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Section 4-Polling Question

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Chapter 4 Growth of the Thirteen Colonies (1607-1770)

  • Section 4 The French and Indian War

Essential Question

  • How did the outcome of the French and Indian War determine who controlled North America?

The French and Indian War

  • Part of a larger struggle between France and Britain

  • The French were on their way to “making themselves masters of the Continent”

  • France built well-armed forts around the Great Lakes and Ohio River

  • France had a network of alliances with Native Americans

French Advantages

  • Large area of land

  • From the St. Lawrence River to New Orleans

  • France and Native Americans were winning control of the American frontier

Before the War Began

  • British colonists fought the French and Indians with little help from Britain

  • 1754- British government intervened

  • Was alarmed by the French forts and defeat of Fort Necessity

  • Fall of 1754 Great Britain appointed General Edward Braddock commander in chief of the British forces in America

  • Braddock was to drive the French forces out of the Ohio Valley

Braddock Marches to Duquesne

  • June 1755- Braddock started out from Virginia

  • With about 1,400 red-coated British soldiers

  • And a smaller force of blue-coated colonial militia

  • George Washington was an aide to Braddock

  • Washington said Braddock

  • “[Halted] to level every mole hill, and to erect bridges over every brook, by which mean we were four days in getting twelve miles”

More of Braddock Marches to Duquesne

  • Washington told Braddock his army’s style was not suited for the frontier

  • Lined up in columns and wearing bright-colored uniforms

  • Troops were easy targets

  • Braddock ignored Washington’s advise

  • French and Indian forces ambushed the British

Even More of Braddock Marches to Duquesne

  • British were confused and frightened

  • Could not see their attackers who were hidden in the forest

  • Shooting at them behind trees

  • Braddock was killed

  • British lost about 1,000 men

  • Washington led the survivors back to Virginia

Britain Declares War on France

  • Fighting in America started a new war in Europe

  • Seven Year’s War

  • Britain formed an alliance with Prussia in 1756

  • Prussia fought France in Europe

  • Britain fought France in the Caribbean, India, and North America

Early Stages of the War

  • France captured British Forts

  • French Indian allies raided frontier farms

  • Killed settlers, burned houses and crops, drove families back to the coast

  • French forces from Canada captured British forts at Lake Ontario and Lake George

Pitt Takes Charge

  • Great Britain’s prospects in America improved after William Pitt became prime minister

  • Pitt decided that Britain would pay for the war supplies- no matter the cost

  • Pitt ran up an enormous debt

  • Pitt didn’t just want to settle in Western territories, but wanted to conquer French Canada

  • Troops were sent to America under Jeffery Amherst and James Wolfe

  • Many French forts were taken and renamed

  • Including Fort Duquesne and renamed

  • Fort Pitt

Section 4

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The Battle of Quebec

  • Capital of New France

  • On a cliff overlooking the St. Lawrence

  • Thought to be impossible to attack

  • James Wolfe’s scouts spotted a poorly guarded path

  • Wolfe’s soldiers went up this path at night

  • Defeated the sleeping French troops

Treaty of Paris

  • The fall of Quebec and Amherst’s capture of Montreal brought an end to fighting in North America

  • Treaty of Paris forced France to give Canada and most of its land east of the Mississippi to Great Britain

  • Also received Florida from France’s ally, Spain

  • Spain received land west of the Mississippi- the Louisiana Territory- and New Orleans

  • Marked the end of France as a power in North America

Section 4

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Pontiac’s War

  • Indian’s lost their allies and trading partner with France

  • Britain raised prices and refused to pay for the use of land

  • Settlers began moving west

  • Ottawa chief Pontiac saw this as a threat to his people’s way of life

  • Pontiac united Indians and captured British forts (Detroit and others)

  • That summer Indians killed settlers along Pennsylvania and Virginia during Pontiac’s War

  • War ended in August 1765 after the British defeated Pontiac’s allies

  • Pontiac signed a peace treaty and was pardoned

The Proclamation of 1763

  • To prevent more fighting, Britain called a halt to settlers westward expansion

  • Proclamation of 1763 set the Appalachian Mountains as the temporary western boundary of the colonies

  • Angered people who wanted to make money there

  • These speculators had already bought land west of the mountains

  • They were furious that Britain ignored their land claims

  • More conflicts would soon arise between Britain and the colonists

Section 4

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Essential Question

  • How did the outcome of the French and Indian War determine who controlled North America?

The Humanity of General Amherst

Chapter 4 Section 4 Quiz

The French and Indian War was a war between the French and Native Americans.

  • True

  • False

Braddock did not take Washington's advice on the style of marching when they set out for Fort Duquesne.

  • True

  • False

William Pitt decided that Britain would pay the costs for the French and Indian War.

  • True

  • False

The Proclamation of 1763 ended the French and Indian War.

  • True

  • False

After the French and Indian War, King George III gave the colonies permission to expand past the Appalachian Mountains.

  • True

  • False

The commander in chief of the British forces in America who was to drive the French out of America was

  • George Washington.

  • William Pitt.

  • Edward Braddock.

  • Benjamin Franklin.

What document marked the end of France as a power in North America?

After the treaty was signed in 1763, the continent was divided between which two countries?

The Proclamation of 1763 called for

  • settlers to move westward.

  • a war.

  • a halt to westward expansion.

  • Native Americans to move west.

The Proclamation of 1763 angered wealthy speculators because they

  • lost voting rights.

  • lost their businesses.

  • lost the war.

  • owned land west of the mountains.

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