St. Kitts and Nevis Sustainable Energy Plan Initial Stakeholders Meeting


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St. Kitts and Nevis Sustainable Energy Plan

  • Initial Stakeholders Meeting

  • June 13, 2006


St. Kitts and Nevis – A Clean Energy Nation

  • The Federation Government has expressed its commitment to increasing the sustainability of the energy sector.

  • Sustainability may be achieved through the diversification of electricity generation, increased use of renewable natural resources, increased energy efficiency and conservation, and improved transportation systems.



Who Is GSEII?

  • Global Sustainable Energy Islands Initiative

  • Formed as an informal partnership in 2001 – in response to St. Lucia’s commitment to become a sustainable energy demonstration country



What is the history of SEP development in the Eastern Caribbean?

  • St. Lucia Prime Minister Kenny Anthony made first formal commitment at the Hague in 2000

  • St. Lucia SEP developed via a consultative process

    • St. Lucia SEP adopted by Cabinet in 2005
  • Dominica and Grenada SEPs prepared in 2003

    • Adopted as operational plans by Public Works (Energy) Ministries
  • SEP implementation in each of three countries



Why Should St. Kitts and Nevis Care about the Energy Sector?

  • High price of electricity – Caused by:

    • total dependence on imported petroleum for electricity generation…high price of petroleum (US$70+/barrel)
    • Inefficiency of small diesel gen-sets
  • High maintenance requirements/poor reliability of small diesel gen-sets results in electricity outages

  • Negative Environmental impacts associated with diesel powered generation



Goals for a Sustainable Energy Plan

  • Increased economic development

    • Reduce fossil fuel imports
    • Increase development and use of domestic natural resources
    • Increase local employment and energy sector opportunities
    • Lower energy costs
    • Attract technology transfer/foreign investment
  • Improved environmental protection

    • Local environment (improved tourism appeal)
    • Global environment (mitigate climate change emissions)


Defining a Course of Action

  • The Government of St. Kitts and Nevis, in collaboration with GSEII may prepare the way for Clean Energy Development through the development of a Sustainable Energy Plan

    • Articulate national goals and priorities for the energy sector
    • Establish specific energy sector targets
    • Articulate actions required to achieve the stated goals


Elements of a SEP



Outline Current Energy Conditions

    • A. Legal Structure - Electricity
      • State run utilities control generation, transmission and distribution
      • Limited or no opportunities for private power generation
      • Regulated pricing (Current Prices?)
      • Subsidies required to maintain “affordable electricity?” (Level of subsidies?)


I. Outline Current Energy Conditions, Cont.

    • B. Electricity Generation portfolio
      • Installed capacity
      • Demand characteristics
      • Key consumers (tourism, medical school, light industry, government, etc.)
      • Projections for expansion


Summary of Generation Characteristics (July 2005)







Projections for Demand Growth – St. Kitts



Projections for Demand Growth - Nevis



I. Outline Current Energy Conditions, Cont.

  • Transportation Sector

    • Government purchase and sale of gasoline
    • Cost of gasoline at the pump?
    • Subsidies to maintain affordable gas prices?
    • Transportation infrastructure plan?
    • Average age of vehicle fleet?
    • Organization of public transportation?


II. Establish SEP Energy Sector Targets

    • A. Electricity Sector
    • Demand reductions (DSM; EE)
      • 2011: Reduce demand by X%; X MW installed; X GWh generated
      • 2016: Reduce demand by X%: X MW installed; X GWh generated
    • Renewable Energy Installations
      • 2011: X MW (X% of projected demand)
      • 2016: X MW (X% of projected demand)
    • GHG Emissions Reductions: X% reduction in diesel consumption/X% reduction in GHG (TOC)


II. Establish SEP Energy Sector Targets, Cont.

  • B. Transportation Sector

  • Improve mileage efficiency of vehicle fleet by X%

  • Improve/increase use of public sector transportation

  • Produce locally, for transportation use, X gallons of ethanol

  • Import hybrid vehicles, E85 vehicles and other alternative fueled vehicles as appropriate



III. Outline Potential Mix of Sustainable Energy Technologies

  • Grid-tied renewable energy alternatives

  • Household and off-grid renewable energy alternatives

  • Energy efficiency measures

  • Transportation sector measures



Likely Near-Term Grid-tied Renewable Energy Alternatives

  • Geothermal power generation on Nevis

    • St. Kitts and Nevis participates in the GEF/UNEP sponsored Geo-Caraïbes Project
    • Pre-Feasibility study (geology, geochemistry and prelim geophysics) suggests 10MW+ potential in the Bath/Farms Estate area


Likely Near-Term Grid-tied Renewable Energy Alternatives

  • Biomass to Energy on St. Kitts

    • Utilize sugar cane and municipal solid waste to produced ethanol and electricity
    • Need to assess optimal utilization biomass
      • Sufficient feedstock for commercial production?
      • Economical to revitalize sugarcane crop?
      • Long term reliability of feedstocks?
      • Potential for ethanol exports?
    • GSEII embarking on commercial-style feasibility study to determine biomass to energy potential


Likely Near-Term Grid-tied Renewable Energy Alternatives

  • Wind, OTEC and others

    • Need site specific resource assessments to determine potential
    • Wind – broad analysis
      • Average wind speed = 6.18 m/s (10 m height) (St. Kitts)
      • Average wind speed = 7.89 m/s (10 m height) (Nevis)


Likely Near-Term Distributed Renewable Energy Alternatives

  • The most obvious opportunity for households, hotels, other buildings is solar hot water heaters

    • Key opportunity to reduce energy consumption
  • Solar PV and distributed wind show promise for buildings

    • Possible interconnection to the grid (net metering)


Likely Energy Efficiency Alternatives

  • Improvements to electric utility system (example Dominica)

  • Commercial and Household energy conservation/DSM

  • Commercial and Household use of energy efficient appliances and lighting

  • Implement EE standards and regulations

  • Solar H20



Likely Transportation Sector Alternatives

  • Increase mileage efficiency

  • Incorporate hybrid vehicles

  • Use of ethanol as a 10% blend (standard vehicles) or high percentage (E85) blend in flex fuel vehicles

  • Improvements in public transport system

  • Increase alternatives for pedestrian and bicycle traffic (bike lanes)



IV. Potential Actions to Achieve Targets

  • Promotion of Grid-Tied Renewables

    • Liberalize electric utilities (including public private partnerships)
    • Mandate Renewable Energy Technology Use
      • Renewable energy portfolio standard (require 10-30% of installed capacity from renewables)
    • Attract private power developers for alterative energy solutions
      • Offer long-term PPAs
      • Offer tax and other fiscal incentives


IV. Potential Actions to Achieve Targets

  • Promotion of Grid-Tied Renewables, Cont.

    • Make firm commitments to key project opportunities (geothermal, biomass, etc.)
    • Deliver on government responsibilities related to project developments (ie. Development of the sugarcane/feedstock supply, commit to long term PPAs, execute permits and licensing, etc.)
    • Increase human capacity/awareness
      • Establish utility training programs
      • Launch national education/awareness program
    • Seek international financing/resources for renewable energy feasibility and development (GEF, CDM, EU, World Bank…)


IV. Potential Actions to Achieve Targets

  • Promotion of Distributed Renewables

    • National Solar Water Heating Initiative
      • National awareness initiative
      • Tax relief for solar water heating system purchases
      • Solar hot water heating loan program
    • Encourage solar PV system deployment
    • Attract solar manufacturer/assembly plant investment


IV. Potential Actions to Achieve Targets

  • Promotion of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    • Compact fluorescent lightbulb program (Cuba or GSEII/Climate Care)
    • Public buildings energy efficiency assessments and retrofits
    • Initiate comprehensive capacity building initiative
    • Catalyze the establishment of ESCOs
    • Launch national DSM program
    • Establish appliance and building norms and standards
    • Create/promote hotel “Green Globe Program”


IV. Potential Actions to Achieve Targets

  • Cross-Cutting Electricity Sector Issues



IV. Potential Actions to Achieve Targets

  • Transportation Sector Reforms

    • Establish alternative fuel vehicle demo fleet
    • Impose regulations for higher efficiency among vehicles
    • Improvements in public transportation systems
    • Modifications to roads/traffic patterns


V. Next Steps in the Development of a SEP

  • Complete assessment of current conditions – by 23 June

  • Stakeholder dialogue and individual consultations on priorities – by 30 June

  • Draft 1 of SEP by GSEII distributed to Stakeholders for review – by 15 July

  • Revisions thru to Final Draft by 1 Sept

  • Submission to Cabinet for Consideration by 15 Sept



Contact Information

  • Mark Lambrides

  • mlambrides@oas.org +1-202-458-6261

  • Kevin de Cuba

  • kdecuba@oas.org +1-202-458-

  • Maria Rivera

  • maria@energyandssecurity.com +1-703-



Thank You!




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