The novel in India has seen its rise and development as an autonomous genre in coincidence with fundamental experiences such as the conquest of independence, the achievements and failures of the nationalist project, the internal and overseas mass


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  • The novel in India has seen its rise and development as an autonomous genre in coincidence with fundamental experiences such as the conquest of independence, the achievements and failures of the nationalist project, the internal and overseas mass migration, and more recently the dramatic passage from centralized economy to neo-liberal free market.











  • LINGUISTIC VARIETY

  • Indian languages, 2 main families: Indo-European (Hindi, Urdu, Hindustani, Punjabi, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarati, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi etc.) and Dravidian (Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam et al.)









  • It is a plurilingual society with eighteen officially recognized or “scheduled”languages, thirty-three major languages, and a total of 1.652 languages and dialects that belong to four language families (Austric, Dravidian, Indo-Aryan, and Sino-Tibetan) and are written in ten major scripts as well as a host of minor ones. Hindi is the main language, with around 40 percent of the population identified as Native Hindi speakers. Its nearest rivals are Bengali, spoken by 8 % of the population, and Telugu (also 8 %), followed by Marathi (7.5 %), and Tamil (6.5 %).



In a north-south divide between the northern Indo-European languages and the southern Dravidian languages (Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, and Malayalam), the speakers of the latter group comprise just 22 percent of the total Indian population. Thus in the mosaic of Indian diversity, no single language has an outright majority, but Hindi dominates

  • In a north-south divide between the northern Indo-European languages and the southern Dravidian languages (Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, and Malayalam), the speakers of the latter group comprise just 22 percent of the total Indian population. Thus in the mosaic of Indian diversity, no single language has an outright majority, but Hindi dominates







 

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  • Caste: endogamous group or collection of groups bearing a common name and having the same traditional occupation, sharing the tradition of a common origin and common tutelary deities.

  •  

  • BRAHMANA (priests; today intellectuals and managers) mouth

  • KSHATRYA (warriors and kings) arms

  • VAISYA (land owners, traders) legs

  • SHUDRA (hand workers, peasants, servants,) feet

  • Outcast people:

  • dalit (broken, oppressed)

  • Harijan (God’s son) introduced by Gandhi



































Classic art

  • Classic art















Shah Jahan (reigns 1627-1658, imprisoned by his son 1658-1666) patronized culture, the arts and architecture

  • Shah Jahan (reigns 1627-1658, imprisoned by his son 1658-1666) patronized culture, the arts and architecture









miniatures

  • miniatures



watercolor

  • watercolor



  • The quest for India was begun by Portugal. In 1498 Vasco da Gama anchored off Calicut, in 1500 Cochin became the first trading headquarters in India, Goa became the capital of Portuguese possessions.







A mix of direct and indirect rule

  • A mix of direct and indirect rule



The English East India Company was established in 1600. In the first half of XVII cent. it obtained various concessions from the Mogul Empire: first trading posts were Surat, Agra, then Calcutta and later on Bombay. The commercial settlements were soon fortified. Rivalry arose with the Portuguese, defeated by the English fleet.

  • The English East India Company was established in 1600. In the first half of XVII cent. it obtained various concessions from the Mogul Empire: first trading posts were Surat, Agra, then Calcutta and later on Bombay. The commercial settlements were soon fortified. Rivalry arose with the Portuguese, defeated by the English fleet.



Indian Mutiny 1857

  • Indian Mutiny 1857

  • the great revolt of the Bengal native army led to transference of government to the crown. Due to many causes it was accompanied by rebellion of the population and some of chieftains. The pretext for revolt was the introduction of a new rifle whose cartridges, lubricated with pig’s and cow’s grease, had to have their ends bitten off by the sepoys.



Unification of the country

  • Unification of the country

  • Codification of laws

  • Use of English as vehicular language

  • Cultural vitality of anglicised élites

  • Technological development (trains, telegraph, mail service)

  • Social reforms (age of consent bill, abolition of sati*)

  • Unified Educational system



Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak is an Indian literary theorist, and University Professor at Columbia University. In "Can The Subaltern Speak?" Spivak discusses the race and power dynamics involved in the banning of sati. Spivak writes that all we hear about sati are accounts by British colonizers or Hindu leaders of how self-immolation oppressed women, but we never hear from the sati-performing women themselves. This lack of an account leads Spivak to reflect on whether the subaltern can even speak.

  • Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak is an Indian literary theorist, and University Professor at Columbia University. In "Can The Subaltern Speak?" Spivak discusses the race and power dynamics involved in the banning of sati. Spivak writes that all we hear about sati are accounts by British colonizers or Hindu leaders of how self-immolation oppressed women, but we never hear from the sati-performing women themselves. This lack of an account leads Spivak to reflect on whether the subaltern can even speak.



The massacre was a seminal event in the British rule of India. On 13 April 1919, a group of non-violent protesters had gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh garden in Amritsar, Punjab. On the orders of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer the army fired on the crowd for ten minutes, directing their bullets largely towards the few open gates through which people were trying to run out. The dead numbered between 370 and 1000. The brutality stunned the entire nation. The initially ineffective inquiry fueled widespread anger, leading to the Non-cooperation movement of 1920-22.

  • The massacre was a seminal event in the British rule of India. On 13 April 1919, a group of non-violent protesters had gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh garden in Amritsar, Punjab. On the orders of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer the army fired on the crowd for ten minutes, directing their bullets largely towards the few open gates through which people were trying to run out. The dead numbered between 370 and 1000. The brutality stunned the entire nation. The initially ineffective inquiry fueled widespread anger, leading to the Non-cooperation movement of 1920-22.













The bright side: Independence celebrations

  • The bright side: Independence celebrations









































“… a transaction between two unequal, and unequally motivated, sides in an encounter that, despite its unevenness, was still characterized by exchange of some sort.”

  • “… a transaction between two unequal, and unequally motivated, sides in an encounter that, despite its unevenness, was still characterized by exchange of some sort.”

  • (P. Joshi)

  • “…Indian readers then writers transmuted an imported and alien form into local needs that inspired and sustained them across many decades.” (P. Joshi)



  • English Literature of ‘serious standard’ was introduced to ‘educate’ colonized people. 

  • British books constituted 95% of book imports into India between 1850 and 1900 and were present in equivalent percentages among Indian library holdings.



Numerous public and circulating libraries emerged to provide books at small expense or for free.

  • Numerous public and circulating libraries emerged to provide books at small expense or for free.

  • While fiction constituted about a third of the total holdings of a library it was requested up to three times more often than the other forms.

  • Indians preferred popular fiction: romance and melodrama resonated with the circularity and intricacy of the epic plot of, for example, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana full of interconnections and coincidences.



The reading public included: civil servants, university and school teachers, students, minor ranks of the aristocracy, merchants, clerks. It was predominantly male and metropolitan. A greater majority read English novels translated into regional language.

  • The reading public included: civil servants, university and school teachers, students, minor ranks of the aristocracy, merchants, clerks. It was predominantly male and metropolitan. A greater majority read English novels translated into regional language.



The novel acquired a social agency that was peculiarly Indian. It became a new form involved in inventing and representing the self; it provided its readers with a new language for figuring out the emerging social relations associated with modernity. In many cases the novel with its populistic and sentimentalist overtones became one of the most powerful vehicles for anti-colonial feelings.

  • The novel acquired a social agency that was peculiarly Indian. It became a new form involved in inventing and representing the self; it provided its readers with a new language for figuring out the emerging social relations associated with modernity. In many cases the novel with its populistic and sentimentalist overtones became one of the most powerful vehicles for anti-colonial feelings.



The majority of literary English production entered India through the ports of Calcutta and Bombay. These two capitals were more open to Western cultural influence and at the same time gave life to the most powerful anti-colonial movements (The Great Mutiny and the Swadeshi movement emerged in Bengal, Gandhi from Bombay Presidency)

  • The majority of literary English production entered India through the ports of Calcutta and Bombay. These two capitals were more open to Western cultural influence and at the same time gave life to the most powerful anti-colonial movements (The Great Mutiny and the Swadeshi movement emerged in Bengal, Gandhi from Bombay Presidency)



  • Sometimes Indian authors gave up English and retained the novel form

  • Bankim Chandra Chatterjee wrote in Bengali; although he was also an essayist, historian, philosopher and social thinker his fame rested on his novels: he was called ‘Scott of Bengal’. Anandamath, 1882, a historical novel is his most widely known work: the setting is XVIII century rural Bengal, a time of famine during which a local insurgency seeks to overthrow a cruel and unjust political order of weak and decadent Muslim rulers and British tax collectors.





The movie released in 1952

  • The movie released in 1952



  • In 1932 4 writers published in Urdu a collection of innovative short stories Angarey (Burning Embers) characterized by frank depiction of sex and a general irreverence towards religion. (ex: a wet dream during a nap with the head on an open Koran) The book was condemned from Mosques’ pulpits as un-Muslim; the British government for fear of public riots banned the book.



  • In response the 4 writers wrote a manifesto which was to become the first document of the All-India Progressive Writers’ Association

  • The movement was equally directed against internal orthodoxy and ignorance as well as foreign domination

  • One of the 4 was Ahmed Ali, Twilight in Delhi (1940)





  • “…Ali’s use of English is partly to reach the widest possible audience both in India and abroad. However… Ali imports into his English novel Urdu forms borrowed from poetry and ghazals that are themselves the product of borrowings from Arabic, Persian, and Hindustani…”(P. Joshi)





  • A fiction written in a robustly vernacular English, manifestly hybrid, mixing the novel with diverse narrative forms both of the modern languages of cinema, television, journalism etc. and of old traditional Indian genres such as the oral epic



“I became a writer at the moment I found a narrative voice for Midnight’s Children and that was finding a literary equivalent of that oral narrative from India that had kept the audience rapt for thousands of years”

  • “I became a writer at the moment I found a narrative voice for Midnight’s Children and that was finding a literary equivalent of that oral narrative from India that had kept the audience rapt for thousands of years”



While Bankim’s narrator took its cue from the serious and judgemental narrator of the written epic, Rushdie’s clearly comes from the jesting, jocular figure of the oral tradition whose fallacy inspired the unreliable narrator in M.C., Saleem Sinai

  • While Bankim’s narrator took its cue from the serious and judgemental narrator of the written epic, Rushdie’s clearly comes from the jesting, jocular figure of the oral tradition whose fallacy inspired the unreliable narrator in M.C., Saleem Sinai

  •  



Saleem Sinai states that an entire universe can be understood from his life; his personal story reflecting India’s history. (a commonplace for an audience raised on the Mahabharata: “Whatever is in the Mahabharata can be found elsewhere; but what isn’t in it can be found nowhere.”

  • Saleem Sinai states that an entire universe can be understood from his life; his personal story reflecting India’s history. (a commonplace for an audience raised on the Mahabharata: “Whatever is in the Mahabharata can be found elsewhere; but what isn’t in it can be found nowhere.”



Whereas Bankim’s narrator helped stabilize meaning, Rushdie’s, taking his inspiration from the circular structure of the oral epic and the tendency to change and adjust while repeating…, multiplies meaning.

  • Whereas Bankim’s narrator helped stabilize meaning, Rushdie’s, taking his inspiration from the circular structure of the oral epic and the tendency to change and adjust while repeating…, multiplies meaning.

  •  



In the hands of Rushdie the novel becomes a means to address issues surrounding modernity such as citizenship, subjectivity, identity, community and communalism, religion and politics, nation and nationalism besides aesthetical concerns about meta-fiction, inter- textual play, the role of the narrator, narrative perspectivism etc.

  • In the hands of Rushdie the novel becomes a means to address issues surrounding modernity such as citizenship, subjectivity, identity, community and communalism, religion and politics, nation and nationalism besides aesthetical concerns about meta-fiction, inter- textual play, the role of the narrator, narrative perspectivism etc.



Rushdie creates a curious myth of the nation: instead of celebrating its moment of glorious birth after a heroic liberation struggle, he interrogates its unglamorous middle age tainted by communal unrest and the threat of separatist violence.

  • Rushdie creates a curious myth of the nation: instead of celebrating its moment of glorious birth after a heroic liberation struggle, he interrogates its unglamorous middle age tainted by communal unrest and the threat of separatist violence.



But in seizing the authority to tell their own versions of history, sociology, politics, his novels vindicate the right to master their own fantasies and world pictures. The fact that these novels exist marks the liberation of an Indian voice from the ‘official’ and ‘objective’ reality answering the mandate of imperialist culture. They articulate versions of Indian history and identity rendering them plural, just ‘legends’ that make up reality, revealing in a post-modernistic way the fictional nature of reality itself.

  • But in seizing the authority to tell their own versions of history, sociology, politics, his novels vindicate the right to master their own fantasies and world pictures. The fact that these novels exist marks the liberation of an Indian voice from the ‘official’ and ‘objective’ reality answering the mandate of imperialist culture. They articulate versions of Indian history and identity rendering them plural, just ‘legends’ that make up reality, revealing in a post-modernistic way the fictional nature of reality itself.





In 1980 S. Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children transformed the Indian novel in English in an international phenomenon opening the way to dozens of ensuing literary cases.

  • In 1980 S. Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children transformed the Indian novel in English in an international phenomenon opening the way to dozens of ensuing literary cases.



before Rushdie:

  • before Rushdie:

  • Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao, R. K. Narayan, Khushwant Singh, V. S. Naipaul, Kamala Markandaya, Anita Desai (she already wrote but declared a debt to Rushdie) et al.



V. S. Naipaul, Hanif Kureishi, Monica Ali, Nadeem Aslam, Jhumpa Lahiri, Rohinton Mistry, Bapsi Sidhwa, Amid Chauduri, Chitra Divakaruni, Ardashir Vakil, et al.

  • V. S. Naipaul, Hanif Kureishi, Monica Ali, Nadeem Aslam, Jhumpa Lahiri, Rohinton Mistry, Bapsi Sidhwa, Amid Chauduri, Chitra Divakaruni, Ardashir Vakil, et al.

  • Indian Diaspora

  • Before Partition: towards the empire (Mauritius, Fiji, Tanzania, Kenia, South Africa, Trinidad as indentured labourers, coolies)

  • After Partition: GB, USA, Canada as emigrants



Timeline, Introduction

  • Timeline, Introduction

  • Chapter 1 Making English India

  • Chapter 5 Midnight’s Legacies

  • Chapter 8 The Literature of Migration

  • Conclusions





Three stories of violence and murder in a grotesque style

  • Three stories of violence and murder in a grotesque style

  • The White Tiger: the servant kills his master and the reasons why …

  • Between the Assassinations: collection of short stories (unequivocal title)

  • Last Man in Tower: how good and friendly people can become murderes



In his stories, the author expresses his indignation and his pessimism by means of social critique expressed in a satirical mode. The murderers are not punished. There is no social justice and no happy ending. The stories are not tragic in tone but grotesque: ironical distance between style and content .

  • In his stories, the author expresses his indignation and his pessimism by means of social critique expressed in a satirical mode. The murderers are not punished. There is no social justice and no happy ending. The stories are not tragic in tone but grotesque: ironical distance between style and content .



Castal violence, social unjustice, political corruption, religious fanaticism (traditional evils of Indian society)are investigated as sources of rebellion in the first two works of Adiga. The culprits are not punished (Balram, the murderer had been previously pursued for a crime he had not committed)

  • Castal violence, social unjustice, political corruption, religious fanaticism (traditional evils of Indian society)are investigated as sources of rebellion in the first two works of Adiga. The culprits are not punished (Balram, the murderer had been previously pursued for a crime he had not committed)

  • In his third work the source of violence is greed conceived as a social force connected to the new economy of late capitalism. Money is stronger than any other value (friendship, honesty, loyalty)



If the market was once apparently subservient and subject to the political and social demands imposed by the state, today, it is the state and its politics that is increasingly shaped and disciplined by the requirements of the market. So changes, and rather sharp ones, do occur. The political economy that sustains the reasons of the market is itself the result of certain political and cultural conceptions being transformed into practice and achieving a hegemonic hold on public understanding.

  • If the market was once apparently subservient and subject to the political and social demands imposed by the state, today, it is the state and its politics that is increasingly shaped and disciplined by the requirements of the market. So changes, and rather sharp ones, do occur. The political economy that sustains the reasons of the market is itself the result of certain political and cultural conceptions being transformed into practice and achieving a hegemonic hold on public understanding.



This debut novel won the 40th Man Booker Prize. It provides a darkly humorous portrait of the class/caste struggle in the new-liberal, globalized India. The novel examines issues of poverty, caste, social justice, corruption and inequality in India. The protagonist, a brilliant village boy, is able to transcend his caste destiny and to become a successful business-man, not by means of study and personal initiative , as he would like, but by becoming violent and corrupt as the society in which he is forced to fight his way up. The price he has to pay is to transform himself into a murderer. Despite democracy there is not for him a chance in freedom and justice.

  • This debut novel won the 40th Man Booker Prize. It provides a darkly humorous portrait of the class/caste struggle in the new-liberal, globalized India. The novel examines issues of poverty, caste, social justice, corruption and inequality in India. The protagonist, a brilliant village boy, is able to transcend his caste destiny and to become a successful business-man, not by means of study and personal initiative , as he would like, but by becoming violent and corrupt as the society in which he is forced to fight his way up. The price he has to pay is to transform himself into a murderer. Despite democracy there is not for him a chance in freedom and justice.



Balram narrates his life in a letter, which he writes in 7 consecutive nights to the Chinese Premier, visiting India. Balram explains how he, the son of a rickshaw puller, born in a rural village in "the Darkness“, escapes a life of servitude to become a successful businessman. In Laxmangarh he lived with his extended family. He is a smart child; however, he is forced to quit school in order to help pay for his cousin sister's dowry. He begins to work in a teashop with his brother. Despite his caste (sweet-maker), while working in the teashop he describes himself as a bad servant and decides that he wants to become a driver.

  • Balram narrates his life in a letter, which he writes in 7 consecutive nights to the Chinese Premier, visiting India. Balram explains how he, the son of a rickshaw puller, born in a rural village in "the Darkness“, escapes a life of servitude to become a successful businessman. In Laxmangarh he lived with his extended family. He is a smart child; however, he is forced to quit school in order to help pay for his cousin sister's dowry. He begins to work in a teashop with his brother. Despite his caste (sweet-maker), while working in the teashop he describes himself as a bad servant and decides that he wants to become a driver.





In his novel Adiga attempts to catch the voice of the low castes. He wanted to capture the unspoken voice of people from "the Darkness" – the impoverished areas of rural India, and he wanted to portray these people and their lives without sentimentality or indulgence, without romanticizing poverty.

  • In his novel Adiga attempts to catch the voice of the low castes. He wanted to capture the unspoken voice of people from "the Darkness" – the impoverished areas of rural India, and he wanted to portray these people and their lives without sentimentality or indulgence, without romanticizing poverty.



Names 9-11, 33-5, 36-7

  • Names 9-11, 33-5, 36-7

  • India /China 4, 30-1, 90-1, 95-6

  • Light (propaganda) Vs Darkness (terrible truth) 14, 19-20, 84, 118-20,

  • Colonial history21, 173

  • Castal legacy 24-26, 51, 54-6, 61,63-4, 66-7, 193

  • Globalization 6-7, 38, 302, 303-5

  • Superstition 8-9

  • Poverty as dispossession 13, 167, 169, 174-6, 187

  • Corruption 47-50, 97, 270-72

  • Ambivalence 246, 320-1



Desai is the daughter of the novelist Anita Desai. She was born in Chandigarh, and spent the early years of her life in Pune and Mumbai. She left India at 14, and spent a year in England with her mother, and then moved to the United States, where she studied

  • Desai is the daughter of the novelist Anita Desai. She was born in Chandigarh, and spent the early years of her life in Pune and Mumbai. She left India at 14, and spent a year in England with her mother, and then moved to the United States, where she studied

  • creative writing at Columbia University.

  • She has a relationship with Orhan Pamuk

  • (turkish novelist), recipient of the 2006

  • Nobel Prize for Literature. Her first novel,

  • Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard,

  • was published in 1998.





  • The novel follows two separate threads

  • Two settings: Northern India

  • USA

  • Two times: postcolonial globalized present

  • late-colonial period



In India near the Nepal border lives Jemubhai Popatlal, a retired Cambridge-educated judge. Living with him is his orphan granddaughter Sai and his cook. Sai is 16 and has fallen in love with her 20-year old tutor, Gyan. Gyan, however, joins Nepalese independence insurgents and the group breaks into Jemubhai's home looking for weapons, terrorizing them all.

  • In India near the Nepal border lives Jemubhai Popatlal, a retired Cambridge-educated judge. Living with him is his orphan granddaughter Sai and his cook. Sai is 16 and has fallen in love with her 20-year old tutor, Gyan. Gyan, however, joins Nepalese independence insurgents and the group breaks into Jemubhai's home looking for weapons, terrorizing them all.

  • Through Sai we experience Indian postcolonial precarious present.

  • At the same time, the story shuttles back and forth between Sai's youth and that of her Anglophile grandfather, Jemu. Through the judge, we experience the colonial era in all the cruelty of its old, ingrained hatreds and prejudices.







Desai takes a sceptical view of the West's consumer-driven multiculturalism. She seems far from writers whose fiction takes a generally optimistic view of what Rushdie has called "hybridity, impurity, intermingling, the transformation that comes of new and unexpected combinations of human beings, cultures, ideas, politics, movies, songs." In fact, Desai's novel seems to argue that such multiculturalism, confined to the Western metropolis and academia, is not able to address the causes of extremism and violence in the modern world. Nor, it suggests, can economic globalization become a route to prosperity for the downtrodden.

  • Desai takes a sceptical view of the West's consumer-driven multiculturalism. She seems far from writers whose fiction takes a generally optimistic view of what Rushdie has called "hybridity, impurity, intermingling, the transformation that comes of new and unexpected combinations of human beings, cultures, ideas, politics, movies, songs." In fact, Desai's novel seems to argue that such multiculturalism, confined to the Western metropolis and academia, is not able to address the causes of extremism and violence in the modern world. Nor, it suggests, can economic globalization become a route to prosperity for the downtrodden.



What binds the seemingly disparate characters is a shared historical legacy and a common experience of impotence and humiliation (postcolonial melancholy).

  • What binds the seemingly disparate characters is a shared historical legacy and a common experience of impotence and humiliation (postcolonial melancholy).



The judge is a minute man (Macaulay), a mimic man (Naipaul) whose Anglo-philia can only turn into self-hatred. (See H. Bhabha concept of Mimicry: almost but not quite…white)

  • The judge is a minute man (Macaulay), a mimic man (Naipaul) whose Anglo-philia can only turn into self-hatred. (See H. Bhabha concept of Mimicry: almost but not quite…white)

  • These Indians are also an unwanted anachronism in postcolonial India, where subjected peoples have begun to awaken to their dereliction, to express their anger and despair. (See for example A. Adiga, The White Tiger)



Young and tender Sai, is ready to forget her sad past as an orphan to rejoice in her first romance, but, betrayed in her love, she is lead to conclude that there is no chance for happiness in an unhappy world.

  • Young and tender Sai, is ready to forget her sad past as an orphan to rejoice in her first romance, but, betrayed in her love, she is lead to conclude that there is no chance for happiness in an unhappy world.

  • "Never again, could she think there was but one narrative and that this narrative belonged only to herself, that she might create her own mean little happiness and live safely within it."



Half-educated, uprooted men, like Gyan, with only the promise of a limited access to democracy and modernity, gravitate to the first available political cause in their search for a better way. He joins what sounds like an ethnic nationalist movement, not so much out of ideological conviction but largely as an opportunity to express his rage and frustration.

  • Half-educated, uprooted men, like Gyan, with only the promise of a limited access to democracy and modernity, gravitate to the first available political cause in their search for a better way. He joins what sounds like an ethnic nationalist movement, not so much out of ideological conviction but largely as an opportunity to express his rage and frustration.



For Biju, living his miserable life in immigrant-packed basements in New York, without a green card, the city's endless possibilities for self-invention become a source of pain. This awareness only makes him long to fade into insignificance, to return "to where he might relinquish this overrated control over his own destiny." (irony on the Western value of self-determination). But going back home in the climactic scenes of the novel, Biju is immediately engulfed by the local eruptions of rage and frustration. For him and the others withdrawal or escape are no longer possible.

  • For Biju, living his miserable life in immigrant-packed basements in New York, without a green card, the city's endless possibilities for self-invention become a source of pain. This awareness only makes him long to fade into insignificance, to return "to where he might relinquish this overrated control over his own destiny." (irony on the Western value of self-determination). But going back home in the climactic scenes of the novel, Biju is immediately engulfed by the local eruptions of rage and frustration. For him and the others withdrawal or escape are no longer possible.













Slumdog Millionaire (oxymoron)

  • Slumdog Millionaire (oxymoron)

  • Realistic details/Unrealistic story19-20,29-31

  • Tragic situations 280-5/ Happy ending 315-6

  • Corrupted Institutions12/ ‘Magic Helpers’ 13-4

  • Realistic settings 76-8/ Fantastic coincidences

  • (events become answers, Prem Kumar’s role in Nita and Neelima Kumari’s lives, Ram’s role in Smita’s life 313-4)












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