Said14 (1978) argued that
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Said14 (1978) argued that European culture gained in strength and identity by setting itself of against the Orient as a sort of surrogate and even underground self, defining Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient. He presented the important hypothesis in his book, Orientalism, that without examining Orientalism as a discourse one cannot possibly understand the enormously systematic discipline by which European culture was able to manage--and even produce--the Orient (Said, 1978).
Said’s Orientalism can be a critical tool to examine the validity of all the literature on the East written by the Westerners. Influenced by the imperialism and colonialism of the 19th century, Western people became interested in the natives and the cultures of Western colonies.
People who supported the Hegelian progressive view of history believed that history is not meaningless chance, but a rational process and transition from the ancient Oriental world through classical Greece and Rome and the Middle Ages to the modern German world.
Said (1981) emphasizes the following point:
You cannot deal with others without profound
In the longer term other measures would be called for. Western civilization is both Western and modern. Non-Western civilizations have attempted to become modern without becoming Western. To date only Japan has fully succeeded in this quest. Non-Western civilization will continue to attempt to acquire the wealth, technology, skills, machines and weapons that are part of being modern. They will also attempt to reconcile this modernity with their traditional culture and values. Their economic and military strength relative to the West will increase. Hence the West will increasingly have to accommodate these non-Western modern civilizations whose power approaches that of the West but whose values and interests differ significantly from those of the West. This will require the West to maintain the economic and military power necessary to protect its interests in relation to these civilizations.
It will also, however, require the West to develop a more profound understanding of the basic religious and philosophical assumptions underlying other civilizations and the ways in which people in those civilizations see their interests. It will require an effort to identify elements of commonality between Western and other civilizations. For the relevant future, there will be no universal civilization, but instead a world of different civilizations, each of which will have to learn to coexist with the others.
Orientalism refers to mannerism, quality, or customs specific to or characteristic of the Orient. Given definition of the Orientalism doesn't suffice for a complete reflection of the Orientalism, as Edward Said contends that Orientalism means more than sheer understanding of the Orient, rather it refers to a biased understanding of the Orient on the part of the west. Some glaring examples of Orientalism can be found in the following content:
Admiral Mahan of the United States Navy saw: …Western world at bay, in danger of losing its momentum and facing the staggering task of assimilating millions of semi-civilized people.
Weber argues that Puritan ethics and ideas influenced the development of capitalism and brought wealth.
Recrimination vs. Reconciliation
European culture gained in strength and identity by setting itself of against the Orient as a sort of surrogate and even underground self, defining Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient (Said, 1978).
In the book, Weber wrote that capitalism in northern Europe evolved when the Protestant (particularly Calvinist) ethic influenced large numbers of people to engage in work in the secular world, developing their own enterprises and engaging in trade and the accumulation of wealth for investment. In other words, the Protestant ethic was a force behind an unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the development of capitalism.
Weber argues that Puritan ethics and ideas influenced the development of capitalism. Religious devotion, however, usually accompanied a rejection of worldly affairs, including the pursuit of wealth and possessions. Why was that not the case with Protestantism? Weber addresses this apparent paradox in the books.
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