion #3-153

Page 2



The proposed paddle tennis project involves the installation of two courts.  The

courts would be placed end to end.  Each court measures 30 feet by 60 feet.

Exhibit 1B. 


The proposed site location for the courts is a narrow, "dogleg," strip of property

which is approximately 62 feet wide behind the South Woodstock Country Store. 

Exhibits 1 and 1A.


The paddle tennis courts would be aluminum with a 12-foot high mesh screen.

Exhibits 1 and 1B.


The courts would be lighted with six “shoe-box” style light fixtures placed 20 feet

above the playing surface which is 25 feet above the ground surface.  The light

fixtures are 16-inch, cut-off light fixtures utilizing 400-watt halide lamps.  Exhibit 1.


The proposal is to operate the facility for six months each year, seven days a week

with playing time ending at 9:00 p.m.  Exhibit 1.


Heaters would be placed under the courts to de-ice the surface, when a sheen is

visible.  The newer heaters are quieter than the old models, but still have noise

associated with the circulation of air.  Exhibits 1 and 1F.  


Several years ago a platform tennis court was constructed and was used on the

KVI property within 100 meters of the proposed site.  The court fell into disrepair

and remnants of the court are still visible.  A permit was not obtained for this

construction.  Exhibit 1.     


The existing snowmobile trail that accesses the VAST trail system will be rerouted

slightly to the north between the courts and an existing parking lot.  There is no

information as to how this change in the route would affect natural resources or

noise for neighbors.  Exhibit 1. 


KVI proposes planting a row of 16-foot to 20-foot tall conifers on top of a short

berm to provide screening of the courts from the Route 106 and the South

Woodstock Country Store's parking lot and a portion of Gray Perkins’ property. 

Exhibit 1.


The proposed location of the courts is a narrow ditch between a hill and the

parking lot of the South Woodstock Country Store.  The ground appears to be

slightly depressed, wet, and vegetated with plants suited for wet locations, such as

ferns.  It is not known if they function as a vernal pool in Springtime and, thus,

serve as necessary habitat for amphibians.  Site visit on November 28, 2012.

802-885-8855 Telephone


802-885-8890 Fax

Kedron Valley Inn Jurisdictional Opinion #3-153

Page 3



The proposed location of the courts is close to an area of pooling water that

appears to flow into the nearby brook.  The pooling water and the wet ground in

the ditch appear to be part of the same network of water, possibly constituting a

partially buried tributary to the nearby brook.  Site visit on November 28, 2012.


The Geology layer of the Natural Resources Atlas (the Atlas) indicates that

mapped hydric soils are very near the project site, covering most of the nearest

parking lot. 


Although the paddle tennis courts are not to be located on, near, or within the

buffer areas of any mapped significant wetlands, no assessment has been made

as to whether the observed wet areas, with hydric soils and wetland typical

vegetation may be Class three wetlands.  Exhibit 2. 


The Watershed Protection layer of the Atlas indicates that a Special Flood Hazard

Area envelops the entire nearest parking lot that is very near the location of the

paddle tennis courts.  No information has been provided as to whether the project

would be located in a fluvial erosion risk area.


The ANR Basemap Data layer of the Atlas indicates a tributary to the Kedron

Brook crosses the dogleg part of the KVI property at the entrance to the parking lot

that is adjacent and north of the proposed location of the paddle tennis courts.  


There has been no information presented as to how stormwater would be

effectively managed or how foot traffic may affect erosion and releases sediment 

to the pooled water and the adjacent brook, particularly during storm events.


Several residences are located adjacent to and above the elevation of the

proposed location of the courts.  No analysis has been completed as to the

expected noise levels from the sound of the paddle ball play or the voices of

players at the property line, areas of frequent use, or at the residences.  Also,

there is no information as to how the change in route of the snowmobile trail

required to build the project may affect noise levels for neighbors. 


The Woodstock Development Review Board (DRB) held a hearing for a

Conditional Use Permit for the project.  At the hearing, two abutters to the

proposed project voiced concerns about noise, lighting proximity to their property,

lack of parking, and bathroom facilities.  The DRB issued a permit with conditions,

including the condition that “the DRB shall review the facility within one year of

startup for the following issues:  lighting, screening and noise.  Exhibit 1.


Woodstock has not adopted both zoning and subdivision bylaws.

802-885-8855 Telephone


802-885-8890 Fax

Kedron Valley Inn Jurisdictional Opinion #3-153

Page 4



Relevant law

10 V.S.A. 6001. Definitions  

(3)(A) "Development" means: 

(i) The construction of improvements on a tract or tracts of land, owned or

controlled by a person, involving more than 10 acres of land within a radius of five

miles of any point on any involved land, for commercial or industrial purposes in a

municipality that has adopted permanent zoning and subdivision bylaws. 

"Material change means any change to a permitted development or subdivision which

has a significant impact on any finding, conclusion, term or condition of the project's

permit or which may result in a significant adverse impact with respect to any of the

criteria specified in 10 V.S.A. § 6086(a)(1) through (a)(10).”  Act 250 Rule 2(C)(6)

(internal quotation marks removed). 

As noted in the language of Condition #6, there can be no further development on the

parcel without the written permission of the District Environmental Commission.  The

construction of the two paddle tennis courts is construction for a commercial purpose

and, therefore, is development and a material change to Condition #6.  The express

language of Condition #6 in both LUP #3W0613 and LUP #3W0613-1 require the review

and approval of the Commission which necessitates an amendment to the permit be


Additionally, construction and operation of two paddle tennis courts in the proposed

location is a material change to the permitted development because there may be

significant impacts under the Act 250 criteria, including, but not limited to: 1 Undue Water

Pollution; 1(B) Waste Disposal (stormwater run-off in particular); 1(D) Floodways; 1(E)

Streams; 4 Soil Erosion; 8  Aesthetics and 8(A) Necessary Wildlife Habitat.  The wet

location of the proposed site location, as well as the proximity to a stream, requires

review under Criterion 1 Undue Water Pollution and the rest of the relevant Criterion 1 

subcriteria.  There is a possibility that the wet ground of the proposed site is a wetland or

underground stream which requires further investigation by the Agency of Natural

Resources.  The proximity of the proposed courts to the mapped Special Flood Hazard

Area and the South Woodstock Country Store’s parking lot raises concerns about

flooding and stormwater run-off.  The wet, depressed ditch may have been controlling

stormwater run-off and this project must be reviewed to determine whether that capability

will be significantly diminished.  Criterion 4 Soil Erosion must be reviewed to ensure that

the hillside is not eroded to fit the courts onto the very narrow proposed location and

increased foot traffic does not create erosion problems.  Criterion 8 Aesthetics must be

reviewed because the lights and noise from the court are close by neighbors and the

road.  A review of the site in the Springtime would also assist in determining if this wet

area functions as a vernal pool providing necessary habitat for amphibians.  In addition to

the review of the construction and operation of the paddle courts, there would need to be

an assessment under the criteria of the impacts of moving the snowmobile trail. 

802-885-8855 Telephone


802-885-8890 Fax

Kedron Valley Inn Jurisdictional Opinion #3-153

Page 5


In summary, the addition of two paddle tennis courts and the alteration of the snowmobile

trail in the proposed location at KVI is a material change to LUP #3W0613 and  LUP

#3W0613-1 and an amendment is required.  Do not hesitate to call Linda at 885-8843 or

Stephanie at 885-8842 with any questions. 


Linda Matteson

Stephanie Gile

District Coordinator

Assistant Coordinator

cc: See Certificate of Service


This is a jurisdictional opinion issued pursuant to 10 V.S.A. § 6007(c) and Act 250 Rule

3(A).  Reconsideration requests are governed by Act 250 Rule 3(B) and should be

directed to the district coordinator at the above address within 30 days of the date of this

opinion. Any appeal of this decision must be filed with the Superior Court, Environmental

Division, within 30 days of the date the decision was issued, pursuant to 10 V.S.A.

Chapter 220.  The Notice of Appeal must comply with the Vermont Rules for

Environmental Court Proceedings (VRECP).  The appellant must file with the Notice of

Appeal the entry fee required by 32 V.S.A. § 1431 and the 5% surcharge required by 32

V.S.A. § 1434a(a), which is $262.50 as of January 2011.  The appellant must also serve

a copy of the Notice of Appeal on the Natural Resources Board, National Life Records

Center Building, Montpelier, VT 05620-3201, and on other parties in accordance with

VRECP 5(b)(4)(B).  For additional information on filing appeals, see the Court’s website

at: http://www.vermontjudiciary.org/GTC/environmental/default.aspx  Or call (802) 828-

1660.  The Court’s mailing address is: Superior Court, Environmental Division, 2418

Airport Road, Suite 1, Barre, VT 05641-8701. 

Notification CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE #3-153

I hereby certify that I sent a copy of the foregoing Jurisdictional Opinion on December 21, 2012,

by U.S. Mail, postage prepaid, to the individuals without email addresses and by electronic mail, 

to the following with email addresses:  Note:  Any recipient may change its preferred method

of receiving notices and other documents by contacting the District Office staff at the

mailing address or email below.  If you have elected to receive notices and other

documents by email, it is your responsibility to notify our office of any email address

changes.  All email replies should be sent to nrb-act250springfield@state.vt.us

C. Daniel Hershenson

P.O. Box 909

Norwich, VT 05055-0909


Woodstock Selectboard

Preston Bristow, Chair

Margaretta Howe, Chair

P. O. Box 488, Woodstock, VT 05091


Woodstock Town Planning Chair

Sally Miller, Chair

P. O. Box 488, Woodstock, VT 05091



Two Rivers-Ottauquechee 

 Regional Commission

128 King Farm Rd., Woodstock, VT  05091


Elizabeth Lord, Esq. / Land Use Attorney

Agency of Natural Resources

103 So. Main St., Ctr. Bldg. 3rd Fl.

Waterbury, VT 05671-0301




J. Hunter and Jessica L. Melville

3601 Fletcher Hill Road 

P.O. Box 26

South Woodstock, VT 05071

Edward and Dawn D’Alelio

2751 Church Hill Road

Woodstock, VT 05091

Lev Glasman

4411 Church Hill Road

Woodstock, VT 05091

Johanna Loring

P.O. Box 815

4398 West Church Hill Road

Woodstock, VT 05091

Charles C. Humpstone

6101 Kendall Road

Woodstock, VT 05091

Frank S. Gilligan

18 Chestnut Street, Apt. 14

Boston, MA 02108-3619

Mario Russo

8202 Academy Road

Woodstock, VT 05091

D.K. Noble

South Woodstock Country Store

P.O. Box 271

10673 South Road

South Woodstock, VT 05071

Gray Perkins

P.O. Box 56

South Woodstock, VT 05091

Ann Bresnan

P.O. Box 208

208 Vermont Route 106

Woodstock, VT 05091

Lyman A. and Nancy R. Shove

P.O. Box 26

Route 4 West

South Woodstock, VT 05091

James Masters

10674 South Road

Woodstock, VT 05091

Gary and Angela Moore

3604 Fletcher

Woodstock, VT 05091


Terry Ranney, NRB Technician

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