Strung together end to end, your blood vessels could circle the globe 2 1/2 times!


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Strung together end to end, your blood vessels could circle the globe 2 1/2 times!

  • Strung together end to end, your blood vessels could circle the globe 2 1/2 times!

  • The body of an adult contains over 60,000 miles of blood vessels!

  • An adult's heart pumps nearly 4000 gallons of blood each day!

  • Your heart beats some 30 million times a year!

  • The average three-year-old has two pints of blood in their body; the average adult at least five times more!

  • A "heartbeat" is really the sound of the valves in the heart closing as they push blood through its chambers.



Vast network of organs and vessels that is responsible for the flow of blood, nutrients, oxygen and other gases, and hormones to and from cells.

  • Vast network of organs and vessels that is responsible for the flow of blood, nutrients, oxygen and other gases, and hormones to and from cells.

  • Comprised of: A. Arteries

  • B. Veins

  • C. Capillaries

  • D. Heart



Arteries:

  • Arteries:

  • 1. Carry blood AWAY from the heart

  • 2. Have thick muscular walls...WHY?

  • Veins:

  • 1. Carry blood TO the heart

  • 2. Have thin walls, large lumens, and valves

  • Capillaries:

  • Site of exchange for blood cells (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones) connecting arteries and veins

  • Smallest vessels in the body (RBC’s must go one at a time through!)





Muscle responsible for pumping blood in the body

  • Muscle responsible for pumping blood in the body

  • About 14 cm x 9 cm (size of your fist)

  • Located in the chest cavity, in the space between the lungs

  • Distal end of the heart is called the apex



Enclosed in the pericardium

  • Enclosed in the pericardium

  • Name means: around the heart

  • Contains fluid that reduces the friction from the pumping action of the heart

  • Also called “Pericardial Sac”



Epicardium: protective outer covering made of epithelial tissue

  • Epicardium: protective outer covering made of epithelial tissue

  • Myocardium: thick muscle tissue responsible for pumping

  • Endocardium: smooth inner lining for easy flow of blood





Your heart is a double pump—you have 2 circuits 1. Pulmonary Pathway: lungs only/ Right Side 2. Systemic Pathway: rest of the body/Left Side

  • Your heart is a double pump—you have 2 circuits 1. Pulmonary Pathway: lungs only/ Right Side 2. Systemic Pathway: rest of the body/Left Side

  • The heart has 4 chambers:

  • -2 Atria – thin upper chambers that receive blood returning to the heart through veins… Right and Left Atrium

  • -2 Ventricles – thick, muscular lower chambers. Receive blood from the atria above them. Force (pump) blood out of the heart through arteries… Right and left ventricle.

  • -Interventricular Septum: Separates Left and Right Side







Allow one-way flow of blood, 4 total

  • Allow one-way flow of blood, 4 total

  • Tricuspid valve- Between right atrium and ventricle

  • Biscuspid Valve- Between left atrium and ventricle

  • Aortic Semilunar –Between the left ventricle and the aorta

  • Pulmonary Semilunar- Between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk





Superior/Inferior Vena Cava: Returns blood to the heart from head and lower body, largest vein in the body

  • Superior/Inferior Vena Cava: Returns blood to the heart from head and lower body, largest vein in the body

  • Aorta: Takes blood away to the body , largest artery in the body

  • (Rt. And Lt.)Pulmonary Artery: Takes oxygen poor blood away to the lungs (to get what??)

  • (Rt. And Lt.) Pulmonary Vein: Takes oxygen rich blood back to heart





BLUE= Deoxygenated or Oxygen Poor Blood

  • BLUE= Deoxygenated or Oxygen Poor Blood

  • RED= Oxygenated or Oxygen Rich Blood







The Pulmonary arteries and veins are the only vessels that carry opposite blood than all the others!

  • The Pulmonary arteries and veins are the only vessels that carry opposite blood than all the others!

  • Which carries which? WHY?



The heart receives its own supply of blood from the coronary arteries.

  • The heart receives its own supply of blood from the coronary arteries.

  • Two major coronary arteries branch off from the aorta near the point where the aorta and the left ventricle meet.

  • These arteries and their branches supply all parts of the heart muscle with blood.

  • These arteries, if become clogged, cause heart attacks (Myocardial Infarctions)





Papillary Muscles: Protrusions in the endocardium that anchor the cords that attach to the valves

  • Papillary Muscles: Protrusions in the endocardium that anchor the cords that attach to the valves

  • Chordae Tendinae: cords or strings that attach to valves



Interventricular Septum: wall between ventricles, keeps blood separate making CV more efficient (how?)

  • Interventricular Septum: wall between ventricles, keeps blood separate making CV more efficient (how?)



Fossa Ovalis: depression in atrial wall that was once an opening for the fetus

  • Fossa Ovalis: depression in atrial wall that was once an opening for the fetus

  • Why is it there??



The first heart sound (lub) is caused by the closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves.

  • The first heart sound (lub) is caused by the closure of the tricuspid and mitral valves.

  • The second heart sound (dub) is caused by the closure of the pulmonic and aortic valves.



Network of specialized tissue that stimulates contraction

  • Network of specialized tissue that stimulates contraction

  • Made of modified cardiac myocytes

  • The heart can contract without any stimulation from the brain.

  • How the heart works:

    • The heart produces electrochemical impulses
    • using electrolytes (Na, K)
    • Those impulses travel through the heart causing it to contract (it can be detected all over the body)
    • The pace is your heart rate or pulse


Sinoatrial (SA) Node: aka the pacemaker; located in the upper Right Atrium

  • Sinoatrial (SA) Node: aka the pacemaker; located in the upper Right Atrium

  • Polarizes or contracts the atria

  • Signal collected by the atrioventricular (AV) node

  • Contracts the ventricles by passing on the signal to the right and left bundle fibers



Heart Rate = PULSE

  • Heart Rate = PULSE

  • Measured in beats per minute (bpm)

  • Average of 72 bpm

  • Heart problems can alter HR

  • Taken from any artery

    • Radial (wrist)
    • Carotid (neck)








Find a quiet place and sit down

  • Find a quiet place and sit down

  • Place the tips of your index, second, and third fingers on your wrist below your thumb at the base of your hand. Press lightly, and feel carefully for your pulse. (NEVER USE YOUR THUMB!)

  • Count the number of beats for ten seconds

  • Multiply by 6

  • EX: 12 beats in ten seconds

  • 12 x 6 = 72 bpm (beats per minute)



Measures the force pressing outward on your arterial wall

  • Measures the force pressing outward on your arterial wall

  • Result of two forces.

  • Systolic Pressure: Force that occurs as heart contracts and blood is forced out of heart (top #)

  • Diastolic Pressure: Force created as the heart rests between heart beats (bottom #)

  • These two forces are each represented by numbers measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg)

  • Average: 120 Systolic

  • 80 mmHg Diastolic





Electrocardiogram: test that measures the conductivity of the heart

  • Electrocardiogram: test that measures the conductivity of the heart

  • Done for many reasons:

    • Chest pain/Heart Attack
    • Dizziness, Fainting, shortness of breath, rapid HR
    • Heart chamber thickness
    • How medicines are working/causing side effects
    • Check pacemaker
    • Check heart health when other conditions present (smoking, diabetes, Hi BP, Hi cholesterol)




Arrhythmia = Irregular heartbeat

  • Arrhythmia = Irregular heartbeat

  • Types of Arrhythmias

  • What is tachycardia? More than 100 bpm normally

  • Bradycardia = Less than 60 bpm normally



Set of blood vessels that carry blood to EVERY cell in the body

  • Set of blood vessels that carry blood to EVERY cell in the body









Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries.

  • Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries.

  • Plaque is made up of fat,

  • cholesterol, calcium, and other

  • substances found in the blood.

  • Over time, plaque hardens

  • and narrows your arteries.

  • This limits the flow of

  • oxygen-rich blood to your

  • organs and other parts of

  • your body.



Aneurysm Repair

  • Aneurysm Repair

  • Angioplasty and Stents

  • Coronary Artery Bypass

  • Heart Transplant

  • Pacemaker

  • Valve Repair/Replacement













How does smoking affect your CV system?

  • How does smoking affect your CV system?

  • What happens in a heart attack (MI)?

  • Can drugs affect the heart?

  • Drugs and Heart Disease?






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