Topography Its Influence on drainage, organic matter accumulation, and profile development

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  • This soil developed on the hilltop which is relatively flat.

  • Therefore the soil is relatively deep and well drained.

  • It also received direct sun and is thus relatively dry, dominated by shrubs and to a lesser extent grasses.


  • This soil developed along the hillslope with a south facing aspect.

  • Soils are eroding due to slope, and thus there is relatively less soil development.

  • This soil is dominated by grasses and to a lesser extent shrubs.


  • This soil developed along the toeslope, somewhat flat, and still affected by its south facing aspect.

  • The soil is somewhat wet as evident by the somewhat gray subsurface soil.

  • This soil is dominated by grasses and some wetland plants.


  • This soil developed in the valley and is shaded by the northern slopes.

  • Many soil materials, including mineral and organic matter, have eroded into this area.

  • This area is low lying and thus wet. A high water table is present.

  • Thus, the soil profile is relatively thick and dominated by wetland plants.


  • This soil developed on the north facing aspect, thus they are cooler temperature-wise as compared to the south facing soils.

  • These soils support coniferous trees which deposit plant litter with an acidic pH.

  • The litter accumulates on the surface and decompose slowly.

  • When it does decompose, it releases acid which causes the breakdown and movement of soil materials out of the white, upper soil, and redeposits materials in the lower, darker soil.

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