Said14 (1978) argued that


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Said14 (1978) argued that European culture gained in strength and identity by setting itself of against the Orient as a sort of surrogate and even underground self, defining Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient. He presented the important hypothesis in his book, Orientalism, that without examining Orientalism as a discourse one cannot possibly understand the enormously systematic discipline by which European culture was able to manage--and even produce--the Orient (Said, 1978).

  • Said14 (1978) argued that European culture gained in strength and identity by setting itself of against the Orient as a sort of surrogate and even underground self, defining Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient. He presented the important hypothesis in his book, Orientalism, that without examining Orientalism as a discourse one cannot possibly understand the enormously systematic discipline by which European culture was able to manage--and even produce--the Orient (Said, 1978).



Said’s Orientalism can be a critical tool to examine the validity of all the literature on the East written by the Westerners. Influenced by the imperialism and colonialism of the 19th century, Western people became interested in the natives and the cultures of Western colonies.

  • Said’s Orientalism can be a critical tool to examine the validity of all the literature on the East written by the Westerners. Influenced by the imperialism and colonialism of the 19th century, Western people became interested in the natives and the cultures of Western colonies.

  • This led to the advent of anthropology as related to Darwinian Evolutionism12 and Hegelian Progressivism in The Philosophy of History.13 Exponents of evolutionism believed that culture generally develops and evolves from primitive stages into advanced ones. (Nakamura, 1998)



People who supported the Hegelian progressive view of history believed that history is not meaningless chance, but a rational process and transition from the ancient Oriental world through classical Greece and Rome and the Middle Ages to the modern German world.

  • People who supported the Hegelian progressive view of history believed that history is not meaningless chance, but a rational process and transition from the ancient Oriental world through classical Greece and Rome and the Middle Ages to the modern German world.

  • These people are supporters of a Western-centered linear theory of history and culture based on a developmental dialectic. This theory led to the Western-centered view of non-Western cultures as inferior to Western cultures. This view was to be criticized by Edward Said in his work on Orientalism in the late 20th century. (Nakamura, 1998)



Said (1981) emphasizes the following point:

  • Said (1981) emphasizes the following point:

  •  Underlying every interpretation of other cultures is the choice facing the individual scholar or intellectual; whether to put intellect at the service of power or at the service of criticism, communities, and moral sense.16

  •  To use Said's phrase, Benedict faces the conflict; whether to put her intellect at the service of the American power as an Orientalist or at the service of an understanding of Japanese cultural identity as a relativist. (Nakamura, 1998).



You cannot deal with others without profound

  • You cannot deal with others without profound

  • knowledge of his or her culture, society and history.

  •  他者や他民族の文化・社会・歴史への深い理解

  • Force never works, because you can never destroys the will of people and the power of people.

  •  力や軍事力で人民の意志や力を破壊できない。

  • Idea is equality, coexistence and sustainable life.

  • 真の思想は平等・共存・何世代も続く未来の生活への保障。

  • The present is our battle ground and knowledge is our main weapons.

  • 現在こそ戦場であり、知識こそ武器             

  •                         (Edward Said:2003)





In the longer term other measures would be called for. Western civilization is both Western and modern. Non-Western civilizations have attempted to become modern without becoming Western. To date only Japan has fully succeeded in this quest. Non-Western civilization will continue to attempt to acquire the wealth, technology, skills, machines and weapons that are part of being modern. They will also attempt to reconcile this modernity with their traditional culture and values. Their economic and military strength relative to the West will increase. Hence the West will increasingly have to accommodate these non-Western modern civilizations whose power approaches that of the West but whose values and interests differ significantly from those of the West. This will require the West to maintain the economic and military power necessary to protect its interests in relation to these civilizations.       

  • In the longer term other measures would be called for. Western civilization is both Western and modern. Non-Western civilizations have attempted to become modern without becoming Western. To date only Japan has fully succeeded in this quest. Non-Western civilization will continue to attempt to acquire the wealth, technology, skills, machines and weapons that are part of being modern. They will also attempt to reconcile this modernity with their traditional culture and values. Their economic and military strength relative to the West will increase. Hence the West will increasingly have to accommodate these non-Western modern civilizations whose power approaches that of the West but whose values and interests differ significantly from those of the West. This will require the West to maintain the economic and military power necessary to protect its interests in relation to these civilizations.       

  •     Concluding paragraph of Foreign Affairs Summer 1993 by Huntington



It will also, however, require the West to develop a more profound understanding of the basic religious and philosophical assumptions underlying other civilizations and the ways in which people in those civilizations see their interests. It will require an effort to identify elements of commonality between Western and other civilizations. For the relevant future, there will be no universal civilization, but instead a world of different civilizations, each of which will have to learn to coexist with the others.       

  • It will also, however, require the West to develop a more profound understanding of the basic religious and philosophical assumptions underlying other civilizations and the ways in which people in those civilizations see their interests. It will require an effort to identify elements of commonality between Western and other civilizations. For the relevant future, there will be no universal civilization, but instead a world of different civilizations, each of which will have to learn to coexist with the others.       

  • Concluding paragraph of Foreign Affairs Summer 1993 by Huntington



Orientalism refers to mannerism, quality, or customs specific to or characteristic of the Orient. Given definition of the Orientalism doesn't suffice for a complete reflection of the Orientalism, as Edward Said contends that Orientalism means more than sheer understanding of the Orient, rather it refers to a biased understanding of the Orient on the part of the west. Some glaring examples of Orientalism can be found in the following content:

  • Orientalism refers to mannerism, quality, or customs specific to or characteristic of the Orient. Given definition of the Orientalism doesn't suffice for a complete reflection of the Orientalism, as Edward Said contends that Orientalism means more than sheer understanding of the Orient, rather it refers to a biased understanding of the Orient on the part of the west. Some glaring examples of Orientalism can be found in the following content:

  • Firstly, the justifying principle of colonialism, which the west used extensively for its imperialistic designs, emerged out of Orientalism whereby the west conveniently declared the Orient "ignorant and dark" and to enlighten it the west embarked upon colonial expedition.

  • Secondly, so long as cultural interaction started between the east and the west, one way flow of ideas and philosophy appears marked, the stream of flow has been from the west to eastwards. It again proves that under the influence of the Orientalism the west has been reluctant to open up its acceptance to the Oriental philosophy and ideas, rather it has been immensely concentrating on pouring the western philosophy and ideas generously on the Orient.  

  • Thirdly, the recent most manifestation of Orientalism is exhibited through neo-imperialism, under which the west led by the U.S.A. is invading the dark and ignorant of the Orient, to enlighten them.

  • http://www.blurtit.com/q751105.html







Admiral Mahan of the United States Navy saw: Western world at bay, in danger of losing its momentum and facing the staggering task of assimilating millions of semi-civilized people.

  • Admiral Mahan of the United States Navy saw: Western world at bay, in danger of losing its momentum and facing the staggering task of assimilating millions of semi-civilized people.

  • (The Troubled Encounter: The United States and Japan, New York. Wiley, 1975, p.28)









































ヘーゲルの歴史哲学は,「哲学が歴史に赴く際に携えてくる唯一の思想は,単純な理性の思想,つまり理性が世界を支配し,したがって世界の歴史も理性的に進行する,という思想である。ヘーゲル歴史観は「オリエントでは一人のものが自由であり,ギリシア・ローマでは若干のものが自由であり,ゲルマンにおいてすべてのひとが自由となる」

  • ヘーゲルの歴史哲学は,「哲学が歴史に赴く際に携えてくる唯一の思想は,単純な理性の思想,つまり理性が世界を支配し,したがって世界の歴史も理性的に進行する,という思想である。ヘーゲル歴史観は「オリエントでは一人のものが自由であり,ギリシア・ローマでは若干のものが自由であり,ゲルマンにおいてすべてのひとが自由となる」







Weber argues that Puritan ethics and ideas influenced the development of capitalism and brought wealth.

  • Weber argues that Puritan ethics and ideas influenced the development of capitalism and brought wealth.

  • Religious devotion usually rejects worldly affairs but Protestant ethic accepted secular world and addresses this apparent paradox in the book.

  • Examples, (West Europe, North Europe and USA)

  • How could he explain Japan’s case and China?

  • It must be a challenge to analyze Weber’s book in terms of Orientalism.



Recrimination vs. Reconciliation

  • Recrimination vs. Reconciliation

  • worn-out dogma vs. Direct dialog and Contact

  • Ethnocentrism vs. Cultural Relativism

  • Racism and Xenophobia vs. Multiculturalism in L. D. Indoctrination vs. (Liberal Democracy )

  • Colonialism vs. Cross-cultural Education

  • Unipolarism vs. Cultural Diversity and

  • Respect for cultural identities

  • Trans-cultural and Transnational (supranational) perspectives, without losing individual cultural identities

  • and sense of human solidarity (Koji)



European culture gained in strength and identity by setting itself of against the Orient as a sort of surrogate and even underground self, defining Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient (Said, 1978).

  • European culture gained in strength and identity by setting itself of against the Orient as a sort of surrogate and even underground self, defining Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient (Said, 1978).

  • Stereotyped portrayals of Westerners appear in many works of Indian, Chinese and Japanese artist during this period. The Ideals of the East by Tenshin Okakura.



In the book, Weber wrote that capitalism in northern Europe evolved when the Protestant (particularly Calvinist) ethic influenced large numbers of people to engage in work in the secular world, developing their own enterprises and engaging in trade and the accumulation of wealth for investment. In other words, the Protestant ethic was a force behind an unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the development of capitalism.

  • In the book, Weber wrote that capitalism in northern Europe evolved when the Protestant (particularly Calvinist) ethic influenced large numbers of people to engage in work in the secular world, developing their own enterprises and engaging in trade and the accumulation of wealth for investment. In other words, the Protestant ethic was a force behind an unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the development of capitalism.



Weber argues that Puritan ethics and ideas influenced the development of capitalism. Religious devotion, however, usually accompanied a rejection of worldly affairs, including the pursuit of wealth and possessions. Why was that not the case with Protestantism? Weber addresses this apparent paradox in the books.

  • Weber argues that Puritan ethics and ideas influenced the development of capitalism. Religious devotion, however, usually accompanied a rejection of worldly affairs, including the pursuit of wealth and possessions. Why was that not the case with Protestantism? Weber addresses this apparent paradox in the books.

  • (Wikipedia)






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