U. S. white population grew 7%


Download 462 b.
bet1/5
Sana26.05.2018
Hajmi462 b.
  1   2   3   4   5





U.S. white population grew 5.7%

  • U.S. white population grew 5.7%

  • U.S. black population grew 12.3%

  • U.S. Hispanic population grew 43.0%

  • U.S. Asian population grew 43.3%

  • U.S population identifying as “mixed race” grew 32.0%.





Herfindahl index, from industrial organization, measures concentration of an industry as

  • Herfindahl index, from industrial organization, measures concentration of an industry as



Same principle can measure group diversity. Herfindahl index means that diversity goes up when one minority group becomes larger at expense of majority group, or when one group splits into two.

  • Same principle can measure group diversity. Herfindahl index means that diversity goes up when one minority group becomes larger at expense of majority group, or when one group splits into two.

  • Example (China):1 majority (Han, 91%); 55 minorities. Assume each constitutes equal share of 9% minority.

  • D = 1-0.912-55x(0.0016362)=0.172.



Example 2: US

  • Example 2: US

  • In 2005, whites = 0.747; blacks = 0.121; American Indians/Alaskan Islanders = 0.008; Asian/Pacific Islanders=0.043; Multiracial/other=0.079.

  • D = 0.419.



1960: 0.226

  • 1960: 0.226

  • 1980: 0.394

  • 1990: 0.468

  • 2000: 0.570

  • 2005: 0.594



Issues of definition: Diversity by what criteria?

  • Issues of definition: Diversity by what criteria?

  • Issues of commonality: When are these differences, however we define them, important in society? When are they largely irrelevant?

  • Issues of identity: How do individuals define themselves? How important are the usual diversity criteria to them? How important should they be?

  • Issues of policy: How should governments react to diversity? What should their goals be? What constraints do they face?

















Prejudice: Employers dislike members of other groups, and labor-market groups reflect this.

  • Prejudice: Employers dislike members of other groups, and labor-market groups reflect this.

  • Human capital: People are paid by productivity, other things equal. Differences among groups reflect differences in productivity.

  • Information: Groups may differ on average with respect to various traits that are assets or drawbacks in employment. Lacking information on individual traits, employers rely on group membership, among other things, as useful information. This practice is known as statistical discrimination.



Real non-Hispanic white male earnings have increased 1.01%

  • Real non-Hispanic white male earnings have increased 1.01%

  • Real non-Hispanic white female earnings have increased 31.86%

  • Real black male earnings have increased 8.11%.

  • Real black female earnings have increased 50.85%.

  • Real Hispanic male earnings have decreased 3.65%.

  • Real Hispanic female earnings have increased 31.42%.

  • Real Asian male earnings have increased 11.16%

  • Real Asian female earnings have increased 44.23%



All workers: 37,057 (M), 27,194 (F)

  • All workers: 37,057 (M), 27,194 (F)

  • All “Asians”: 40,650 (M), 31,049 (F)

  • Indians: 51904 (M), 31258 (F)

  • Japanese: 50,876 (M), 35,998 (F)

  • Chinese: 44,381 (M), 34,689 (F)

  • Pakistani: 40,277 (M), 28,315 (F)

  • Korean: 38,776 (M), 28,403 (F)

  • Vietnamese: 31,258 (M), 24,028 (F)

  • Thai: 32,879 (M), 25,402 (F)

  • Cambodian: 28,706 (M), 21,911 (F)









Skill behaves like physical capital. It can be augmented through investment, and it tends to depreciate over time.

  • Skill behaves like physical capital. It can be augmented through investment, and it tends to depreciate over time.

  • Like physical capital, it is productive. Those who possess more will earn more. Differences in income are thus a function of differences in market returns to the skill sets individuals possess.

  • Its return depends on the extent to which consumers value the product produced from it. “Years of education” or “years of experience” are very general measures of what are often very specific skills, often used in research as a measure of human capital despite their limitations.



Discrimination is modeled as disutility from working with or supervising people from other groups. Like most dislikes, the loss from discriminatory tastes can be offset when hiring members of these groups if he is sufficiently compensated – by paying lower wages, for example.

  • Discrimination is modeled as disutility from working with or supervising people from other groups. Like most dislikes, the loss from discriminatory tastes can be offset when hiring members of these groups if he is sufficiently compensated – by paying lower wages, for example.

  • The theory predicts that in the presence of discriminatory tastes and imperfect competition, members of the discriminated-against group will have fewer jobs and earn less.

  • It also predicts that the more vigorous competition is, and the bigger the stakes are, the less employers will be able to discriminate in wages and employment.



This requires that, in comparing groups, we take account of differences in human-capital characteristics known to matter in the market. We can only talk of discrimination after adjusting for these differences. Some subset of the remaining gap may be discrimination.

  • This requires that, in comparing groups, we take account of differences in human-capital characteristics known to matter in the market. We can only talk of discrimination after adjusting for these differences. Some subset of the remaining gap may be discrimination.

  • “Subset” is important because many things besides years of education and of work experience affect productivity – English fluency (or fluency in other languages), family structure, and other things that may be unmeasurable.









Statistical discrimination refers to employer use of traits such as race and sex in decision-making because they are somewhat correlated with productivity, and employer lacks more useful information specific to the individual. These traits are, in other words, stereotypes with some value.

  • Statistical discrimination refers to employer use of traits such as race and sex in decision-making because they are somewhat correlated with productivity, and employer lacks more useful information specific to the individual. These traits are, in other words, stereotypes with some value.

  • Statistical discrimination is less vulnerable to competition than taste-based discrimination because, unlike employers discriminating on taste grounds, statistical discriminators are trying to maximize profits. The problem is lack of information, not prejudice.

  • Statistical discrimination raises the possibility of a self-fulfilling prophecy – fearing discrimination, some groups don’t invest in human capital. Seeing that many applicants from those groups have little human capital, employers calculate that this trait is strongly associated with group identity.

  • But if stakes are big enough (i.e., cost of discrimination high enough), better information – e.g., individual-specific tests – can be acquired.

  • Not all stereotypes are costly to the stereotyped group.



Very large differences among groups with respect to obvious human-capital sources.

  • Very large differences among groups with respect to obvious human-capital sources.

  • Not entire story; even within education groups median incomes significantly different.

  • However, ignores other aspects of human capital – personality attributes, differences in returns to different kinds of college degrees, etc.

  • Bottom line – By 2000 measurable human-capital differences explained perhaps 95 percent of wage differences among most groups. Discrimination costs black males and white women at most 1-5% in lost earnings, given what we can measure.





After standardizing for players’ education, proportion of questions previously answered correctly (both of which affect votes against a player in predicted direction), no evidence of taste-based discrimination against blacks, Asians or women. Some evidence of statistical discrimination against Hispanics, taste-based discrimination against elderly, who are voted off early despite performing poorly on average at the end.

  • After standardizing for players’ education, proportion of questions previously answered correctly (both of which affect votes against a player in predicted direction), no evidence of taste-based discrimination against blacks, Asians or women. Some evidence of statistical discrimination against Hispanics, taste-based discrimination against elderly, who are voted off early despite performing poorly on average at the end.

  • Young and old both tend to vote against the elderly.



“I've no doubt that there are a few people out there who have been unjustly hurt by this; but we cannot regulate every bad business decision that hurts a few people.  Each regulation may sound fine on its own, but collectively, they massively raise the compliance cost of starting a business and hiring workers, two things we want to support.  So we need to set some sort of bar to ensure that we're only regulating things that have substantial, widespread negative impact.” – Megan McArdle, “Fico Frenzy.”

  • “I've no doubt that there are a few people out there who have been unjustly hurt by this; but we cannot regulate every bad business decision that hurts a few people.  Each regulation may sound fine on its own, but collectively, they massively raise the compliance cost of starting a business and hiring workers, two things we want to support.  So we need to set some sort of bar to ensure that we're only regulating things that have substantial, widespread negative impact.” – Megan McArdle, “Fico Frenzy.”



In 1964, general skills tests were commonly given by employers – there were over 2000 kinds in that year alone, and 84% of employers used them.

  • In 1964, general skills tests were commonly given by employers – there were over 2000 kinds in that year alone, and 84% of employers used them.

  • In response to Congressional concern, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was specifically amended to allow any such test, as long as “such test, its administration or action upon the results is not designed, intended or used to discriminate because of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.”

  • But in 1971, in Griggs v. Duke Power, the Supreme Court adopted the “disparate impact” standard. Duke Power, which had explicitly banned blacks from promotion to executive position before 1964, had adopted a policy whereby workers with high-school degrees or who passed one of two general-skills tests would be eligible, as well as promising to pay 2/3 of the education costs of workers who lacked the degree. But plaintiffs argued not that the employer had directly discriminated, but that the test was discriminatory because of large differences in success rates.

  • The Court agreed, arguing “The Act proscribes not only overt discrimination but also practices that are fair in form, but discriminatory in operation. The touchstone is business necessity. If an employment practice which operates to exclude Negroes cannot be shown to be related to job performance, the practice is prohibited. On the record before us, neither the high school completion requirement nor the general intelligence test is shown to bear a demonstrable relationship to successful performance of the jobs for which it was used.”

  • Thus, employers now had to show that a test is immediately related to job performance., and if not discriminatory intent need not be shown. Later, the EEOC held that if the selection rate on a test for a protected group (blacks, in Griggs) were less than 4/5 that for the non-protected group (whites), the test was suspect.



While about 2/3 of employers still use tests, they are very specifically worded to the work environment, and general IQ and mechanical-aptitude tests are seldom used for fear of litigation.

  • While about 2/3 of employers still use tests, they are very specifically worded to the work environment, and general IQ and mechanical-aptitude tests are seldom used for fear of litigation.

  • As a result, many argue, college became a substitute, but much more expensive screen for employers to use in weeding out applicants for higher-level jobs.







College income premium;

  • College income premium;

  • College enrollment;

  • College tuition;

  • The nature of jobs that require a college degree;

  • An expansion in enrollment in graduate programs.













In every country in the New World to which they have immigrated, Japanese have done better than almost any other ethnic group.

  • In every country in the New World to which they have immigrated, Japanese have done better than almost any other ethnic group.

  • Groups such as the Lebanese, the Gujaratis (from India), and the Jews have been unusually successful in retail trade. In the U.S. Koreans and Arabs, particularly in cities, have done the same.



In Malaysia, Chinese tend to work harder and save more than Malays.

  • In Malaysia, Chinese tend to work harder and save more than Malays.

  • In Malaysia, Chinese are more productive than Malays.

  • As an employer in Malaysia, I’d prefer to hire Chinese to Malay workers if I can.

  • Asians outperform members of other U.S. races on math standardized tests.

  • Asian-Americans tend to be better at math than people of other races in the U.S.

  • Asians are good at math.

  • Black Americans have contributed a great deal to the country’s (and world’s) musical stock.

  • Black American culture is very creative musically.

  • Blacks are good at music.

  • Native Americans have high rates of alcoholism.

  • Mohawks are unusually good at urban construction work.



It has expanded substantially, in conjunction with a decline in laws discriminating against minorities.

  • It has expanded substantially, in conjunction with a decline in laws discriminating against minorities.

  • It is always claimed to be a response to unique historical circumstances – slavery (U.S.), the caste system (India), etc.

  • It always lasts longer than was initially predicted.

  • It generally expands to cover other groups than the one thought to be uniquely historically disadvantaged.

  • Despite the rarity with which occupations demographically “look like” the broader society, this is generally used as the target for group representation.





Malaysia: Chinese do better economically than majority Malays. Firms doing business with government often required to have Malay partner.

  • Malaysia: Chinese do better economically than majority Malays. Firms doing business with government often required to have Malay partner.

  • India: Extensive quotas for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and “other backward classes” (the latter 52.5% of the population by themselves) in politics, universities, public employment. After a 2008 Supreme Court decision, almost half of spots at Indian public national universities are reserved.

  • Sri Lanka: For many years, Sinhala language required for all communications with government. Sinhalese got preferences in university admissions, public employment.



Hysteresis – the tendency of outsiders to forever be excluded from valuable trading networks without some effort to include them.

  • Hysteresis – the tendency of outsiders to forever be excluded from valuable trading networks without some effort to include them.

  • Role models, to encourage future aspirants to try.



Mismatch,

  • Mismatch,

  • Lower productivity,

  • People figure out ways to get around it.



















Minorities are underrepresented as partners at big law firms, despite the fact that law firms work very hard to hire them as associates.

  • Minorities are underrepresented as partners at big law firms, despite the fact that law firms work very hard to hire them as associates.

  • Whites and Asians are already very overrepresented in the college-graduate population, making increases in number of “underrepresented” minorities even more difficult.

  • Without affirmative action of any kind, 86% of black applicants would still be admitted to some law school.

  • But they would not get such poor grades, and fail the bar at such high rates, because they would be in schools more reasonable for their admissions index.

  • Thus, affirmative action in law schools, by creating mismatch, may actually result in fewer black lawyers.



Private firms may not “discriminate,” by civil-rights laws of the 1960s.

  • Private firms may not “discriminate,” by civil-rights laws of the 1960s.

  • They also may not use explicit ethnoracial quotas, except as remedy to their own legally established pattern of prior discrimination.

  • They may, however, aggressively use goals, outreach, etc. to pursue greater workforce “diversity.” “Discrimination” is illegal; “affirmative action” is not.

  • Affirmative action by government contractors and public universities is subject to “strict scrutiny,” the highest level of court scrutiny (for constitutional violations) of government action.

  • In higher education the goal of any ethnoracial affirmative action can only be the remedying of past discrimination or the pursuit of “diversity.” The justification comes from a legal opinion signed only by Justice Lewis Powell in University of California Regents v. Bakke (438 U.S. 265 (1978)).



“Hence, the purpose of helping certain groups whom the faculty of the Davis Medical School perceived as victims of ‘societal discrimination’ does not justify a classification that imposes disadvantages upon persons like respondent, who bear no responsibility for whatever harm the beneficiaries of the special admissions program are thought to have suffered. To hold otherwise would be to convert a remedy heretofore reserved for violations of legal rights into a privilege that all institutions throughout the Nation could grant at their pleasure to whatever groups are perceived as victims of societal discrimination. That is a step we have never approved.” (Bakke, at 2758).

  • “Hence, the purpose of helping certain groups whom the faculty of the Davis Medical School perceived as victims of ‘societal discrimination’ does not justify a classification that imposes disadvantages upon persons like respondent, who bear no responsibility for whatever harm the beneficiaries of the special admissions program are thought to have suffered. To hold otherwise would be to convert a remedy heretofore reserved for violations of legal rights into a privilege that all institutions throughout the Nation could grant at their pleasure to whatever groups are perceived as victims of societal discrimination. That is a step we have never approved.” (Bakke, at 2758).

  • “Physicians serve a heterogeneous population. An otherwise qualified medical student with a particular background--whether it be ethnic, geographic, culturally advantaged or disadvantaged--may bring to a professional school of medicine experiences, outlooks, and ideas that enrich the training of its student body and better equip its graduates to render with understanding their vital service to humanity.

  • Ethnic diversity, however, is only one element in a range of factors a university properly may consider in attaining the goal of a heterogeneous student body. Although a university must have wide discretion in making the sensitive judgments as to who should be admitted, constitutional limitations protecting individual rights may not be disregarded.” (Bakke, at 2760).



“As part of its goal of ‘assembling a class that is both exceptionally academically qualified and broadly diverse," the Law School seeks to "enroll a 'critical mass' of minority students. The Law School's interest is not simply ‘to assure within its student body some specified percentage of a particular group merely because of its race or ethnic origin.’ That would amount to outright racial balancing, which is patently unconstitutional. Rather, the Law School's concept of critical mass is defined by reference to the educational benefits that diversity is designed to produce.

  • “As part of its goal of ‘assembling a class that is both exceptionally academically qualified and broadly diverse," the Law School seeks to "enroll a 'critical mass' of minority students. The Law School's interest is not simply ‘to assure within its student body some specified percentage of a particular group merely because of its race or ethnic origin.’ That would amount to outright racial balancing, which is patently unconstitutional. Rather, the Law School's concept of critical mass is defined by reference to the educational benefits that diversity is designed to produce.

  • These benefits are substantial. As the District Court emphasized, the Law School's admissions policy promotes ‘cross-racial understanding,’ helps to break down racial stereotypes,’ and ‘enables [students] to better understand persons of different races.’ These benefits are ‘important and laudable,’ because ‘classroom discussion is livelier, more spirited, and simply more enlightening and interesting’ when the students have ‘the greatest possible variety of backgrounds.’ (Justice O’Connor’s opinion)

  • $ We find that the Law School's admissions program bears the hallmarks of a narrowly tailored plan. As Justice Powell made clear in Bakke, truly individualized consideration demands that race be used in a flexible, nonmechanical way. It follows from this mandate that universities cannot establish quotas for members of certain racial groups or put members of those groups on separate admissions tracks. Nor can universities insulate applicants who belong to certain racial or ethnic groups from the competition for admission. Universities can, however, consider race or ethnicity more flexibly as a ‘plus’ factor in the context of individualized consideration of each and every applicant.”

  • “It has been 25 years since Justice Powell first approved the use of race to further an interest in student body diversity in the context of public higher education. Since that time, the number of minority applicants with high grades and test scores has indeed increased. We expect that 25 years from now, the use of racial preferences will no longer be necessary to further the interest approved today. “









Freer markets – where new businesses are easier to start, labor markets more flexible, etc. – are associated with less discrimination.

  • Freer markets – where new businesses are easier to start, labor markets more flexible, etc. – are associated with less discrimination.

  • For example, in the transition from socialism, Eastern European countries saw relative female income improve.









There was no official recognition of unions; absolute freedom of contract ruled.

  • There was no official recognition of unions; absolute freedom of contract ruled.

  • Early 1700s: Pennsylvania merchants petitioned colonial government for action against allowing hiring of black mechanics.

  • In the early 1800s, white workers requested that legislatures in the North and South outlaw teaching skilled labor to blacks.

  • New York City required cartmen to get licenses to do business; blacks were never granted any.

  • The New York (State) General Trades Union saw abolition as a conspiracy to decrease white wages. Some labor leaders saw “wage slavery” as worse than the real thing.

  • In NYC in 1862, Irish workers rioted against a tobacco company that employed blacks. A shipping company hired blacks as strikebreakers during a longshoreman’s strike in 1863. During the July, 1863 draft riots, blacks were purged from the docks.



Civil-rights legislation and the 14th Amendment it inspired were meant largely to ensure property and contract rights for black workers. The “Black Codes” enacted immediately after the war had restricted such rights.

  • Civil-rights legislation and the 14th Amendment it inspired were meant largely to ensure property and contract rights for black workers. The “Black Codes” enacted immediately after the war had restricted such rights.

  • Between late 1860s and roughly 1900, black income converged from 24% to 35% of that of whites; black income grew 2.7% a year, white income 2.0%. Black mortality rates fell significantly faster than those of whites.



  • Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:
  1   2   3   4   5


Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2017
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling