Scientific Judgement


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part of classes
1
. As the saying goes, in temporary marriageif the condition does not 
stipulate from each other, the couples not implement inherit from each other. But 
inheriting the temporary stipulation, there is difference. This is known asfixing it
2

2.  Allegiance 
"Allegiance" means the connection and fidelitybetween two or more people except 
for by relative and parity and has three parts: a. emancipation allegiance, b. faults 
ensure allegiance, c. pontificate allegiance. 
Emancipation allegiance: emancipation allegiance means that the master who 
liberates his slaves with condition such as the absence of relative heir for slaves, he 
will inherit of him
3
.   
Faults ensure allegiance: faults ensure allegiance means that a personwill be 
guarantor that any crime that do other and must be blood money, gives blood money 
and takeshis inheritance. This warranty is sometimes bilateral and 
sometimesunilateral and both sortsis true
4
.Faults ensure in the absence of relative 
heir and the lack of master (liberating slaves), will inherit
5

Pontificate allegiance: Pontificate (Imam) (AS) in the absence of any relative and 
husband heirs of the dead, master (liberating slaves) and faults ensure, will be heir of 
the dead
6
. In this Imam (AS) associated inheritance with dead's wife and or despite 
wife is blocked his inheritance, there is difference. This is known as partnership
7
.   
Barriers of inheritance: 
It is two kinds: a. Causes deprivation of all inheritance, b. Causes deprivation of 
some of inheritance. 
                                                 
1
articles 891, 913,  927 and 928 of Law 
2
Jewels (Javaher), Vol 30, p 193; Article 940 of law. 
3
Jewels (Javaher), Vol 39, p 223 
4
 The margins on treatise of Mullah HashemKhorasani, page 127 
5
Jewelry (Javaher), Vol 39, p 254 
6
Jewelry (Javaher), Vol 39, p 260 
7
Courteous Conditions, Vol 30, p 300; document Shiites, Vol 19, p 393 

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200 
a.  deprivation of all inheritance 
1.  Disbelief:if a person to be disbelief does not improve inheritance from 
Muslim, but    Muslim improve inheritance from him
1
.  
2.  Murder:  willful  killing  someone  without  right,  not  for  revenge  or 
defense  or  such  that,  would  causes  murderer  deprivation  from 
inheritance.But  in  murder  of  fault,  this  is  known  as  only  from  blood 
money  of  fault  is  denied.  In  the  murder  of  pseudo  intentional,  of 
whether this is dependingfault murder or premeditated murder, there 
is difference
2
.  
3.  Be slave:Being slave of heir is preventing the inheritance. Unless it be 
confined to his that in this casecoercively would to buy from heirloom 
and he will be freedom and he will be owner of residual heirloom
3
. In 
this  case  that  if  slave  be  at  each  class  of  triple  classes,  he  has  to  be 
freedom if probate to him or that this verdict is depending todedicated 
to parents or they addition childrenof dead, there is difference
4
.  
4.  To curse (To ban):If a man with his wife courses for deny tohis children, 
couple of other and also man of child under curse and vice versa will 
not implement inheritance
5

5.  Adultery:Adulterate  will  not  take  inheritance  from  parent  and  vice 
versaparents  and  their  relatives  will  not  implement  inheritance  from 
adulterate
6

6.  Existence  of  former  class:Existence  anyprevious  class  is  obstacle  of 
inheritance  of  next  classwhich  on  jurisprudence  is  interpretedto 
"Withhold deprivation"
7

                                                 
1
Jewelry (Javaher), Vol 39, p 15 
2
Jewelry (Javaher), Vol 39, p 37 
3
Jewelry (Javaher), Vol 39, p 50 
4
Jewelry (Javaher), Vol 39, p 58-61 
5
Jewelry (Javaher), Vol 39, p 62 
6
Jewelry (Javaher), Vol 39, p 274 
7
Jewels (Javaher), Vol 39, p 75; articles 880 to 884 of law. 

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201 
b.  Causes deprivation of some of inheritance 
1.  Purpose is since thatbecause of the obstacle, higher share become to 
undermost share. For example despite child, husband’s share of half 
becomes to one-fourth andwife's share of one-fourth becomes to one-
eighth. On jurisprudence is interpretedto "Withhold deficit"
1
.  
Directions deserve to inheritance are three types:i. imposition Share, 
ii. Kinship Share, iii. Respond Share. 
i.  Imposition Share: That kind ofdeserve to inheritance say that in the 
holy Quran it is stated. As the verse: 
Allah commands you as regards your children's 
(inheritance); to the male, a portion equal to that of two 
females; if (there are) only daughters, two or more, their 
share is two thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share 
is half. For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each if 
the deceased left children; if no children and the parents 
are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased 
left brothers or (sisters), the mother has a sixth. (The 
distribution in all cases is) after the payment of legacies he 
may have bequeathed or debts. You know not which of 
them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to 
you in benefit, (these fixed shares) are ordained by Allah. 
And Allah is Ever All Knower, All Wise
2

}
مكيصوي
 
 
يف
 
مكدلاوا
 
ركذلل
 
لثم
 
ظح
 
نييثنلاا
 
ناف
 
نك
ّ 
ءاسن
 
قوف
 
نيتنثا
 
نھلف
 
اثلث
 
ام
 
كرت
 
و
 
نا
 
تناك
 
ةدحاو
 
اھلف
 
فصنلا
 
و
 
هيوبلا
 
لكل
 
دحاو
 
امھنم
 
سدسلا
 
امم
 
كرت
...
{
 
 
ii.  Kinship  Share:  That  kind  ofdeserve  to  inheritance  say  that  from 
affinity  and  consanguinity  are  entitled,  not  this  separate 
stated  in  Holy  Quran.  But  only  is  under  "kindred by blood 
(
auloalarham)". as uncle, aunt, … 
And those who believed afterwards, and emigrated and 
strove hard along with you, (in the Cause of Allah) they are 
                                                 
1
Jewels (Javaher), Vol 39, p 75; articles 887 to 892of law. 
2
Quran, Al-Nisa, 11 

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202 
of you. But kindred by blood are nearer to one another 
regarding inheritance in the decree ordained by Allah. 
Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of everything
1

}
...
و
 
احرلااولوا
م 
مھضعب
 
يلوأ
 
ضعبب
 
يف
 
باتك
 
...
{
 
iii. Respond  Share:  Sometimes  deserve  to  inheritance  is  also  by 
imposition and also Kinship and in Islamic jurisprudence it is 
interpreted to "Respond". It means that inheriting in addition 
to obligation is due to affinity with dead. For example if only 
heir be a girl, half of heirloom by imposition such as in Quran 
and the other half will inherit by affinity
2
.  
Types of imposition shares: 
Imposition shares are six kinds: 1. Half; 2. Two-thirds; 3. One-third; 4. One-fourth; 
5. One-sixth; 6.One-eighth  
1.  Half of shares: 
The owners are three groups: 
i.  One girl whereas dead did not has another child 
ii.  One paternal and maternal sister or paternal sister whereas dead did 
not has paternal and maternal brother or paternal brother. 
iii.  Husband, whereas wife of dead had not has child or grandchild. 
2.  Two-thirds of shares: 
The owners are three groups: 
i.  Two girl or morewhereas dead did not has boy. 
ii.  Two paternal sister whereas dead did not has paternal brother. 
iii.  Two  paternaland  maternal  sister  or  more  whereas  dead  did  not  has 
paternaland maternal brother. 
 
                                                 
1
 Quran, Al-Anfal, 75;  Al-Ahzab, 6 
2
Victory, p 559 

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203 
3.  One-third of shares: 
The owners are two groups: 
i.  Mother  whereas  dead  did  not  has  child  or  grandchild.  A  brother  is 
not obstacle. 
ii.  Maternal brothers or sisters whereas be multiple. 
4.  One-fourth of shares:  
The owners are two groups: 
i.  The  husband  that  his  wife  been  dead  and  she  has  been  child  or 
grandchild.  
ii.  The  wife  that  her  husband  been  dead  and  he  has  been  child  or 
grandchild. 
5.  One-sixth of shares: 
The owners are three groups: 
i.  Father whereas the dead has been child. 
ii.  Mother whereas the dead has been at least two paternaland maternal 
brothers or four paternaland maternal sisters. 
iii.  Maternal brother or sister whereas he or she be alone. It means that 
there is not another maternal brother or sister. 
6.  One-eighth of shares: 
The owner of share is just the wife who her husband been dead and he has 
been child or grandchild
1

Spouses’ inheritance of each other 
•  In case of death of the husband: 
1.  If the dead did not have child, then one-fourth is belonging to his wife 
and three-fourth is belonging to another heirs.   
                                                 
1
The Edit of means (Tahrir Al-Vasileh), Vol 2, p 374 

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204 
2.  If the dead has been child, then one-eighth is belonging to his wife and 
seven-eighth is belonging to his child. 
•  In case of death of the wife: 
1.  If the dead did not have child, then half is belonging to her husband 
and half is belonging to another heirs. 
2.  If the dead has been child, then one-fourth is belonging to her husband 
and three-fourth is belonging to her child. 
Sustenance and moan and Innervation 
Heirloom to heirs Shares has three modes: 1. It is enough and size, 2. It is more, 3. It 
is less. 
The second and third case is the difference between Shia and Sunni. In pontificate 
(Imamieh) jurisprudence from third form is interpretation to sustenance and moan 
and from second form to innervation which both are dispense in Shia. Earlier we 
noted that all provisions of the law of the God by describing and explaining of 
Prophet (PBUH) and his successors (AS) are discounted and therefore there is no 
error in it. Especially since it be letter of speech ofhis executor and his prophet and 
his successor. But due to lack of knowledge some orientalists with literature of 
Islamic law, in fundamental and minutiae causedto doubts and Belief in error of 
Islam judgment. Without being have a comprehensive investigation about the robust 
and allegorical of Quran and without being have intellectual exploration in the 
description of that award Prophet and the Imams (AS). Including the doubts is 
skepticism in women rights and her half inheritance, why her share is lower than 
male? To be say, woman like man has presence at all classes of inheritance and 
inheritance is sometimes equal, sometimes more and sometimes less than man. In 
Holy Quran she has high position and level. Great women like Maryam (AS), 
mother of Prophet Jesus (AS) and Asieh, wife of Pharaoh,have perch and high 
position and level in the Quran and Islam; 
And Maryam (Mary), the daughter of 'Imran who guarded her chastity; and 
We breathed into (the sleeve of her shirt or her garment) through Our Rûh [i.e. 
Jibrael (Gabriel)], and she testified to the truth of the Words of her Lord [i.e. 
believed in the Words of Allah: "Be!" and he was; that is 'Iesa (Jesus)  son of 
Maryam (Mary); as a Messenger of Allah], and (also believed in) His 
Scriptures, and she was of the Qanitîn (i.e. obedient to Allah)
1

                                                 
1
Quran, Al-Tahrim, 12 

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205 
}
و
 
ميرم
 
تنب
 
نارمع
 
يتلا
 
تنصحأ
 
اھجرف
 
انخفنف
 
هيف
 
نم
 
انحور
 
و
 
تقدص
ّ
 
تاملكب
 
اھبر
 
و
 
هبتك
 
و
 
تناك
 
نم
 
نيتناقلا
{
 
And the other verse; 
And Allah has set forth an example for those who believe, the wife of Fir'aun 
(Pharaoh), when she said: "My Lord! Build for me a home with You in 
Paradise, and save me from Fir'aun (Pharaoh) and his work, and save me from 
the people who are Zâlimûn (polytheists, wrong-doers and disbelievers in 
Allah)
1

}
برض
 

 
لاثم
ً 
نيذلل
 
اونمآ
 
ةارما
 
نوعرف
 
ذا
 
تلاق
 
بر
 
نبا
 
يل
 
كدنع
 
اتيب
ً ف
ي
 
هنجلا
 
و
 
ينجن
ّ
 
نم
 
نوعرف
 
و 
هلمع
 
و
 
ينجن
ّ
 
نم
 
موقلا
 
نيملاظلا
{
 
In spiritual level and position is considered such men. In fact, in Islam preference 
criterionis not to gender. Superior authority of one who has superior knowledge and 
good faith, whether be female or male; 
And whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a true believer 
in the Oneness of Allâh (Muslim), such will enter Paradise and not the least 
injustice, even to the size of a Naqîra (speck on the back of a datestone), will be 
done to them
2

}
و
 
نم
 
لمعي
 
نم
 
تاحلاصلا
 
نم
 
ركذ
 
وا
 
يثنا
 
و
 
وھ
 
نمؤم
 
كئلواف
 
نولخدي
 
هنجلا
 
و
 
نوملظيلا
 
اريقن
{
 
 
And In another verse: 
Whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, while he (or she) is a 
true believer (of Islamic Monotheism) verily, to him We will give a good life (in 
this world with respect, contentment and lawful provision), and We shall pay 
them certainly a reward in proportion to the best of what they used to do (i.e. 
Paradise in the Hereafter)
3

}
و
 
نم
 
لمع
 
احلاص
ً 
نم
 
ركذ
 
وا
 
يثنا
 
و
 
وھ
 
نمؤم
 
هنييحنلف
ّ
 
ةايح
 
بيط
ه
...
{
 
In that time woman had no right, by rise of Islamwas restoration her rights and as 
men had freedom and was due to surprising Arab-ignorance that women have the 
right and obligatory share and as men in the family and community has the 
responsibility and of this reason that shares of inheritance is divided based on 
                                                 
1
Quran, Al-Tahrim, 11 
2
Quran, Al-Nisa, 124 
3
Quran, Al-Nahl, 97 

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206
 
mission and desires and responsibility and its distribution is entirely based on reason 
and justice. Say that why be inheritance of woman half of men to we had to go to 
catch up by dowry and alimony? Initially we completed her share to wehave not it. 
We should answer: Firstly, reverence for the decision of creator wise is as interest of 
servant little. Secondly, benefit is existing in sentence and but by notion of partial 
and prejudice is not achievable and if little wisdom and fairness together along faith 
in God be, we will be understand that onlyeconomic perspective is not reason for the 
difference sharesand inheritance merely has not economic aspect and this which 
dowry and alimony is not effect of especial situation of woman inheritance 
butspiritual, mental and social problems of women is interfering and important about 
of dowry and alimony and in especial time of family life that woman is severely 
feelingly for purpose of creation and she is base and foundation of spirits of husband 
and children, dowry and alimony is great emotional support that flows in the body 
family and social life and other hand because man is as the pillar of social life who 
has strong spirits of hard working and attempting is response for all expenses 
therefore God is considered more inheritance in his share to has more power and 
ability in administration and financing his family. Thirdly, is not such always that 
woman's share is less than man, sometimes is equal, for example, the parents who 
have lost children because is the same on both economic and psychological damage, 
both inherit one-sixth and sometimes is more, since such families that lost their 
children and their grandchildren are still alive, then their grandfather has died, 
because economic harm to the grandchildren that lost his father is more than the 
grandchildren that lost his mother, thus grandchildren that lost his father, although 
be girl, inheritstwice the son that lost his mother. We see that inheritanceis divided 
with regard toall duties and responsibilities, such as give alimony, insurance, dowry, 
payment of social and participate in war. Balance between social responsibilities of 
such requireto divine laws. 
 
 
 
 
 
gamomcemloba `universali~ 
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19

:
 
2 22 36 09, 5(99) 17 22 30
 
E-mail: universal@internet.ge 
 
 


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