Population 34. 5m, comprising more than 40 ethnic groups; Population 34. 5m, comprising more than 40 ethnic groups


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 Population 34.5m, comprising more than 40 ethnic groups;

  •  Population 34.5m, comprising more than 40 ethnic groups;

  • Kikuyu largest but not majority (22%), traditionally dominant, converted to Christianity, western education, partners with British colonial rule;

  • Mau Mau, strong role in governing, left Kikuyu as dominant group at independence



OUTLINE OF EVENTS:

  • OUTLINE OF EVENTS:

  • 1990: multiparty riots, donor demands for liberalization;

  • 1992, 1997: election violence;

  • 2002: Kibaki wins presidency, with Odinga’s support; some election violence;

  • December 2007: election, Raila Odinga was leading by 1.2 mil votes when Mwai Kibaki’s reelection victory was announced;

    • (Opposition 99 seats in Parliament, President’s party 43 seats)
  • Tampering immediately denounced by international observers;

  • Immediately, rioting begins across the nation; Luo in west, Kalenjin in central highlands; Kikuyu response violent, with little control by police, army;

    • ~1,300 dead, 600,000 displaced. ~ethnic cleansing?


Regional Authorities, Moral Authority & Respected Leaders:

  • Regional Authorities, Moral Authority & Respected Leaders:

  • Pressure from Desmond Tutu, other African leaders, including Tanzania leaders;

  • AU requested mediation by Kofi Annan

  • Team: Annan, Benjamin Mkapa (Tanz), Graca Machel (Mozambique & S.Africa)

  • Support for settlement from donors & allies



Post of Prime Minister with real powers created;

  • Post of Prime Minister with real powers created;

  • Two deputy PMs, one from each party, protected from arbitrary dismissal;

  • Results? Violence ended; systematic changes have not been made, Odinga’s supporters few gains,

  • tensions remain



Memories of Rwanda and Bosnia clear to Annan;

  • Memories of Rwanda and Bosnia clear to Annan;

  • Destruction & disintegration in Region (Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan) created a sense of Urgency;

  • R2P an implicit, not explicit issue



A recently developed concept in IR which attempts to enforce a State’s responsibilities toward its own population, and to codify the circumstances which justify humanitarian intervention

  • A recently developed concept in IR which attempts to enforce a State’s responsibilities toward its own population, and to codify the circumstances which justify humanitarian intervention

  • Includes violence, especially war crimes, genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity



State Sovereignty

  • State Sovereignty

  • UN Charter: “Domestic Jurisdiction”

  • Eroding distinction between International and Domestic issues

  • Failure of most attempts to “internationalize” domestic policy

  • Obstacles to “peace keeping” and humanitarian intervention



Institutional Obstacles

  • Institutional Obstacles

    • Neutrality of IGO
    • suspicion of interveners’ motives
    • “Will” of members
    • Cost, in money and political capital


Pragmatic Obstacles

  • Pragmatic Obstacles

    • Uncertainty re: actual situation
    • Local assistance
    • Numbers of refugees, incidence of disease or famine
    • Resources:
    • remote areas & supply lines
    • language
    • skilled workers





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