The sixteenth century in Europe was a time of unprecedented change. It was the beginning of the modern era, and it saw a revolution in almost every aspect of life. The century opened with the discovery of a new continent


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Catherine was born in Antwerp, Flanders. She learned to paint from her father, and even helped him with some of his works. Most of her paintings are of wealthy men and women of her time period. She was a very successful painter, and Queen Mary of Hungary, was her main supporter. When the queen resigned her regency in 1556, she invited Mary and her husband to join her in Spain. They remained there until 1558, until the Queen died, and then they returned to Antwerp. The Queen showed her appreciation by leaving Catherina and her family enough money to live the rest of their lives in comfort.





As with many Renaissance female painters, she was the daughter of a painter, Jan Sanders van Hemessen (c. 1500-after 1563), who was likely her teacher. She went on to create portraits of wealthy men and women often posed against a dark background.

  • As with many Renaissance female painters, she was the daughter of a painter, Jan Sanders van Hemessen (c. 1500-after 1563), who was likely her teacher. She went on to create portraits of wealthy men and women often posed against a dark background.

  • Included in her body of work is a self-portrait done in Basel. She has inscribed the painting with the year, 1548, and her age, 20 years. Her success is marked by her good standing in the Guild of St. Luke and her eventual position as teacher to three male students.



Hans Holbein

  • Hans Holbein

  • Levinia Bening Teerlinc

  • Nicholas Hilliard



BORN: 1497 DIED: 1543

  • BORN: 1497 DIED: 1543



Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/98-1543) is remembered as a brilliant portrait painter, especially in the court of Henry VIII, and as the designer of a series of remarkable woodcuts, The Dance of Death. The Spencer Museum's Death and the Knight from this series is a proof impression, printed before the publication in Lyons of the entire set of forty-one woodcuts in 1538.

  • Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/98-1543) is remembered as a brilliant portrait painter, especially in the court of Henry VIII, and as the designer of a series of remarkable woodcuts, The Dance of Death. The Spencer Museum's Death and the Knight from this series is a proof impression, printed before the publication in Lyons of the entire set of forty-one woodcuts in 1538.









(1497-1543)

  • (1497-1543)

  • The highest paid painter in Henry VIII's court

  • Court appointed "King's Paintrix“

  • In 1545, she moved with her husband, George Teerlinc of Blankenberge, to England. She then served as the royal painter to Henry VIII, whose royal painter, Hans Holbein the Younger, had recently died. Her annuity for this position was £40 - rather more than Holbein had been paid.Later she served as a gentlewoman in the royal households of both Mary I and Elizabeth I





Nicholas Hilliard, the son of a goldsmith, was born in Exeter in about 1547. He trained as a jeweller but later became an artist. Influenced by the work of Hans Holbein, Hilliard worked for Elizabeth I and James I and established the English school of miniature painting. Hilliard also painted the portraits of Mary, Queen of Scots, Francis Drake, Philip Sidney, and Walter Raleigh.

  • Nicholas Hilliard, the son of a goldsmith, was born in Exeter in about 1547. He trained as a jeweller but later became an artist. Influenced by the work of Hans Holbein, Hilliard worked for Elizabeth I and James I and established the English school of miniature painting. Hilliard also painted the portraits of Mary, Queen of Scots, Francis Drake, Philip Sidney, and Walter Raleigh.

  • Despite his success Hilliard had financial problems and in 1617 was imprisoned for debt. Nicholas Hilliard died in 1619.









Baroque - Northern Europe

  • Baroque - Northern Europe

  • 1600-1750 (17th to mid 18th Century)



  • Italian sculptor, architect and painter

  • Bernini dominated the Roman art world of the seventeenth century, flourishing under the patronage of its cardinals and popes while also challenging contemporary artistic traditions. His sculptural and architectural projects reveal an innovative interpretation of subjects, use of forms, and combination of media. Forging a path for future artists, he played an instrumental role in establishing the dramatic and eloquent vocabulary of the Baroque style





This sculpture presents a mystical figure who is physically overwhelmed by a miraculous vision. Functioning as a sort of tableau vivant with busts of members of the Cornaro family seeming to serve as witnesses, the composition reflects Bernini's experience as a stage designer. The fusion of architecture, painting, and sculpture is further intensified by the combination of colored marbles.



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