Personality Traits or Personality Dimensions


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Personality Traits or Personality Dimensions

  • Personality Traits or Personality Dimensions

  • An integration of personality research that represents the various personality descriptions in one common framework.

  • Individual differences in social and emotional life organized into a five-factor model of personality

  • “broad abstract level and each dimension summarized a larger number of … personality characteristics” (Oliver & Srivastava, 1999)



Personality relevant terms from dictionary

  • Personality relevant terms from dictionary

  • Lexical hypothesis: most of the socially relevant and salient personality characteristics have become encoded in the natural language.

  • Allport and Odbert (1936): 18,000 terms, identified 4 categories

  • Cattell (1943) : broke 18,000 down to subset of 4,500 trait terms, then down to 35

  • Tupes and Christal (1961) through analysis found five factors



Extroversion, Sociability, Surgency

  • Extroversion, Sociability, Surgency

  • High

    • Sociable
    • Energetic
    • Adventurous
    • Enthusiastic
    • Outgoing
  • Low

    • Quite
    • Reserved
    • Shy


Agreeableness

  • Agreeableness

  • High

    • Forgiving
    • Kind
    • Appreciative
    • Trusting
    • Sympathetic
  • Low

    • Cold
    • Unfriendly
    • Quarrelsome


Conscientiousness

  • Conscientiousness

  • High

    • Organized
    • Thorough
    • Deliberate
    • Responsible
    • Precise
  • Low

    • Careless
    • Disorderly
    • Frivolous


Emotional Stability (Neuroticism)

  • Emotional Stability (Neuroticism)

  • High

    • Tense
    • Moody
    • Anxious
    • Fearful
    • Touchy
  • Low

    • Stable
    • Calm
    • Contented


Openness to Experience

  • Openness to Experience

    • Curious
    • Imaginative
    • Wide interests
    • Original
    • Intelligent
  • Low

    • Narrow interests
    • Simple
    • Shallow


NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI)

  • NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI)

    • Full sentences, 240 items
    • (Costa & McCrey , 1988)
  • Big Five Inventory (BFI)

    • Short phrases, 44 items
    • (John & Srivastava, 1999)
  • Trait Descriptive Adjectives TDI

    • 100 trait-descriptive adjectives
    • (Goldberg, 1992)














Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44 (1), 1-26.

  • Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The Big Five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44 (1), 1-26.

    • C showed consistent relations with all job performance criteria for all occupational groups
    • E predicted success in management and sales (requiring social interaction)
    • O and E predicted training proficiency
    • A and N predict performance when employees work in groups




Judge, T. A., Heller, D., & Mount, M. K. (2002). Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (3).

  • Judge, T. A., Heller, D., & Mount, M. K. (2002). Five-factor model of personality and job satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (3).

    • Job satisfaction was correlated with each of the traits individually (see next slide)
    • Only the relationships between N and E and job satisfaction generalized across all studies
    • Together, the Big 5 traits had a multiple correlation of .41 with job satisfaction




According to Block (1995) and others…

  • According to Block (1995) and others…

    • A frequent objection to the Big Five is that five dimensions cannot possibly capture all of the variation in human personality
  • The dimensions are much too broad

  • Not all support the Big Five, because there are discrepancies surrounding “which Big Five,” and so on. Of the five factors, each seems to have many different names



The fact that the labels differ does not mean they are different, though. There is a large amount of communality across various labels

  • The fact that the labels differ does not mean they are different, though. There is a large amount of communality across various labels

  • Other names for all five:

    • Need for stability, originality, extroversion, accommodation, consolidation


Most of the other four factors generalize across cultures and countries, but the fifth factor (openness to experience) is usually the dimension that varies

  • Most of the other four factors generalize across cultures and countries, but the fifth factor (openness to experience) is usually the dimension that varies

  • In Netherlands, their ‘openness to experience’ emphasized unconventionality and rebelliousness, rather than intellect and imagination (as in ours)



The advantage of categories as broad as the “Big Five” is their enormous bandwidth

  • The advantage of categories as broad as the “Big Five” is their enormous bandwidth

  • Extremely useful for some initial rough distinctions but of less value for predicting specific behaviors of a particular object



Lexical - The term "Big Five" was coined by Lew Goldberg

  • Lexical - The term "Big Five" was coined by Lew Goldberg

  • Originally associated with studies of personality traits used in natural language

  • Tend to call the fifth factor “intellect” or “imagination”





Their interest is primarily in the language of personality

  • Their interest is primarily in the language of personality

  • These concepts are of interest because language encodes the characteristics that are central for cultural, social, or biological reasons, to human life and experience

  • So….they highlight the important and meaningful psychological phenomena



There may exist important characteristics that people may not be able to observe and describe verbally

  • There may exist important characteristics that people may not be able to observe and describe verbally

  • If so, the agenda specified by the lexical approach may be incomplete and would need to be supplemented by more theoretically driven approaches



Restrained or Emotional

  • Restrained or Emotional

  • Dependent or Independent

  • Firm or Changeable

  • Anxious or Tranquil

  • Unconcerned or Self-Critical

  • Talkative or Untalkative

  • Serious or Cheerful

  • Sluggish or Energetic

  • Extroverted or Introverted

  • Shy or Forward

  • Satisfied or Curious

  • Unaware or Observant

  • Logical or Imaginative



totE totA totC totN totO

  • totE totA totC totN totO

  • 2.50 3.56 3.78 4.25 3.30

  • 2.38 3.44 4.78 2.75 3.30

  • 4.50 3.89 3.56 2.13 3.40

  • 2.25 5.00 4.44 2.50 3.10

  • 2.38 4.33 4.22 1.75 3.70

  • 2.88 2.33 4.11 3.75 4.20

  • 4.00 3.89 4.00 2.25 4.00

  • 2.25 4.11 4.56 2.13 3.10

  • 2.88 3.22 4.89 2.63 3.50

  • 4.38 4.11 4.00 2.00 4.40

  • 4.63 4.44 4.00 2.13 3.50

  • 4.63 4.11 3.00 2.75 3.50

  • 4.25 3.78 3.89 2.88 3.20

  • 3.75 4.56 3.89 4.13 3.30

  • Number of cases read: 14 Number of cases listed: 14






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