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PERLU /TIDAKNYA METODE SAMPLING

  • PERLU /TIDAKNYA METODE SAMPLING

  • PERLU/TIDAKNYA RUMUS BESAR SAMPEL

  • PERLU/TIDAKNYA ALOKASI RANDOM



IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI

  • IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI

  • MEMBUAT ATAU MENGEMBANGKAN MODEL

  • MENGEKSPLORASI FAKTOR

  • MEMBUKTIKAN HUBUNGAN ANTAR VARIABEL

  • MEMBUKTIKAN PENGARUH SUATU VARIABEL TERHADAP VARIABEL LAIN



UNTUK MENCAPAI TUJUAN PENELITIAN BUTIR 1, 2, 3, DAN 4 DIGUNAKAN DESAIN PENELITIAN NON EKSPERIMENTAL

  • UNTUK MENCAPAI TUJUAN PENELITIAN BUTIR 1, 2, 3, DAN 4 DIGUNAKAN DESAIN PENELITIAN NON EKSPERIMENTAL

  • UNTUK MENCAPAI TUJUAN PENELITIAN BUTIR 5 DIGUNAKAN DESAIN PENELITIAN EKSPERIMENTAL



Suatu metode riset dimana:

  • Suatu metode riset dimana:

    • Kondisi-kondisi dikendalikan/dikontrol
    • agar 1 atau lebih independent variables
    • dapat dimanipulasi untuk menguji hipotesis
    • tentang suatu dependent variable.
  • Memungkinkan:

    • Evaluasi hubungan kausatif diantara variabel
    • sementara sebagian besar variabel lainnya dieliminasi atau dikontrol


Dependent Variable

  • Dependent Variable

    • Suatu kriteria dimana eksperimen dievaluasi.
    • Variabel yang diharapkan bersifat dependent (tergantung) kepada manipulasi terhadap variabel independent
  • Independent Variable

    • Semua variabel yang dapat dimanipulasi, or dirubah, dan tidak bergantung kepada variabel yang lain
    • Variabel yang dihipotesiskan memiliki pengaruh kausatif


Experimental Treatments

  • Experimental Treatments

    • Manipulasi alternatif terhadap variabel independen yang diteliti
  • Experimental Group

    • Kelompok subjek yang dikenakan perlakuan/treatment
  • Control Group

    • Kelompok subjek yang dikenakan kondisi kontrol
    • Tidak dikenakan perlakuan/treatment


Test Unit

  • Test Unit

    • Unit perlakuan/uji yang responnya terhadap treatment sedangan diobseravasi atau diukur
  • Randomisasi

    • Penempatan subjek dan treatmen ke dalam kelompok didasarkan atas peluang
    • Memberikan “control by chance”
    • Randomisasi memberikan asumsi bahwa kelompok adalah identik pada keseluruhan variabelnya kecuali variabel perlakuan


Constant error is error that occurs in the same experimental condition every time the basic experiment is repeated – a systematic bias

  • Constant error is error that occurs in the same experimental condition every time the basic experiment is repeated – a systematic bias

  • Example:

    • Experimental groups always administered the treatment in the morning
    • Control groups always in the afternoon
    • Introduces an uncontrolled extraneous variable – time of day
    • Hence, systematic or constant error
  • Extraneous Variables

    • Variables other than the manipulated variables that affect the results of the experiment
    • Can potentially invalidate the results


Demand Characteristics

  • Demand Characteristics

    • Experimental design procedures or situational aspects of the experiment that provide unintentional hints to subjects about the experimenter’s hypothesis
    • If occurs, participants likely to act in a manner consistent with the experimental treatment.
    • Most prominent demand characteristic is the person actually administering the experimental treatments.
  • Experimenter Bias

    • Effect on the subjects’ behavior caused by an experimenter’s presence, actions, or comments.
  • Guinea Pig Effect

    • Effect on experimental results caused by subjects changing normal behavior or attitudes to cooperate with experimenter.


Blinding

  • Blinding

    • Technique used to control subjects’ knowledge of whether or not they have been given the experimental treatment.
    • Taste tests, placebos (chemically inert pills), etc.
  • Constancy of Conditions

    • Subjects in experimental & control groups are exposed to identical situations except for differing conditions of the independent variable.


Order of Presentation

  • Order of Presentation

    • If experimental method requires that the same subjects be exposed to 2 or more experimental treatments, error may occur due to order in which the treatments are presented
    • Counterbalancing
      • ½ the subjects exposed to Treatment A first, then to Treatment B.
      • Other ½ exposed to Treatment B first, then to Treatment A.
      • Eliminates the effects of order of presentation


Internal Validity

  • Internal Validity

    • Indicates whether the independent variable was the sole cause of the change in the dependent variable
  • External Validity

    • Indicates the extent to which the results of the experiment are applicable to the real world


History Effect

  • History Effect

    • Specific events in the external environment between the 1st & 2nd measurements that are beyond the experimenter’s control
    • Common history effect occurs when competitors change their marketing strategies during a test marketing experiment
  • Cohort Effect

    • Change in the dependent variable that occurs because members of one experimental group experienced different historical situations than members of other experimental groups


Maturation Effect

  • Maturation Effect

    • Effect on experimental results caused by experimental subjects maturing or changing over time
    • During a daylong experiment, subjects may grow hungry, tired, or bored
  • Testing Effect

    • In before-and-after studies, pretesting may sensitize subjects when taking a test for the 2nd time.
    • May cause subjects to act differently than they would have if no pretest measures were taken


Instrumentation Effect

  • Instrumentation Effect

    • Caused by a change in the wording of questions, in interviewers, or in other procedures used to measure the dependent variable.
  • Selection Effect

    • Sampling bias that results from differential selection of respondents for the comparison groups.
  • Mortality or Sample Attrition

    • Results from the withdrawal of some subjects from the experiment before it is completed
    • Effects randomization
    • Especially troublesome if some withdraw from one treatment group and not from the others (or at least at different rates)


  • 1. FAKTOR EKSTRINSIK DARI VALIDITAS INTERNAL, TERKAIT DENGAN SELEKSI INDIVIDU KE DALAM KLP. PERLAKUAN DAN KLP. KONTROL  SELECTION BIAS

  • DI ATASI LEWAT :

  • 1. RANDOMISASI

  • 2. MATCHING : PRECISION MATCHING ATAU FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION MATCHING



2. FAKTOR INTRINSIK DARI VALIDITAS INTERNAL :

  • 2. FAKTOR INTRINSIK DARI VALIDITAS INTERNAL :

  • 1. HISTORY

  • 2. MATURATION

  • 3. INSTRUMENTATION’

  • 4. EXPERIMENTAL MORTALITY

  • 5. TESTING EFFECT

  • 6. REGRESSION ARTIFACT

  • 7. INTERACTION :

  • - SELECTION AND HISTORY

  • - SELECTION AND MATURATION



DIATASI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KELOMPOK KONTROL

  • DIATASI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KELOMPOK KONTROL

  • VALIDITAS INTERNAL ADALAH VALIDITAS YANG TERKAIT DENGAN INFERENSI KAUSALITAS (MERUPAKAN CONDITION SINE QUA NON UNTUK MENEGAKKAN HUBUNGAN SEBAB AKIBAT)

  • VALIDITAS EKSTERNAL ADALAH VALIDITAS YANG TERKAIT DENGAN GENERALISASI











Do not adequately control for the problems associated with loss of external or internal validity

  • Do not adequately control for the problems associated with loss of external or internal validity

  • Cannot be classified as true experiments

  • Often used in exploratory research

  • Three Examples of Pre-Experimental Designs

    • One-Shot Design
    • One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
    • Static Group Design


A.K.A. – after-only design

  • A.K.A. – after-only design

  • A single measure is recorded after the treatment is administered

  • Study lacks any comparison or control of extraneous influences

  • No measure of test units not exposed to the experimental treatment

  • May be the only viable choice in taste tests

  • Diagrammed as: X O1



Subjects in the experimental group are measured before and after the treatment is administered.

  • Subjects in the experimental group are measured before and after the treatment is administered.

  • No control group

  • Offers comparison of the same individuals before and after the treatment (e.g., training)

  • If time between 1st & 2nd measurements is extended, may suffer maturation

  • Can also suffer from history, mortality, and testing effects

  • Diagrammed as O1 X O2



A.K.A., after-only design with control group

  • A.K.A., after-only design with control group

  • Experimental group is measured after being exposed to the experimental treatment

  • Control group is measured without having been exposed to the experimental treatment

  • No pre-measure is taken

  • Major weakness is lack of assurance that the groups were equal on variables of interest prior to the treatment

  • Diagrammed as: Experimental Group X O1

  • Control Group O2



A.K.A., Before-After with Control

  • A.K.A., Before-After with Control

  • True experimental design

  • Experimental group tested before and after treatment exposure

  • Control group tested at same two times without exposure to experimental treatment

  • Includes random assignment to groups

  • Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the same on both groups

  • Do run the risk of a testing effect



Diagrammed as

  • Diagrammed as

    • Experimental Group: O1 X O2
    • Control Group: O3 O4
  • Effect of the experimental treatment equals

    • (O2 – O1) -- (O4 – O3)
  • Example

    • 20% brand awareness among subjects before an advertising treatment
    • 35% in experimental group & 22% in control group after the treatment
    • Treatment effect equals (0.35 – 0.20) – (0.22 – 0.20) = 13%


A.K.A., After-Only with Control

  • A.K.A., After-Only with Control

  • True experimental design

  • Experimental group tested after treatment exposure

  • Control group tested at same time without exposure to experimental treatment

  • Includes random assignment to groups

  • Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the same on both groups

  • Do not run the risk of a testing effect

  • Use in situations when cannot pretest



Diagrammed as

  • Diagrammed as

    • Experimental Group: X O1
    • Control Group: O2
  • Effect of the experimental treatment equals

    • (O2 – O1)
  • Example

    • Assume you manufacture an athlete’s foot remedy
    • Want to demonstrate your product is better than the competition
    • Can’t really pretest the effectiveness of the remedy


True experimental design

  • True experimental design

  • Kombinasi pretest-posttest with control group design dan the posttest-only with control group design

  • Memberikan kesempatan mengontrol efek pengujian interaktif dan mengendalikan sumber-sumber variasi eksternal lainnya.

  • Menggunakan prinsip penempatan random



Diagrammed as

  • Diagrammed as

    • Experimental Group 1: O1 X O2
    • Control Group 1: O3 O4
    • Experimental Group 2: X O5
    • Control Group 2: O6
  • Effect of independent variable (O2 – O4) & (O5 – O6)

  • Effect of pretesting (O4 – O6)

  • Effect of pretesting & measuring (O2 – O5)

  • Effect of random assignment (O1 – O3)



More realistic than true experiments

  • More realistic than true experiments

  • Researchers lacks full control over the scheduling of experimental treatments or

  • They are unable to randomize

  • Includes

    • Time Series Design
    • Multiple Time Series Design
      • Same as Time Series Design except that a control group is added


Melakukan pengukuran secara periodik pada sejumlah variabel dependent terhadap sekelompok unit test

  • Melakukan pengukuran secara periodik pada sejumlah variabel dependent terhadap sekelompok unit test

  • Setelah pengukuran multipel, dilakukan perlakuan/treatment (atau terjadi alamiah)

  • Setelah treatment, pengukuran periodik kembali dilaksanakan untuk menentukan efek treatment

  • Diagrammed:

  • O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8



Multiple experiments are conducted simultaneously to permit extraneous variables to be statistically controlled and

  • Multiple experiments are conducted simultaneously to permit extraneous variables to be statistically controlled and

  • Effects of multiple independent variables to be measured

  • Advantages:

    • Can measure the effects of more than one independent variable
    • Can statistically control specific extraneous variables
    • Economical designs can be formulated when each subject is measured more than once.


SEJUMLAH SUBYEK YANG HOMOGEN DIALOKASIKAN SECARA RANDOM KE DALAM KELOMPOK SECARA LENGKAP

  • SEJUMLAH SUBYEK YANG HOMOGEN DIALOKASIKAN SECARA RANDOM KE DALAM KELOMPOK SECARA LENGKAP

  • MISAL 20 SUBYEK YANG HOMOGEN DIALOKASIKAN SECARA RANDOM KE DALAM 4 KELOMPOK DENGAN JUMLAH SUBYEK YANG SAMA UNTUK MASING-MASING KELOMPOK

  • RANDOM DILAKUKAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN RANDOM PERMUTATION



  • Regarded as the ultimate research design in health care

  • The classic experiment





Subjek ditempatkan secara acak (random) ke dalam kelompok perlakuan & kelompok kontrol

  • Subjek ditempatkan secara acak (random) ke dalam kelompok perlakuan & kelompok kontrol

  • Unit-unit uji disebar ke dalam blok (atau kelompok) menurut variabel eksternal

    • I.e., lokasi, umur, berat, gender, penghasilan, pendidikan, etc.
  • Terutama bermanfaat apabila dibutuhkan sampel kecil



SEJUMLAH INDIVIDU YANG HETEROGEN DIPILAH MENJADI KELOMPOK (BLOK) YANG ANGGOTANYA HOMOGEN

  • SEJUMLAH INDIVIDU YANG HETEROGEN DIPILAH MENJADI KELOMPOK (BLOK) YANG ANGGOTANYA HOMOGEN

  • KEMUDIAN PERLAKUAN A, B, C DIALOKASIKAN SECARA RANDOM KE SUBJEK DI DALAM BLOK YANG SAMA









Allows control or elimination of the effect of two extraneous variables

  • Allows control or elimination of the effect of two extraneous variables

  • Systematically blocks in 2 directions by grouping test units according to 2 extraneous variables

  • Includes random assignment of treatments to each cell in the design

  • Used for comparing t treatment levels in t rows and t columns

    • I.e., if we have 3 treatment levels, we must have 3 rows and 3 columns






Untuk menguji efek manipulasi yang dikenakan pada sekurang - kurangnya 2 variabel independen (secara simultan pada berbagai level) terhadap variabel dependent

  • Untuk menguji efek manipulasi yang dikenakan pada sekurang - kurangnya 2 variabel independen (secara simultan pada berbagai level) terhadap variabel dependent

  • Impak yang dimiliki setiap variabel independent pada variabel dependent disebut sebagai the main effect (efek utama)

  • Dependent variable dapat juga dipengaruhi oleh interaksinya dengan independent variables. Hal ini dinamakan the interaction effect (efek interaksi)



Illustration 1: (2 × 2 simple factorial design).

  • Illustration 1: (2 × 2 simple factorial design).

  • A 2 × 2 simple factorial design can graphically be depicted as follows:



Sebuah perusahaan ingin memanfaatkan 12 toko-nya untuk mempelajari apakah tingkat penjualan akan berubah pada 3 jam operasi berbeda dan 2 jenis promosi yang berbeda.

  • Sebuah perusahaan ingin memanfaatkan 12 toko-nya untuk mempelajari apakah tingkat penjualan akan berubah pada 3 jam operasi berbeda dan 2 jenis promosi yang berbeda.

  • Dependent variable adalah perubahan tingkat penjualan

  • Independent variables

    • Jam buka toko 6 am to 6 pm
    • Jam buka toko 6 am to midnight
    • Jam buka toko 24 hours/day
    • Promosi seles: hadiah sampel
    • Promosis sales : sampel makan
  • Dinamakan suatu rancangan faktorial 3 x 2

  • Memerlukan 6 grup eksperimen (3 x 2 = 6)







Каталог: 2015
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2015 -> Berdaq nomidagi qoraqalroq davlat universiteti


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