Speakers bureaus: astrazeneca, genentech


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SPEAKERS BUREAUS: ASTRAZENECA, GENENTECH

  • SPEAKERS BUREAUS: ASTRAZENECA, GENENTECH

  • RESEARCH GRANTS: NOVARTIS, GLAXOSMITHKLINE, PFIZER, MERCK

  • ASSOCIATE EDITOR: ANNALS OF ALLERGY, ASTHMA & IMMUNOLOGY

  • ASSOCIATIONS: AAAAI, ACAAI, CAAS

  • NO CONFLICTS OF INTEREST PERTAINING TO SUBJECT MATTER OF THIS TALK



Mucous membranes and skin of hay fever sufferers sensitive to pollen not seen in normal individuals

  • Mucous membranes and skin of hay fever sufferers sensitive to pollen not seen in normal individuals

  • Injection of pollen into animals rises neutralizing “antitoxin”

  • Specific precipitation of pollen extracts by patient’s serum

  • Pollen extract prepared by freezing and thawing, followed by ten minutes of boiling, then sealing





Believed pollen contained toxin and subcutaneous injection of pollen extract induced production of antitoxin

  • Believed pollen contained toxin and subcutaneous injection of pollen extract induced production of antitoxin

  • Phleum pratense (timothy grass) extract most potent

  • Sensitivity defined by conjunctival challenge

  • 6-10 fold decrease in sensitivity could be induced by increasing doses of 3-6 sub-Q injections



Further observations on the treatment of hay fever by hypodermic inoculations of pollen vaccine. Lancet Sept 16, 1911

  • Further observations on the treatment of hay fever by hypodermic inoculations of pollen vaccine. Lancet Sept 16, 1911

    • Twenty subjects with >2 pre-seasonal injections, with final increased strength from 1.1 to 500 fold higher
    • 15 did well; 3 considered failure, “disappointing” or inconclusive; 1 improved clinically but significant adverse reaction to highest dose; 1 from Canada with autumnal sxs


Vaccination against hay fever: Report of results during the last three years. Lancet April 25, 1914

  • Vaccination against hay fever: Report of results during the last three years. Lancet April 25, 1914

    • 84 patients with English hay fever inoculated with Phleum pratense pollen preseasonally
    • 18 in 1911; 25 in 1912; 41 in 1913
    • 30.1% cured or insignificant sxs; 34.5% markedly improved; 23.9% minimal improvement; 11.5% no better (two patients worse)
    • “Patients with marked constitutional disturbances, including asthma, do better”
    • “Patients with an inherited tendency do better”
    • “Age makes no difference to the benefit derived from treatment”


1904 Dunbar & Prausnitz – Pollen “toxin” injections

  • 1904 Dunbar & Prausnitz – Pollen “toxin” injections

  • 1911 Noon – Prophylactic inoculations against hayfever

  • 1911 Freeman - Further observations

  • 1930 Freeman - “Rush” inoculations

  • 1932 A Brown – Superiority of perennial over pre-seasonal administration of immunotherapy

  • 1932-1935 GT Brown – Maximum dosage pollen therapy

  • 1933 Colmes & Rackemann – Skin reactivity changes with immuotherapy



1935 Cooke, Barnard, Hebold & Stull - Serologic evidence of immunity

  • 1935 Cooke, Barnard, Hebold & Stull - Serologic evidence of immunity

  • 1940 Sherman, Stull & Cooke – Serologic changes in hay-fever with treatment over years

  • 1943 Loveless - Relationship of thermostable antibody & clinical immunity

  • 1948 Alexander, Johnson & Bukantz – Lack of correlation between thermostable antibody titer and degree of clinical protection



“Leisurely Desensitisation:” (c. 1909) single injections @ weekly intervals off-season

  • “Leisurely Desensitisation:” (c. 1909) single injections @ weekly intervals off-season

  • “inoculations were given weekly merely because our out-patients at St. Mary’s were in the habit of coming every week.”

  • “Intensive Desensitisation:” (c. 1924) single injections every day with increasing doses (10-20% increase)

  • Used initially for horse dandruff sensitive asthmatics with success

  • Increasingly adapted to hay-fever patients (c. 1926)



“Rush Desensitisation:” (c. 1928) multiple injections q1.5-2h throughout 14 hour day; completed in 2-4 days

  • “Rush Desensitisation:” (c. 1928) multiple injections q1.5-2h throughout 14 hour day; completed in 2-4 days

  • Patient in “hospital or some such institution” – treatment continued through symptoms of urticaria, headache, throat & nasal congestion, and treatment with adrenalin

  • Used in dust asthma, fish allergy, horse dander, hay-fever



A= good night

  • A= good night

  • B= local reaction

  • C= generalized rash

  • D= sneezing

  • E= throat & nasal congestion

  • F= headache & drowsy

  • G= restless night

  • H= generalized rash & eyelid swelling

  • I= adrenalin

  • ?= out of hospital





Advantages of the “rush” method

  • Advantages of the “rush” method

      • Saving of time
      • Convenient scheduling – “one may even wait till the patient is in real distress – always a good time for getting a patient to do what he is told.”
      • Closer observation of reactions with more expeditious therapy
      • Doses can be more readily adapted


“In choosing a system of desensitisation, one need not, of course, adhere rigidly to the leisurely, intensive, or “rush” methods; an intelligent blend may serve one’s turn better.”

  • “In choosing a system of desensitisation, one need not, of course, adhere rigidly to the leisurely, intensive, or “rush” methods; an intelligent blend may serve one’s turn better.”

  • “The ‘rush’ method of desensitisation offers many advantages when used either alone or in combination with other systems. To get successful and safe results, however, it is just as necessary as ever to be cautious.”



Rhinitis Asthma

  • Rhinitis Asthma

  • *Northern grasses *Northern grasses

  • *Short ragweed *House dust

  • *Ragweed Amb a 1 *Ragweed Amb a 1

  • *Mountain cedar *Mountain cedar

  • *Birch/Alder/Hazel *Birch/Alder/Hazel

  • Parietaria *D. pteronyssinus

  • Cladosporium Cladosporium

  • Alternaria Alternaria

  • Dog dander

  • *Cat dander

  • Hymenoptera Allergy

  • *Venom *(1954-1984)



1954 Frankland & Augustin – First DBPC efficacy study with grass hay-fever & asthma

  • 1954 Frankland & Augustin – First DBPC efficacy study with grass hay-fever & asthma

  • 1965 Lowell & Franklin – First DBPC short ragweed hay-fever study

  • 1967 Franklin & Lowell – Dosage comparison in ragweed immunotherapy

  • 1971 Aas – First DBPC house dust asthma study

  • 1976 Pence et al – Mountain cedar rhinitis & asthma study

  • 1978 Warner et al – D. pteronyssinus house dust mite asthma study





Hollister-Stier

  • Hollister-Stier

    • Staphylococcus aureus 6 x108/cc; Staphylococcus albus 6 x108/cc; Streptococcus viridans/pyogenes 2 x108/cc; H. influenzae 1.5 x108/cc
  • Danish

    • S. aureus 9 x107/cc; S. viridans/pyogenes 6 x107/cc; D. pneumoniae 3 x108 /cc; H. influenzae 12.5 x108/cc; K. pneumoniae 2 x107 /cc; Neisseria 8 x107/cc


Frankland, Hughes, Gorrill, 1955: Autogenous

  • Frankland, Hughes, Gorrill, 1955: Autogenous

  • Johnstone, 1959: Autogenous, Stock, or Staphylococcal toxin

  • Aas et al, 1963: Stock vaccine

  • Barr et al, 1964: Stock vaccine




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