Programmable logic controller a programmable logic controller (plc) or programmable controller

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Khidirov Ilkhomjon.

Mechanical design
There are two types of mechanical design for PLC systems. A single box, or a brick is a small programmable controller that fits all units and interfaces into one compact casing, although, typically, additional expansion modules for inputs and outputs are available. Second design type – a modular PLC – has a chassis (also called a rack) that provides space for modules with different functions, such as power supply, processor, selection of I/O modules and communication interfaces – which all can be customized for the particular application. Several racks can be administered by a single processor and may have thousands of inputs and outputs. Either a special high-speed serial I/O link or comparable communication method is used so that racks can be distributed away from the processor, reducing the wiring costs for large plants. Options are also available to mount I/O points directly to the machine and utilize quick disconnecting cables to sensors and valves, saving time for wiring and replacing components
Discrete and analog signals
Discrete signals can only take on or off value (1 or 0, true or false). Examples of devices providing a discrete signal include limit switchesphotoelectric sensors and encoders. Discrete signals are sent using either voltage or current, where specific extreme ranges are designated as on and off. For example, a controller might use 24 V DC input with values above 22 V DC representing on, values below 2 V DC representing off, and intermediate values undefined.
Analog signals can use voltage or current that is proportional to the size of the monitored variable and can take any value within their scale. Pressure, temperature, flow, and weight are often represented by analog signals. These are typically interpreted as integer values with various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the number of bits available to store the data. For example, an analog 0 to 10 V or 4-20 mA current loop input would be converted into an integer value of 0 to 32,767. The PLC will take this value and transpose it into the desired units of the process so the operator or program can read it. Proper integration will also include filter times to reduce noise as well as high and low limits to report faults. Current inputs are less sensitive to electrical noise (e.g. from welders or electric motor starts) than voltage inputs. Distance from the device and the controller is also a concern as the maximum traveling distance of a good quality 0-10 V signal is very short compared to the 4-20 mA signal.The 4-20 mA signal can also report if the wire is disconnected along the path as a <4 mA signal would indicate an error.

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