Urbanization = growth of cities (as workers migrate to cities to find work)


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Sana08.07.2018
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1) Urbanization = growth of cities (as workers migrate to cities to find work)

  • 1) Urbanization = growth of cities (as workers migrate to cities to find work)

  • Problems: miserable living conditions for the working class (middle & upper classes live outside cities in larger suburban estates):


Problems of rapid urbanization:

  • Problems of rapid urbanization:

    • No city planning to manage growth = chaotic & unorganized development (growth is too much, too fast… outpaces needed public services)
    • No sanitation codes = dirty & polluted (sewage & trash disposed of in unpaved streets & rivers; coal soot covers buildings)
    • No building codes = poor housing (poorly built, overcrowded slums… fire hazard!)
    • Poor sanitation + overcrowding = epidemics & disease, shortened lifespans (no public health services)
    • Inadequate (or absent) police & fire services
    • No public education
    • No parks, libraries


2) Urban problems are SLOWLY fixed over the next two centuries, as [MUNICIPAL] governments collect taxes from individual income, property, and business profits to eventually respond with investments in public services:

  • 2) Urban problems are SLOWLY fixed over the next two centuries, as [MUNICIPAL] governments collect taxes from individual income, property, and business profits to eventually respond with investments in public services:

  • → paved streets

  • → sewers

  • → parks

  • → modern municipal services (fire, police, trash collection, building code inspection & enforcement)



3) Industrialization fosters growing CLASS DISTINCTIONS:

  • 3) Industrialization fosters growing CLASS DISTINCTIONS:

  • I. UPPER CLASS:

    • Traditional upper class: landowners and aristocrats (inherited wealth, based on land ownership and family legacy)
    • New industrial upper class: factory owners & entrepreneurs, merchants, bankers (begin to rival, then join upper classes economically; initially resented by the traditional upper class!)


3) Industrialization fosters growing CLASS DISTINCTIONS:

  • 3) Industrialization fosters growing CLASS DISTINCTIONS:

  • II. A new & emerging MIDDLE CLASS:

    • Upper Middle: government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers, accountants, business professionals, wealthy farmers
    • Lower Middle: skilled workers, tradesmen, mechanics, overseers (lower-level managers)


3) Industrialization fosters growing CLASS DISTINCTIONS:

  • 3) Industrialization fosters growing CLASS DISTINCTIONS:

  • III. WORKING CLASS (aka: lower class):

    • Less skilled, less educated laborers
    • Which do YOU come from?


4) CLASS TENSIONS RISE

  • 4) CLASS TENSIONS RISE

  • Working class increasingly reacts to immense differences in wealth, income, living & working conditions:

  • 1. RIOTS, DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY (Luddites*)

  • 2. PROTESTS & DEMONSTRATIONS

  • 3. ORGANIZATION → FORMATION OF LABOR UNIONS

  • 4. EMIGRATE!

          • *The original “rage
          • against the machine”:
  • Property to be protected

  • with force... while

  • workers' lives were

  • considered expendable.



5) GOVERNMENT REACTIONS to working class unrest:

  • 5) GOVERNMENT REACTIONS to working class unrest:

  • Arrest, sometimes shoot demonstrators (or allow companies to hire their own security force to do so)

  • Protect property, and the ECONOMY, from “the mob”

    • Reasoning: uphold “law & order” and protect property, using violence against workers (if necessary… and sometimes when not necessary!)
    • LAISSEZ-FAIRE policies (for owners to profit, not for workers to organize) will continue well into the 20th century; unions are eventually tolerated, and later given legal recognition (not until 1935 in the U.S.)
  • Slow, creeping government reform occurs only when forced to after conditions become too terrible to ignore, and workers gain sympathy from a wider public audience

  • (early examples: Factory Act (1833), Mines Act (1842))



6) NEGATIVES OF EARLY INDUSTRIALIZATION… widespread suffering:

  • 6) NEGATIVES OF EARLY INDUSTRIALIZATION… widespread suffering:

  • - dangerous & unhealthy working conditions

  • (factories & coal mines were dirty, poorly lit, and lacking in safety… workers were often injured by machines & industrial accidents, with no compensation)

  • - polluted air & water (at work and in the environment)

  • - child labor (no nationwide public education until 1920's)

  • - low wages (esp. for children & women)

  • - long hours (14 hours a day, 6 days a week)

  • - dull, repetitive work (machine pace, round the clock)

  • - DE-HUMANIZING CONDITIONS (owners regard workers

  • as disposable, easily replaced)

  • - wealth & income disparity: large income gap between

  • working class and middle & upper classes, leads to…

  • - class tensions (working class v. middle & upper classes),

  • sometimes resulting in violence & social instability



7) POSITIVES OF INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • 7) POSITIVES OF INDUSTRIALIZATION

  • + Job creation & growth in employment opportunities

  • + Gradually rising wages (esp. compared to farming)

  • + More affordable consumer goods

  • + Technological progress, more comforts & conveniences

  • + Growing national wealth (but very unevenly distributed!)

  • + A rising standard of living (over the long-term) for most

  • people (today’s middle class routinely enjoys what

  • previous generations would consider to be luxuries)

  • + More education (due to need for skilled workers)

  • + Growth of the middle class (wealth no longer dependent

  • on land ownership)

  • + Eventually (long term), improved working & living

  • conditions (unions, labor laws)

  • + Longer life spans (more food, better medicine & health)




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