Types of ancient covers
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- Wooden covers
- Covers decorated with different decorations and patterned carvings: № 1226
- Envelope covers
- Front velvet covers: № 5830, 2301
Third year student Feruza Kenjayeva Abdusattor qizi
National Institute of Artist and Design
named after Kamoliddin Bekhzod +998911348672
Cover is one of the component of the book and it has separate and deep history.
The rule of making covers, their decorations, information dedicated to types and
instructions are given in some historical resources. For example, “Sinoat ul-kuttub”
(Abu Ja'far Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Naxxos; died. 950), “Kitab ul-ava'il” (Abu
Hilol al-Hasan ibn Abdulloh al-Askariy; died. 1005), “Umdat ul-kuttab va'uddat
davi ul-albab” (Tamim ibn al-Mu'iz ibn Bodis; died. 1061), “Fi Ma'rifat ul-hiyal ul-
handasiya” (Baduizzamon Abul Izz ibn Ismoil ibn ar-Razaz al-Jazariy; 1136 –
1206), “Kitab ut-taysir fi sina'at ut-tasvir” (Bakr Ibrohim al-Ishbiliy; died. 1231),
“Nafais ul-funun fi ara'is ul-uyun” (Muhammad ibn Mahmud al-Amuliy; XIV
century), “Manoqibi hunarvaron” (Mustafo Ali; XVI century), “Tadbir ul-safir fi
sina'at ut-tasvir” (Abdurahmon ibn Abu Hamidah; XV century), “Sinoat tasvir ul-
kutub and hal ud-dahab” (Abduabbos Ahmad ibn Muhammad as-Sufiyoniy; died.
1619), such manuscripts give entire information about the process of uncovers and
tools to use for making them.
Rahmonkulova M. From the history of Central Asian book art: Coverage (15th and 19th centuries). - Tashkent:
notebooks. Hard paper, leather, wood and iron are used to make covers. When
specialists define manuscripts, they call them as "hard cover" and "leather cover"
Cover is expressed in the Arabic dictionary as: “يوقم – strengthened, fixed; ~
قرو and it is paper mass with the mixture of cartoon, glue, gyps and chalk”.
main function of the cover is to prevent the inner side of the book from affecting
different negative damage. It is usually made with several layers of hard paper
(cartoon). Sometimes polished leather surfaces are approached and it is called
"leather cover". There are wooden and iron covers but they are not much. Some
surfaces have decorated stamps on covers and there is a name of the maker and date
One of the unique and wealthy manuscript in the world, manuscripts and
typescripts in thousands of volumes are in the treasure of the Academy of Sciences of
Uzbekistan Republic in Oriental Institute named after Abu Raykhan Beruni. There are
different patterns of all types of the cover among keeping manuscripts. In the following
small study, we have focused on the cover of some of the manuscript sources in the
"Main fund". We divided the considered covers into several types.
Wooden covers: They are kept manuscripts number № 2151 and 11118; For
now, there are only two wooden covers manuscripts in the main fund. Iron cover:
It is the only iron cover manuscript, number № 2169. نآرق – written with nasx, size
17х11 sm, it was made in 1841 – 1842 (1257 hijriy year- it is fixed by moon calendar
and this year is usually used by Muslim countries and Muslims).
Akobirov SF, Alikulov TA, Ibrohimov SI, Mamatov NM, Marufov ZM, Mirtojiev MM, Mikhailov GN, Rustamov
AR, Khujakhanov A .T., Hodzhiev AP .. Explanatory Dictionary of the Uzbek Language. Volume I - Moscow:
Russian, 1981. - b. 487.
Nosirov O., Yusupov M., Muhiddinov M., Rahmatullaev Yu, Nishonov A., An-Na · ym. - Tashkent: Abdulla Kadiri
Publishing House, 2003. 696.
– “Tafsiri mavahib va jalolayn”. This work is the famous tafsir (tafsir-is the detailed
definitions of the Qur'an) by Husayn bin Ali al-Kashifiy. Manuscript was copied in
1840-1841 years (1256 hijriy) in nasx-nasta'liq letter ( it is one of the type of the
manuscript letters), size 55,5х29 sm. This manuscript is considered as the only
pattern in the world. The cover of the book was made with hard cartoon and
decorated with small flowery ornaments. The manuscript № 1305 was created on
the basis of the famous masnaviy (it is one of the type of the poem, which has 5
lines, in the literature) of Jaloliddin Rumiy. Cover.№ 10042 – flowers were
beautifully ornamented on it. Cover № 5933 is decorated with flowery ornaments
decorated with varnished lacquer. № 1432 – the exterior and interior of the cover
are decorated with flower patterns. № 4154 – One of the most prestigious copies of
the Quran is an envelope-style cover and decorated with beautiful patterns. № 1428
– The inside of the cover is decorated with floral motifs, with a mirror in the middle.
There are windows on both sides of the cover. However, one fell and the other
remained broken. "Amali Arifjon Sahhof" فاحص ناحفراع لمع( )contains the name of
the person who made it.
Envelope covers: Инв. № 5757, 5255, 5106, 5107, 5108, 5109, 5110, 5111,
4153, 3915, 2522, 1610 All manuscripts, stored in figures, are made in sheets. The
covers made in this way are great for keeping the book longer and better.
Front velvet covers: № 5830, 2301 The manuscript, preserved in figures, has a
velvet on the surface.
Covers with writings on the surface ( it means the other writings from
Sahhof's name): № 5416 and 2262 On the cover of digital manuscripts there are
inscriptions. № 5284 and 1468 There are also lines on the cover of manuscripts
marked with these numbers.
Among the unique sources of antiquity are parts and covers that have become
obsolete over time or damaged by various external influences. In the Laboratory of
Oriental Institute named after Abu Raykhan Beruni of the Academy of Sciences of
the Republic of Uzbekistan, the sources of contamination are identified and repaired.
In practice, there is a systematic work to eliminate the various types of debris and
damage caused by the cover. Coverings are often repaired when the text is
disconnected from the main part, some are lost, insects are damaged, the color fades
over time, molds are dried and dried. In the process of repairing every part of the
manuscript source, the use of natural materials and advanced repair is used.
Currently, various types of Japanese paper, used for repair of ancient manuscript
sheets and covers, are used effectively, such as natural and harmless (non-breakable)
glues, natural fibers, and natural bones for smoothing. Today, with the help of skilled
teachers and experts who have extensive experience in the repair of ancient
manuscript sources, there is a steady repair of the broken, damaged and missing parts
of the book, which are disconnected from the original internal pages of the book.
Young specialists are working on the problem of successful repair of molded, dried
and insect-damaged manuscripts.
- IX). - Tashkent: Tafakkur, 2015.
2. Treasury of Oriental Manuscripts. Responsible editors: B. Abduhalimov, XI
Espinal. - Turkey: Mega Basim, 2012.
3. Pulatov.Sh, Islamov.Sh. Conservation and Restoration of Historical
Documents: Theory and Practice. - Tashkent: Navruz, 2017.
4. Rahimov.I, Traditional and modern means of protection of rare sources (as an
example of manuscripts and historical documents) // Theses of XV scientific and
practical conference of young Orientalists named after academician Ubaydulla
Karimov. - Tashkent, 2018. B. 210.
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