The sixteenth century in Europe was a time of unprecedented change. It was the beginning of the modern era, and it saw a revolution in almost every aspect of life. The century opened with the discovery of a new continent


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Bosch produced several triptychs, works of three paintings on wooden panels that are attached to each other. Among his most famous is The Garden of Earthly Delights. This triptych depicts paradise with Adam and Eve and many wondrous animals on the left panel, the earthly delights with numerous nude figures and tremendous fruit and birds on the middle panel, and hell with depictions of fantastic punishments of the various types of sinners on the right panel. When the exterior panels are closed the viewer can see, painted in grisaille, God creating the Earth. These paintings have a rough surface from the application of paint; this contrasts with the traditional Flemish style of paintings, where the smooth surface attempts to hide the fact that the painting is man-made.

  • Bosch produced several triptychs, works of three paintings on wooden panels that are attached to each other. Among his most famous is The Garden of Earthly Delights. This triptych depicts paradise with Adam and Eve and many wondrous animals on the left panel, the earthly delights with numerous nude figures and tremendous fruit and birds on the middle panel, and hell with depictions of fantastic punishments of the various types of sinners on the right panel. When the exterior panels are closed the viewer can see, painted in grisaille, God creating the Earth. These paintings have a rough surface from the application of paint; this contrasts with the traditional Flemish style of paintings, where the smooth surface attempts to hide the fact that the painting is man-made.



Bosch never dated his paintings and may have signed only some of them (other signatures are certainly not his). Fewer than 25 paintings remain today that can be attributed to him. Philip II of Spain acquired many of Bosch's paintings after the painter's death; as a result, the Prado Museum in Madrid now owns several of his works, including The Garden of Earthly Delights.

  • Bosch never dated his paintings and may have signed only some of them (other signatures are certainly not his). Fewer than 25 paintings remain today that can be attributed to him. Philip II of Spain acquired many of Bosch's paintings after the painter's death; as a result, the Prado Museum in Madrid now owns several of his works, including The Garden of Earthly Delights.

  • Pieter Brueghel the Elder was influenced by Bosch's work and produced several paintings in a similar style, including the 1562 work The Triumph of Death.





Netherlandish Renaissance painter and printmaker known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (Genre Painting). He is nicknamed 'Peasant Bruegel' to distinguish him from other members of the Brueghel dynasty, but is also the one generally meant when the context does not make clear which "Bruegel" is being referred to. From 1559 he dropped the 'h' from his name and started signing his paintings as Bruegel.

  • Netherlandish Renaissance painter and printmaker known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (Genre Painting). He is nicknamed 'Peasant Bruegel' to distinguish him from other members of the Brueghel dynasty, but is also the one generally meant when the context does not make clear which "Bruegel" is being referred to. From 1559 he dropped the 'h' from his name and started signing his paintings as Bruegel.



Usually known as Pieter Bruegel the Elder to distinguish him from his elder son, was the first in a family of Flemish painters. He spelled his name Brueghel until 1559, and his sons retained the "h" in the spelling of their names.

  • Usually known as Pieter Bruegel the Elder to distinguish him from his elder son, was the first in a family of Flemish painters. He spelled his name Brueghel until 1559, and his sons retained the "h" in the spelling of their names.











Marinus Claeszoon van Reymerswaele (Reimerswaal, The Netherlands, c. 1490 – c. 1546) was a Dutch painter. He worked in Zeeland from 1533-1545. Hence he is also named Marinus de Seeu (from Zeeland). He studied at the University of Leuven (1504) and was trained as a painter in Antwerp (1509).

  • Marinus Claeszoon van Reymerswaele (Reimerswaal, The Netherlands, c. 1490 – c. 1546) was a Dutch painter. He worked in Zeeland from 1533-1545. Hence he is also named Marinus de Seeu (from Zeeland). He studied at the University of Leuven (1504) and was trained as a painter in Antwerp (1509).

  • His name is known from a small number of signed panels. Another number of paintings is attributed to Marinus on stylistic grounds. His body of work consists of a relatively small number of themes only, mostly adapted from Quentin Massys and Albrecht Dürer: with the secular imagery as despised money lenders and tax collectors.





Catherine was born in Antwerp, Flanders. She learned to paint from her father, and even helped him with some of his works. Most of her paintings are of wealthy men and women of her time period. She was a very successful painter, and Queen Mary of Hungary, was her main supporter. When the queen resigned her regency in 1556, she invited Mary and her husband to join her in Spain. They remained there until 1558, until the Queen died, and then they returned to Antwerp. The Queen showed her appreciation by leaving Catherina and her family enough money to live the rest of their lives in comfort.



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