The peak of Islam’s political and military power


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The peak of Islam’s political and military power

  • The peak of Islam’s political and military power

  • All based on military conquest

  • All from Turkic nomadic cultures

  • All absolute monarchies



All were Muslim but Mughals ruled over a predominantly non-Muslim population

  • All were Muslim but Mughals ruled over a predominantly non-Muslim population

  • Ottomans had large Christian minority

  • Safavids were Shi’ite Muslims







Ottoman Turks began to build power on northwest corner of the Anatolian Peninsula.

  • Ottoman Turks began to build power on northwest corner of the Anatolian Peninsula.

  • With decline of Seljuk Turks, Ottomans expanded and founded the Ottoman dynasty

  • 1300’s: Ottomans expanded into Balkan Peninsula



Janissaries: young boys taken from the Christian population. Boys were converted to Islam and trained as elite soldiers or administrators to serve the Sultan

  • Janissaries: young boys taken from the Christian population. Boys were converted to Islam and trained as elite soldiers or administrators to serve the Sultan

  • Ottomans defeated the Serbs at the Battle of Kosovo

  • Controlled the Balkan Peninsula



Under the leadership of Mehmet II, the Ottomans laid siege to Constantinople

  • Under the leadership of Mehmet II, the Ottomans laid siege to Constantinople

  • Fall of Constantinople in 1453 brought end to the Byzantine Empire

  • The Ottomans made the city their capital renaming it Istanbul



Under rule of Sultan Selim I, the Ottomans took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Arabian Peninsula with holy cities of Mecca and Medina

  • Under rule of Sultan Selim I, the Ottomans took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Arabian Peninsula with holy cities of Mecca and Medina

  • Selim declared himself Caliph

  • Ottoman rule spread across North Africa though by 1600’s this area was semi-independent



Ottoman attempts to penetrate Eastern Europe were stymied by the Hungarians

  • Ottoman attempts to penetrate Eastern Europe were stymied by the Hungarians

  • Greatest threat to Europe came under rule of greatest of Ottoman rulers, Suleyman I. Under his leadership, Ottomans seized Belgrade and won victory over Hungarians and occupied the country



The Ottomans laid siege to Vienna in 1529

  • The Ottomans laid siege to Vienna in 1529

  • Ottoman advance into western Mediterranean stopped at Lepanto in 1571 by Western coalition led by the Spanish



In 1600’s, the Ottomans attempted to expand into Europe again

  • In 1600’s, the Ottomans attempted to expand into Europe again

  • Vienna was besieged

  • Combined European force pushed Ottomans out of Austria and Hungary

  • Ottomans would never threaten Central Europe again



Ottoman rule

  • Ottoman rule

    • The Ottomans copied many aspects of Byzantine political structure, especially imperial rule
    • A strong centralized government was established with the sultan at its head in Istanbul.
    • The position of sultan was hereditary- once in power, a sultan would murder all his brothers.
    • The private domain of the sultan was called the harem


The imperial bureaucracy was controlled by the sultan through his chief minister, the Grand Vizier

    • The imperial bureaucracy was controlled by the sultan through his chief minister, the Grand Vizier
    • Most high government officials were Muslim by birth and many were chosen based on merit
    • The Ottomans administered their lands through local rulers called pashas
    • Pashas collected taxes (giving a percentage to the Ottomans) and maintained law and order


As Caliph, the sultan was the supreme religious leader but he delegated many duties to the Ulema, who administered the legal system and education

  • As Caliph, the sultan was the supreme religious leader but he delegated many duties to the Ulema, who administered the legal system and education

  • Islamic law applied to all Ottoman territory

  • The Ottomans were tolerant of non-Muslims - head tax

  • Non-Muslim religions were headed by an official who was responsible to the sultan



Women had greater freedom under the Ottomans than in other Muslim nations

  • Women had greater freedom under the Ottomans than in other Muslim nations

  • Could own and inherit property, could not be forced into marriage, and were permitted to divorce





Safavids descended from Turkic tribesmen in northern Iran

  • Safavids descended from Turkic tribesmen in northern Iran

  • Safavids – Shi’ite Muslims

  • 1501- Safi al-Din Ismail seized much of what is today Iran and Iraq

  • Ismail sent missionaries into Ottoman lands

  • Massacred Sunni Muslims when he conquered Baghdad in 1508



Selim I, the Ottoman sultan, marched against Safavids and won major victory

  • Selim I, the Ottoman sultan, marched against Safavids and won major victory

  • After more attempts by the Safavids to take Ottoman lands, the Ottomans forced the Safavid leader, Shah Abbas, to sign peace treaty



Safavids reached peak of power under Shah Abbas

  • Safavids reached peak of power under Shah Abbas

  • With help of Europeans, Shah Abbas attempted to take more lands from Ottomans

  • Another peace treaty was signed but conflict continued for many years



The Safavids declined after death of Shah Abbas in 1629

  • The Safavids declined after death of Shah Abbas in 1629

  • Afghan tribesmen invaded and captured the Safavid capital and forced the royal family to flee to Azerbaijan, their original homeland



Safavid rule comparable to the Ottomans

  • Safavid rule comparable to the Ottomans

  • Safavids had vibrant middle class

  • Greatest area of productivity in Safavid Empire was textiles

  • Carpets were prized all over the world





Founded by Babur, descended from Tamerlane and Genghis Khan

  • Founded by Babur, descended from Tamerlane and Genghis Khan

  • Invaded India from Kabul and conquered Delhi

  • Using that city as his base, he expanded into the subcontinent



After Babur’s death, his son, Akbar, continued the expansion until most of India was under his control

  • After Babur’s death, his son, Akbar, continued the expansion until most of India was under his control

  • Although his empire appeared highly centralized it was in reality a collection of semi-independent states held together by the emperor

  • The Mughal Empire was the greatest empire in India since the Mauryans



Although Muslim, Akbar adopted a policy of religious tolerance

  • Although Muslim, Akbar adopted a policy of religious tolerance

  • Hindus served in lesser positions in his court and even Christians were present in the form of Jesuit advisors

  • Akbar even took a Hindu bride



Local officials, called Zamindars, administered districts, taking a portion of the taxes as salary

  • Local officials, called Zamindars, administered districts, taking a portion of the taxes as salary

  • Political stability and peace = period of growth in trade and manufacturing

  • Much of the trade was handled by Muslim merchants



The Mughal dynasty went into decline after death of Akbar

  • The Mughal dynasty went into decline after death of Akbar

  • Akbar succeeded by his son, Jahangir

  • Under Jahangir’s reign, the nobility took more power through the intrigues of one of his Persian-born wives







Her son, Shah Jahan, succeeded Jahangir

  • Her son, Shah Jahan, succeeded Jahangir

  • In order to secure hold on power, he had all rivals murdered

  • Shah Jahan’s military campaigns and corruption in court impoverished state

  • His son, Aurangzeb, killed brother and imprisoned Shah Jahan

  • Shah Jahan built Taj Mahal for deceased wife



Expanded Empire

  • Expanded Empire

  • Defeated the Portuguese

  • Known for magnificent architectural projects



Jahan’s favorite wife

  • Jahan’s favorite wife

  • Died in 1631 giving birth to her fourteenth child

  • Jahan built the most magnificent tomb possible: The Taj Mahal

  • Combination of Indian, Persian, Chinese architectural styles







Aurangzeb tried to eliminate many of India’s social evils including sati

  • Aurangzeb tried to eliminate many of India’s social evils including sati

  • He forced Hindus to convert to Islam and forbade the construction of Hindu temples

  • Social unrest resulted in a number of revolts

  • Weakened from within, Delhi was sacked by Persians in 1739



Shah Jahan’s building projects and taxes caused rebellions among the Hindus

  • Shah Jahan’s building projects and taxes caused rebellions among the Hindus

  • Aurangzeb overthrew and imprisoned his father in 1658 and became Shah

  • Expanded the Mughal Empire to its greatest extent



Devout Muslim who insisted Shar’ia become the law of the land

  • Devout Muslim who insisted Shar’ia become the law of the land

  • Persecuted Hindus, closed temples, outlawed practice of sati

  • Renewed taxes on non-Muslims which had been ended by Akbar the Great

  • Revolts began, aided by Europeans in India

  • By early 1700s Mughals were losing control of India and Europeans were gaining influence



The Portuguese, Dutch, British, and French all sought influence in India

  • The Portuguese, Dutch, British, and French all sought influence in India

  • War between British and French

  • Increasing British influence under the East India Company



Mughals and Hindus created a blended culture

  • Mughals and Hindus created a blended culture

  • Both Muslim and Hindu cultures restricted women

  • Purdah adopted by higher-class Hindus



Some Hindus forcibly married Muslim women and converted them to Hinduism

  • Some Hindus forcibly married Muslim women and converted them to Hinduism

  • Hindus converting to Islam lost all rights within the Indian family

  • Mughals married Hindu women and adopted Indian dress



Internal weaknesses and conflicts

  • Internal weaknesses and conflicts

  • Overexpansion

  • Weak, incompetent rulers

  • Muslim contempt for Europeans meant the Europeans were underestimated

  • Economic and military decline as Europeans gained power




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