Theme: environmental problems of the present time

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Ekalogiya muammolari haqida


1 .Composition of environmental problems.

2.Global environmental problems and their consequences. 3 .Regional and local environmental problems.

At present, the cfzgaration of the biosphere in the influence of human activity is going very quickly. V that man has come into being as a great geological force in changing the appearance of the Earth's corral.I.It was emphasized by Vernadsky. As a result of the improper use of natural processes in man, environmental problems in the middle of the twentieth century were greatly exacerbated. When we say environmental problem, it is understood that man is connected with his influence on nature, the influence of nature on man, that is, in his economy, processes of economic importance in life, any associated with natural workers. (climate change, Gross migration of animals) as a result of a violation of the balance in nature, environmental problems of various scales are formed. They can be divided into the following groups.

1. Global (universal).

Regional (regional).

Local (local).

Global environmental problems are related to the universality that arises as a result of the natural, natural anthropogen and pure anthropogen impacts observed around the world.

We will get acquainted with some of such environmental problems:

The dimming of the atmosphere. In the following years, it became known that the amount of SO2 in the atmosphere increases.

As a result, the temperature of the Earth's surface in the last 100 years 0,5-

1,0 degrees increased. A wide range of climate changes is due to the fact that the atmosphere is associated with industrial emissions and gases emitted from autotrasnports, the global warming of the Earth's surface, that is, the air content of the atmosphere is increased, the forests are cut, the SO2 gas accumulates in the atmosphere from the combustion of fuels such as coal and gasoline. If the situation does not change in this zone, then in the middle of the XXI century the temperature of the Earth's surface can increase to 1,5-4,5 degrees. As a result:

1. Climate change is especially the slowdown of the desertification process. Change of precipitation. The increase in the sea and ocean satchels is accompanied by a decrease and melting of glaciers, as well as other phenomena.

Sparse ozone layer:

The ozonosphere is considered an important component of the atmosphere, it protects the climate and all living organisms on the Earth's surface from radiation. The most important feature of nitrogen in the atmosphere is its constant formation bcflib and decay. Ozone is formed under the influence of sunlight with the participation of oxygen, nitrogen oxides and other gases. Ozone protects the living organisms on earth from strong ultraviolet rays ingested mold. An increase in the amount of ultraviolet rays adversely affects living organisms. Irradiation under the influence of ultraviolet rays causes skin burns in humans. Today it was found that the disease with skin cancer arises under the influence of these rays. At present, due to the wide use of freons, as well as aviation gases, explosions of atomic bombs do not allow the accumulation of a sufficient amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

The problem of fresh water:

In the landfill, fresh water and its role in the biosphere are incredibly large. The amount of fresh water in the hydrosphere is very small (2-2,5 %). With the development of society, the population's demand for fresh water is increasing. In our century, the use of fresh water has increased in 7 times. Water is spent 3-3,5 thousand km3 per year. In the arid zones, the full use of river water remains, while their water does not.

In early 1980, this situation began to be observed in Africa, Australia, Italy, Spain, Mexico, the Nile, Amudarya, Sirdarya and some other rivers. The pollution of rivers with industrial and household poisons is growing. The industry throws up to 160 km3 of industrial and akova water into rivers per year. This indicator is 10% of the total amount of water in Rivers. In the clean waters of rivers, from year to year, the amount of various Yyyerican substances, poisonous chemicals and bacteria is increasing. The problem of the use of pesticides. This group of poisonous chemicals are used in the fight against micro-organisms of weeds, pest insects, kelp diseases in plants. The use of pesticides in forestry in agriculture, aviation leads to a wide range of environmental pollution. The spread of pesticides over long distances in the atmosphere also accumulates in the oceans of the world, passing through fields, rivers, lakes through water. The most dangerous place is that they are joining the ecological food chain. They pass from soil and water to plants to animals and human organisms. Pesticides are harmful and harmful in every joint. To prevent the toxic effect of pesticides, the following measures should be taken.

1 . Weaken the effect on animals and humans.

2. Prevent accumulation in soils and waters.

3. Synthesis of rapidly decomposing and unstable pesticides.

4. Limit the use of pesticides as much as possible.

5. Biological protection of plants.

6. The problem of the reduction in the number of plant and animal species in living nature.

The importance of forests in providing life in the world of plants, especially on Earth, is enormous. The increase in the population is due to the decrease in economic activity, there is no longer a man-made untouched month of nature. State protection of plants and animal species through laws to establish hunting in full, as well as a large role in the conservation of the flora and fauna of the catacombs, zakazniks, national parks, botanical gardens and red books play a significant role in the protection of the larvae of plants and animals. The process of desertification:

40 million km of the Earth's corral land.the area of kv is a drought-prone region, with more than 15% of the world's population experiencing rapid development of Agriculture embodied in this region, as a result of improper use of irrigated lands and pastures, the rate of desertification increases year by year as a result of the deterioration of forests. Deserts, formed under the influence of man, amounted to 9,1 million manats. miles. he did. Now on the planet 6 a year the Earth is turning into a desert. Regional (regional) environmental problems. Natural-climatic, socio-ecological, environmental problems inherent in some regions of the Earth's surface, which arise as a result of their interaction between nature and Man, are called regional environmental problems. The criterion for assessing regional environmental problems is the pollution of air and water, soil erosion, the failure of slopes, the cutting of trees in the forests. it is considered to exceed the specified amount and so on. The most important of the regional environmental problems in Central Asia are the ecological problems of the island and the whole island. The Aral Sea was considered one of the largest seas until recently. He had an important Fishing, Hunting, Transportation and recreational significance. As a result of the development of irrigated farming, the water supply of Amudarya and Sirdarya decreased by 37,8 km3 in 1970, and in 1980 up to 11,1 km3. The degree of salinity of water increased from 9-10 g per liter to 34-37 g/liter. At present, the annual average decrease in sea sales is 80-110 CM (if before it falls to 53 meters 33 cm, then the island will be divided into 2, at least it is necessary to maintain a height of 33,5 meters). The drained bottom of the island has become a major dust mound space. The water that the population drinks is contaminated with pesticides, in the next 10 years, death has increased 2 times. The death of children being born every!From 000 to 45-90 babies. 80%of women suffer from ida anemia threeraydi. 90% of children had an increased content of salts in the urine of ida. The fundamental essence of the solution of the island problem depends on the implementation of rational use of Water Resources. In order to preserve the island, it should be taken into account that in a short period of time together with the Central Asian Respulicas develop a single Water economic policy in the amount of water flowing into the island 20-21 cubic km per year to preserve all the natural lakes in the island of bunda. Local environmental problems. (local.) Local environmental problems are typical for certain regions, although they arise as a result of the activities of various enterprises, irrigation of lands, improper use of springs. Today, The Independent Uzbekistan is a large industrial and agrarian region, and in the future it is planned to further develop the machine-building, energy, chemical, food industry, transport complex that has taken place in the world. The development of productive forces has a certain negative impact on the social ecological situation in the Republic. The problems related to the protection of nature in our republic are as follows. the l.Large regional industrial complexes joylahgan rayonlarda problems of nature protection. (Angren, Almalyk, Chirchik, Fergana, Margilan, Navoi and hakozo.) 2.Problems of the island and the Aral Sea, the protection of Water Resources and their optimal use. S.Pollution of natural waters with industrial waste pesticides and mineral oxides.
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