The sixteenth century in Europe was a time of unprecedented change. It was the beginning of the modern era, and it saw a revolution in almost every aspect of life. The century opened with the discovery of a new continent


Download 463 b.
bet1/20
Sana14.08.2018
Hajmi463 b.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   20



The sixteenth century in Europe was a time of unprecedented change. It was the beginning of the modern era, and it saw a revolution in almost every aspect of life. The century opened with the discovery of a new continent. The renaissance in Italy was peaking and spreading north, even arriving in backwaters like England. Life was largely prosperous for the average person, the economy was growing. The mechanisms of commerce, systems of international finance, ocean-going trading fleets, an entrepreneurial bourgeoisie, were all building a recognizably capitalist, money-based economy.

  • The sixteenth century in Europe was a time of unprecedented change. It was the beginning of the modern era, and it saw a revolution in almost every aspect of life. The century opened with the discovery of a new continent. The renaissance in Italy was peaking and spreading north, even arriving in backwaters like England. Life was largely prosperous for the average person, the economy was growing. The mechanisms of commerce, systems of international finance, ocean-going trading fleets, an entrepreneurial bourgeoisie, were all building a recognizably capitalist, money-based economy.





The first half of the century saw what contemporaries viewed as the most earth-shattering change in the century: the Reformation. The cultural consensus of Europe based on universal participation in the Body of Christ was broken, never to be restored. Along with the Reformation came challenges to secular society. The nature and organization of power and government came under reevaluation as well. No one could imagine religious change without it going hand-in-hand with social and political change, as indeed it did.

  • The first half of the century saw what contemporaries viewed as the most earth-shattering change in the century: the Reformation. The cultural consensus of Europe based on universal participation in the Body of Christ was broken, never to be restored. Along with the Reformation came challenges to secular society. The nature and organization of power and government came under reevaluation as well. No one could imagine religious change without it going hand-in-hand with social and political change, as indeed it did.



The High Renaissance in Italy coincided with the lives and art of three great artists, Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Later artists studied and emulated the idealized beauty of Leonardo and Raphael, and the dynamism and grandeur of Michelangelo. However, faced with the perfection of the High Renaissance, a younger generation of painters began to explore different artistic possibilities.

  • The High Renaissance in Italy coincided with the lives and art of three great artists, Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Later artists studied and emulated the idealized beauty of Leonardo and Raphael, and the dynamism and grandeur of Michelangelo. However, faced with the perfection of the High Renaissance, a younger generation of painters began to explore different artistic possibilities.



This late period of the Renaissance, which lasted approximately from 1520 to 1600, is called Mannerism from the Italian maniera meaning "style" or "stylishness." To some extent, Mannerism mirrors the religious anxiety and political confusion resulting from the Protestant Reformation and the weakened authority of the Roman Catholic Church. Where High Renaissance art had been concerned with the harmonious balance of naturalism, composition, and color, art now found delight in exaggeration, artificiality, odd perspective, and jarring color.

  • This late period of the Renaissance, which lasted approximately from 1520 to 1600, is called Mannerism from the Italian maniera meaning "style" or "stylishness." To some extent, Mannerism mirrors the religious anxiety and political confusion resulting from the Protestant Reformation and the weakened authority of the Roman Catholic Church. Where High Renaissance art had been concerned with the harmonious balance of naturalism, composition, and color, art now found delight in exaggeration, artificiality, odd perspective, and jarring color.



Although Mannerism began in Florence and Rome by Italian artists, painters from Northern Europe (France, Flanders, and Germany) frequently studied in Italy where they adopted the fashionable Mannerist style. Upon returning to their native countries, they carried this style with them. Prints (such as etchings and engravings) were another important way that the Mannerist style was spread throughout Europe.

  • Although Mannerism began in Florence and Rome by Italian artists, painters from Northern Europe (France, Flanders, and Germany) frequently studied in Italy where they adopted the fashionable Mannerist style. Upon returning to their native countries, they carried this style with them. Prints (such as etchings and engravings) were another important way that the Mannerist style was spread throughout Europe.



Florentine artist, one of the great masters of the High Renaissance, celebrated as a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist.

  • Florentine artist, one of the great masters of the High Renaissance, celebrated as a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist.

  • His innovations in the field of painting influenced the course of Italian art for more than a century after his death, and his scientific studies—particularly in the fields of anatomy, optics, and hydraulics—anticipated many of the developments of modern science.





Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   20


Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2017
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling