The Rise of Islam Islam How can we contrast Islam with traditional Arabian religion?


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The Rise of Islam


Islam

  • How can we contrast Islam with traditional Arabian religion?

  • How can we compare/contrast Islam with Judaism and Christianity?

  • How can we compare/contrast Islamic and Christian policies toward those of other faiths in their respective lands?



Islam

  • Relevant Terms

    • Ummah
    • Ulama
    • Imam
    • Mosque


Islam

  • The Arabian Peninsula

    • Desert
    • Home of the Arabs
      • No centralized authority
      • Pastoral nomads
      • Loyal to tribes


Islam

  • Arabian Religion during the Jahiliyah

    • Polytheistic
    • Divination
    • Jinn


Islam



Islam

  • Mecca

    • Commercial center
    • Ka’ba: then a pagan shrine
    • Controlled by Quraysh


Islam

  • Monotheism in Arabia

    • Judaism
    • Christianity
    • Hanifs


Islam

  • Muhammad (570-632)

    • Orphan, of Quraysh
    • Involved in Meccan caravan trade
    • Pious, influenced by hanifs?
    • Night of Power (ca. 610)  Prophet of Islam


Islam

  • Muslim Era Begins

    • Gained some converts
    • Overall response: negative  danger!
    • Prophet invited to Medina
    • The Hijra (622): Muhammad, ummah emigrated


Islam

  • In Medina

    • Muhammad became statesman
    • City converted
    • Unbelieving Jews expelled
    • Raids on Meccan caravans launched


Islam

  • Battle of Badr (March 15, 624)

    • Began as Muslim attempt to intercept very wealthy caravan
    • 1,000 Meccans vs. 300 Muslims
    • Muslim victory!


Islam

  • The Return to Mecca (630)

    • Quraysh had violated Treaty of Hudaybiyya (made 628)
    • Muslims marched on Mecca
    • City surrendered
    • Muhammad cleansed Ka’ba


Islam

  • Questions?



Islam

  • The Quran

    • Muhammad’s revelations
    • Significant teachings
      • Absolute monotheism
      • Jesus: “apostle”
      • “People of the Book”
      • Judgment  Paradise, Hell
      • Make war on unbelievers
        • Jihad


Islam



Islam

  • The Five Pillars

    • Shahadah
      • “There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His Prophet”
    • Salat (prayer)
    • Ramadan
    • Zakat (alms levy)
    • Hajj (pilgrimage)


Islam

  • Talbiyah

    • "Labbayk, Allahumma Labbayk. Labbayk. La shareeka laka. Labbayk. Innal-hamda wan-n'imata laka wal-mulk. La shareeka lak.“
    • “Here we come, O God, here we come! Here we come. No partner have You. Here we come! Praise indeed, and blessings, are Yours---the Kingdom too! No partner have You!”


Islam



Islam

  • Status of Women

    • First convert: Khadijah (d. 620)
    • In the Quran
    • Quran’s reforms not always implemented


Islam

  • Questions?



Islam



Islam

  • The Battle of Tours/Poitiers (732)



Islam

  • The Caliphate

    • Muhammad died 632
    • Caliphs
      • Prophet’s successors
      • First were early converts, from his inner circle (Rashidun)
      • Office: political, religious


Islam



Islam

  • Division within the Ummah

    • The fate of Ali (r. 656-661)
      • Muhammad’s cousin, husband of Fatima
      • Dedicated Muslim
      • Muhammad intended him to be successor?
      • Civil war between Ali and Mu’awiyah  Ali’s assassination
    • Aftermath: Sunni vs. Shi’ah


Islam



Islam

  • Ruling the Caliphate: Shari’ah

    • Sacred law of ummah
    • Purpose: regulate all activities
    • Sources: Quran, Sunnah, community consensus
    • Qadis: shari’ah judges


Islam

  • Ruling the Empire: Status of Non-Muslims

    • Dhimmis: followers of religions tolerated by law; not forced to convert
    • Monotheist leaders relied on to manage their communities’ affairs
    • Faced discrimination (jizyah, etc.)


Islam

  • Islamic Iberia

    • Visigoths conquered between 711-16
    • Under emirs, at Córdoba
    • Muslims about 25% of population
    • Decent inter-religious relations
    • Not all Christians were content


Islam

  • Questions?



Islam

  • The Great Civilization

    • Sophisticated, advanced
    • Access to classical learning
    • Books, libraries
    • Contributed to science and math


Islam



Islam

  • Dome of the Rock (687-692)

    • Tribute to Islam’s triumph in Jerusalem
    • Erected on sacred site
    • Domed octagon


Islam



Islam



Islam



Islam



Islam

  • Questions?



Islam

  • How can we contrast Islam with traditional Arabian religion?

  • How can we compare/contrast Islam with Judaism and Christianity?

  • How can we compare/contrast Islamic and Christian policies toward those of other faiths in their respective lands?



Primary Source

  • Excerpts from the Quran

    • What do we learn about God?
    • What is its teaching regarding idols?
    • What does it have in common with the Jewish-Christian Bible?
    • How does it differ from teachings of People of the Book?


Primary Source

  • Muslim-Christian Debate

    • What kind of source?
    • Who was involved, and their setting?
    • Tone of the debate?
    • Subjects discussed, and strategies used to argue points?
    • Is there an apparent “winner”?


Primary Source

  • Accounts of Battle of Poitiers (Tours)

    • What kind of sources?
    • Who were the authors, and did their prejudices color the way they described this conflict?
    • Did you find anything unbelievable in their accounts?



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