Symbiosis is a relationship between different species in which at least one species depends upon the relationship to survive


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Symbiosis is a relationship between different species in which at least one species depends upon the relationship to survive

  • Symbiosis is a relationship between different species in which at least one species depends upon the relationship to survive


Symbiosis

  • Symbiosis

    • Mutualism (+ +)
    • Commensalism (+ 0)
    • Antagonism (+ -)
      • Parasitism
      • Predation
      • Competition
    • Amensalism (- 0)


One individual (predator) captures, kills, and consumes another individual (prey)

  • One individual (predator) captures, kills, and consumes another individual (prey)

  • Common Defenses Against Predation

  • Flight

  • Mimicry

  • Camouflage

  • Chemicals/Physical Structures

  • Bright Colors



An herbivore grazing on a plant is another example of predation.

  • An herbivore grazing on a plant is another example of predation.

  • Usually, only part of the prey is eaten by the predator.

  • Photo Credit: Rhett A. Butler @ mongabay.com



Competition in an interaction between two organisms that are using the same resources

  • Competition in an interaction between two organisms that are using the same resources

  • Competition within the same species= intraspecific

  • Competition between different species= interspecific

  • One organism better uses a resource leaving less for other species



Two species of barnacles on rocky coasts often compete for space.

  • Two species of barnacles on rocky coasts often compete for space.

  • The smaller species (Chthamalus) is unable to compete as well as the larger species (Balanus).

  • However, Chthamalus can survive drying better than Balanus, so it can live higher up on the rocks.



In Scotland, Joseph Connell studied interspecific competition in these two barnacles.

  • In Scotland, Joseph Connell studied interspecific competition in these two barnacles.

  • In places where both barnacles were present, he removed the Balanus barnacles from the rocks.



When Balanus barnacles were removed, the Chthamalus barnacles moved down into the vacant area.

  • When Balanus barnacles were removed, the Chthamalus barnacles moved down into the vacant area.

  • This showed that Balanus was outcompeting Chthamalus in the lower zone.



At other sites where both barnacles were present, he removed Chthamalus barnacles from the rocks.

  • At other sites where both barnacles were present, he removed Chthamalus barnacles from the rocks.

  • The vacant areas remained unoccupied.

  • This showed that Balanus was not able to survive in the upper zone.



One individual is harmed and one benefits

  • One individual is harmed and one benefits

  • Parasite feeds on the host

    • No immediate death


Both species benefit

  • Both species benefit

    • Pollination


One species benefits and the other is not affected



one species is harmed or inhibited and the other species is unaffected

  • one species is harmed or inhibited and the other species is unaffected





http://education.nationalgeographic.org/activity/ecological-relationships/

  • http://education.nationalgeographic.org/activity/ecological-relationships/

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fxrzdhHjf0Q&list=PL0EA301D130F3DB40

    • Clips 1-3



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