Raw Materials


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Raw Materials

  • Raw Materials

  • Land

  • Labor: unskilled and skilled

  • Transportation for workers and products

  • Capital

  • Entrepreneurs and managers to drive the process



Jefferson County area: Coal, iron ore, and limestone

  • Jefferson County area: Coal, iron ore, and limestone

  • Necessities for steel industry

    • Video clip: Sloss Furnace, Pig Iron Production
    • http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Multimedia.jsp?id=m-4087


Alabama Coal Mining Company, 1856 in Montevallo

  • Alabama Coal Mining Company, 1856 in Montevallo

  • Civil War stimulated mining and iron industry

  • Revived after Civil War in Jefferson County, Bibb County, Cherokee County, and Shelby County



Elyton Land Company laid out city in 1871

  • Elyton Land Company laid out city in 1871

  • Founded where 2 railroad lines crossed

  • Grew up around iron, coal, and steel industry

  • Flourished as iron industry grew in 1880s

  • Named the “Magic City” because of rapid growth



Eureka Mining Company in Birmingham

  • Eureka Mining Company in Birmingham

  • Managed by Henry F. DeBardeleben, son-in-law of Daniel Pratt (Alabama’s premier entrepreneur)

  • Mined coal and made iron

  • Became Eureka Mining and Transportation Company

  • Developed blast furnace for making coke pig iron



Pig iron production

  • Pig iron production

  • 11,000 tons in 1872

  • 800,000 tons in 1890

  • 1,000,000 tons in 1900



Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company

  • Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company

  • Bought the Pratt Company and other competitors

  • Developed in late 1800s

  • Purchased by U.S. Steel in 1907



Established in 1881 by Col. James W. Sloss

  • Established in 1881 by Col. James W. Sloss

  • Multimedia clip on The Rise of the Sloss Furnace Company http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Multimedia.jsp?id=m-4085



Northerners controlled iron and steel industry from Pittsburgh

  • Northerners controlled iron and steel industry from Pittsburgh

  • Charged shipping rates for Alabama steel based on mileage from Pittsburgh



34.9% native-born whites

  • 34.9% native-born whites

  • 18.7 % foreign born: England, Scotland, Ireland, Holland, and Italy

  • 46.2 % Black

  • .2% Convicts from state and county prisons

  • (Rogers, p. 283)



Media clip on Sloss Workers Quarters

  • Media clip on Sloss Workers Quarters

  • http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Multimedia.jsp?id=m-6183



1846 Alabama law allowed state to lease convicts to employers

  • 1846 Alabama law allowed state to lease convicts to employers

  • State earned the money

  • Leased convicts were also employed in lumber and cotton mills



1911 Birmingham tragedy

  • 1911 Birmingham tragedy

  • 128 African American convicts killed

  • Outcry for end to convict leasing

  • Led to mining safety bill



Daniel Pratt

  • Daniel Pratt

  • Henry F. DeBardeleben

  • James W. Sloss

  • Enoch Ensley

  • Braxton Bragg Comer



Many argued for textile mills located near cotton areas

  • Many argued for textile mills located near cotton areas

  • By 1860: 14 mills in Alabama

  • Small operations with average work force of 94

  • Workers were mostly women



Began rapid growth in 1880

  • Began rapid growth in 1880

  • 1890: 13 mills, employ 2,088

  • 1900, 31 mills, employ 8,332 workers

  • 38% men, 33% women, and 29% children under 18



Mills located in smaller towns

  • Mills located in smaller towns

  • Autaugaville

  • Prattville

  • Tallassee

  • Lanett

  • Langdale

  • Alexander City

  • Sylacauga



Good return on investments



Companies built mill villages

  • Companies built mill villages

  • Operated company stores

  • State’s first major employment for women

  • Also employed many children



A mixed blessing

  • A mixed blessing

  • Helped some

  • Hurt others

  • Alternative to tenant farming and sharecropping

  • Produced reformers

  • Also produced a new class of workers



“New South Era.” Encyclopedia of Alabama.

  • “New South Era.” Encyclopedia of Alabama.

    • http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org
  • Retrieved July 11, 2009.

  • Rogers, William Warren, Robert D. Ward, Leah Rawls Atkins, and Wayne Flynt. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1994.





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