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Vienna
2018
Publishing
PREMIER
European science review
№ 1–2  2018
January–February

European Sciences review
Scientific journal
№ 1–2  2018 (January–February)
ISSN 2310-5577
Editor-in-chief 
Lucas Koenig, Austria, Doctor of Economics 
International editorial board 
Abdulkasimov Ali, Uzbekistan, Doctor of Geography 
Adieva Aynura Abduzhalalovna, Kyrgyzstan, Doctor of Economics 
Arabaev Cholponkul Isaevich, Kyrgyzstan, Doctor of Law 
Zagir V. Atayev, Russia, Ph.D. of of Geographical Sciences 
Akhmedova Raziyat Abdullayevna, Russia, Doctor of Philology 
Balabiev Kairat Rahimovich, Kazakhstan, Doctor of Law 
Barlybaeva Saule Hatiyatovna, Kazakhstan, Doctor of History 
Bestugin Alexander Roaldovich, Russia, Doctor of Engineering Sciences 
Boselin S.R. Prabhu, India, Doctor of Engineering Sciences
Bondarenko Natalia Grigorievna, Russia, Doctor of Philosophy 
Bogolib Tatiana Maksimovna, Ukraine, Doctor of Economics 
Bulatbaeva Aygul Abdimazhitovna, Kazakhstan, Doctor of Education 
Chiladze George Bidzinovich, Georgia, Doctor of Economics, Doctor of Law 
Dalibor M. Elezović, Serbia, Doctor of History 
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Jansarayeva Rima, Kazakhstan, Doctor of Law 
Khubaev Georgy Nikolaevich, Russia, Doctor of Economics 
Khurtsidze Tamila Shalvovna, Georgia, Doctor of Law 
Khoutyz Zaur, Russia, Doctor of Economics 
Khoutyz Irina, Russia, Doctor of Philology 
Korzh Marina Vladimirovna, Russia, Doctor of Economics 
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Lekerova Gulsim, Kazakhstan, Doctor of Psychology 
Melnichuk Marina Vladimirovna, Russia, Doctor of Economics 
Meymanov Bakyt Kattoevich, Kyrgyzstan, Doctor of Economics 
Moldabek Kulakhmet, Kazakhstan, Doctor of Education 
Morozova Natalay Ivanovna, Russia, Doctor of Economics 
Moskvin Victor Anatolevich, Russia, Doctor of Psychology 
Nagiyev Polad Yusif, Azerbaijan, Ph.D. of Agricultural Sciences 
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Novikov Alexei, Russia, Doctor of Education 
Salaev Sanatbek Komiljanovich, Uzbekistan, Doctor of Economics 
Shadiev Rizamat Davranovich, Uzbekistan, Doctor of Education 
Shhahutova Zarema Zorievna, Russia, Ph.D. of Education 
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Spasennikov Boris Aristarkhovich, Russia, Doctor of Law 
Spasennikov Boris Aristarkhovich, Russia, Doctor of Medicine 
Suleymanov Suleyman Fayzullaevich, Uzbekistan, Ph.D. of Medicine 
Suleymanova Rima, Russia, Doctor of History
Tereschenko-Kaidan Liliya Vladimirovna, Ukraine, Doctor of Philosophy 
Tsersvadze Mzia Giglaevna, Georgia, Doctor of Philology 
Vijaykumar Muley, India, Doctor of Biological Sciences 
Yurova Kseniya Igorevna, Russia, Ph.D. of History 
Zhaplova Tatiana Mikhaylovna, Russia, Doctor of Philology 
Zhdanovich Alexey Igorevich, Ukraine, Doctor of Medicine 
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ANALYSIS DETECTION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES FROM BRICK FACTORIES
3
Section 1. Biology
Boboyev Sobir Мurjdullayevich,
Professor, Samarkand State University
Keldiyarova Gulmira Farhadovna,
Ph D., Samarkand State University
E-mail: lutfullobek@mail.ru
ANALYSIS DETECTION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES 
FROM BRICK FACTORIES
Abstract: This article analyzes the impact of harmful emissions on the environment from the 
production of bricks. And also results of calculation of allocated dust in manufacture of a brick are 
resulted.
Keywords: Kattakurgan, sourc, analys, inorganic dust, coal, ash, nitrogen oxides, carbon, man-
ganese, iron oxides, sulfur dioxide, scraper D-569, material, calculation,
 brick-factory.
Kattakurgan brick factory is specialized in the pro-
duction of bricks. At the brick factory, the “100” brick is 
produced in accordance with GOST 530–95. As a basis 
for the technological scheme adopted a plastic method 
of production of bricks. The amount of pollutants emit-
ted into the atmosphere depends on the production 
product. The brick factory has 20 sources. When the 
company operates in the air, pollutants of 13 names are 
released: – inorganic dust, coal and ash, nitrogen oxides, 
carbon, manganese and iron oxides, sulfur dioxide and 
nitrogen dioxide, diesel fuel, soot, aldehydes and benza-
pyrene. Calculation of emissions of harmful substances 
into the atmosphere from an organized source is made 
by the formula: 
m = Q*Zg/s where,
m – maximum amount of harmful substances re-
leased into the atmosphere, g/s;
Q – volume of air – gas mixture; nm
3
/year;
Z – concentration of pollutant in the air – gas mix-
ture at the outlet from the emission source, g/nm
3
. One 
of the sources of emission of a brick factory is the DZ-42 
bulldozer. The extraction of inorganic dust occurs when 
the layer is removed and the loess soil is worked out with 
a bulldozer. The total volume of movement of loamy soils 
per year is – 40848 m
3
/year. The total time of work is 
1040 hours, the wind speed is up to 2 m/s (1.81). Cal-
culation of dust emission during loading operations on 
the working site, performed by a bulldozer is determined 
by the formula:
П = К
1

К
2

К
3

К
4
 *
К
5
 *
К
7

G* 10
6
/3600, g/s,
where;
К
1
 – weight fraction of dust fraction in rock-0.05;
K
2
 – fraction of volatile dust passing into aero-
sol-0.02;
K
3
 – coefficient, taking into account the wind speed 
in the working area of the bulldozer-1.0;
K
4
 – coefficient, closeness of node-1;
K
5
 – coefficient, taking into account the moisture 
content of the material-1;
K
7
 – coefficient, taking into account the size of the 
material-0.1;
G – productivity of the bulldozer-15 t/h.
Then the amount of dust emission is;
= 0.05 * 0.02 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 1.0 * 0.1 * 15 * 106/3600 = 
 =0.2083 g/ s, taking into account the coefficient of local 
conditions 0.0208g/s or 0.078-t/year.
Source of scraper D-569. Isolation of inorganic dust 
occurs when removing the soil layer and developing a 
loess soil with a scraper. Calculation of combustion 
products emissions during excavator operation. The 
source of emissions of combustion products of diesel 

Section 1. Biology
4
fuel. When fuel is combusted, nitrogen dioxide, carbon 
monoxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon black are released. The 
standard fuel consumption for 1 mechanism is: excavator 
EO-10011–11 kg/h. The duration of the mechanisms is 
2080 hours per year. Carbon monoxide. Calculation of 
carbon monoxide emissions per unit time: (t / year, g/s) 
is determined by the formula:
P
so
 = 0.001 * 
Cso * B * (1-q4/100) where;
В – fuel consumption (t / year, thousand m
3
/year, 
g/s, l/s)
C
co
 – emission of carbon monoxide in the combus-
tion of fuel (kg / ton, kg/thousand m
3
 of fuel) is calcu-
lated by the formula:
Cso – q3 * R * Qir
q3 – loss of heat due to chemical incompleteness of 
fuel combustion (%)
R – coefficient, taking into account the share of heat 
loss due to the chemical incompleteness of fuel combus-
tion, due to the presence of combustion products of car-
bon monoxide. For solid fuel 
R = 1, for gas.
R = 0.5, for fuel oil R = 0.65
Q, the lowest heat of combustion of natural fuel 
(MJ / kg, MJ/m
3
)
q4 – heat loss due to mechanical incompleteness of 
fuel combustion (%)
Specific emissions of diesel combustion products by 
diesel engines are: -carbon dioxide 100 g/kg.
P = 100g/kg * 11kg/hour/3600sec = 0.306g/or 
2.288t/year. Oxides of nitrogen.
The amount of nitric oxide emitted per unit time (
t / 
year, 
g/s) is calculated by the formula:
Pso = 0.001 * B * Qir * KNO2 * (1-β) where;
В – consumption of natural fuel for the considered 
period of time, (
t/year, thousand m
3
/year, 
g/s, l/s) Qin is 
the heat of combustion of natural fuel (MJ / kg, MJ/m
3
)
K
NO2
 – parameter characterizing the amount of nitro-
gen oxide generated per 1 
GJ of heat (kg/GJ),
β – coefficient, depending on the degree of reduction 
of nitrogen oxide emissions resulting from the applica-
tion of technical solutions. Specific emissions of diesel 
combustion products by diesel engines are: nitrogen 
oxides – 40 g/kg.
P = 40g/kg * 11kg/hour/3600sec = 0.122g/s or 
0.9152t/year.
Nitrogen dioxide = 0.9 * 0.122 = 0.0977
g/s or 
0.73216t/year
P of nitrogen oxide = 0.2 * 0.122 = 0.0244 g/s or 
0.18304t/year.
Particulate matter. The calculation of particulate mat-
ter emissions of fly ash and unburnt fuel (tons/year, g/s) 
discharged into the atmosphere with the boiler boiler 
fumes per unit time during the combustion of solid 
fuel and fuel oil is performed according to the formula: 
Пто = ВА’x (1 – ђ)where,
B – fuel consumption (t/year, g/s)
A – ash content of fuel (%)
 –the fraction of solid particles trapped in ash col-
lectors;
The specific emissions of combustion products of 
diesel fuel by diesel engines are: soot-15.5 g/kg. 
P = 
=15.5g/kg * 11kg/hour/3600sec = 0.04736g/taking into 
account the coefficient of local conditions 0.00474g/s or 
0.0355t/year.
Aldehydes.
Specific emissions of diesel combustion products by 
diesel engines are: aldehydes –2.4 g/kg. 
P = 2.4g/kg* 
* 11kg/hour/3600sec = 0.061g/s or 0.4576t/year.
The amount of benzapyrene entering the atmosphere 
at each technological operation is calculated using the 
formula:
Qbp = (C
bn 〗 ^ “Vbtn”)/(10 ^ 6)
Sbp – concentration of benzapyrene μg/m
3
.
 – volume of gas – air mixture at one technological 
operation from one source m
3
/s.
Specific emissions of diesel combustion products by 
diesel engines are: benz (a) pyrene – 0.00031g/kg.
Qbp = 0.000001g/s or 0.000007t/year.
The movement of vehicles MMZ-555 in the quarry 
is responsible for the release of dust, as well as gases from 
internal combustion engines: it is emitted as a result of 
the interaction of the wheels with the road bed and blow-
ing off the surface of the laden car body.
The total amount of dust emitted by road transport 
within the quarry according to the methodology is char-
acterized by the following equation:
Q = C1 * C2 * C3 * N * a * q1/3600 + C4 * C5 * C6 * 

F0 * n * q2, g/s. Where:
С1 – coefficient, taking into account the average car-
rying capacity of a vehicle, with a load 12
t С1 = 1.1
C2 – coefficient that takes into account the average 
speed of movement of the transport and the quarry, at a 
transport speed of 10 km/
h, C2 = 0.6

ANALYSIS DETECTION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES FROM BRICK FACTORIES
5
C3 – factor taking into account the state of roads, 
C3 = 0.5
C4 is a coefficient that takes into account the profile 
of the surface of the material on the platform, 
C4 = 1.3.
С5 – coefficient, taking into account the blowing 
speed of the material 
С5 = 1.0
C6 is a coefficient that takes into account the mois-
ture content of the material, with a humidity above 10%
C6 = 0.4.
N –number of walkers (round trip) of the whole 
transport per hour 
N = 1.5.
a – the average length of one walker within the pit, 
0.16 km.
q1 – dust emission into the atmosphere per 1 km of 
run,
 q1 = 1450 g
q2 – dust emission from the unit surface of the mate-
rial on the platform, 
q2 = 0.002 g/m
2
 * s
F
0
 –is the average platform area, 11.25m
2
.
n –number of machines simultaneously working in 
the quarry 
n = 1.
Q = 1.1 * 0.6 * 0.5 * 1.5 * 1450 * 0.16/3600 + 1.3 * 
 *1.0 * 0.4 * 11.25 * 1 * 0.002 = 0.00436
g/s. The annual re-
lease of dust from the rock mass is given by the formula 2:
Q = 0.00436 * 2080 * 3600/1000000 = 0.03265t/yr.
Dust extraction during planning works in a quarry. 
Planning work in the quarry is carried out by bulldozer. 
The specific emission of dust during the operation of 
the bulldozer, and according to the procedure, is 
Q = 
0.044 
g/s.
The dust emission taking into account the gravi-
tational settling of the dust (0.1) in the quarry will be 
Q = 0.044 g/s. The bulldozer’s operating time is 1040 
hours/year. The annual emissions from the bulldozer 
operation are:
Q = 0.0044 * 1040 * 3600 * 0.85/1000000 = 0.01647t/yr.
Blowing dust off the surface of the blade. The annu-
al area of   the dump formed is –3000m
2
. The discharge 
caused by the blowing of dust from the surface of the 
dump by wind is determined in accordance with the pro-
cedure according to the formula:
Q = k3 * k4 * k5 * k6 * k7 * q1 * Fy/s where:
k3 – coefficient taking into account the wind speed 
in the work area –1.0
k4 – coefficient, taking into account the closedness 
of the node-1.0
k5 – coefficient, taking into account the moisture 
content of the material-0.4
k6 –coefficient, taking into account the surface pro-
file of the material to be stored – 
k6 = 1.3.
k7 – coefficient, taking into account the size of the 
material-0.4
q1 – specific drift of dust from the surface, g/m
2
 * 
s 
–0.00002
– dusting surface of the blade surface, m2–300 m
2
Q = 1.0 * 1.0 * 0.4 * 1.3 * 0.4 * 0.00002 * 300 =  
= 0.001248
g/s.
The annual release of dust from the surface of the 
heap, taking into account the duration of dry days, is:
Qg = Q = 3600 * 6240/1000000 = 0.001248 * 6240* 
 * 3600/1000000 = 0.0280
t/g
The unorganized source of emissions of harmful sub-
stances is the storage of raw materials – loess. The release of 
harmful substances occurs as a result of dusting from a ware-
house of loess area of   50
m
2
. Dust is observed during dry 
and hot days, the duration of which is about 100 days. The 
time of dusting in the year will be-2400 hours. The emission 
power of the inorganic dust was calculated by the formula:
M = K3 * K4 * K5 * K6 * K7 * g * F. where
K3 – coefficient taking into account local weather 
conditions. 
К3 = 1.0
K4 – coefficient, taking into account local weather 
conditions, the degree of protection from external influ-
ences, dust generation conditions, 
K4 = 0.5
K5 – coefficient, taking into account the moisture 
content of the material, 
K5 = 0.1
K6 – coefficient taking into account the surface pro-
file of the warehouse,
 K6 = 1.4
K7 – coefficient, taking into account the size of the 
material, 
K7 = 0.8
g – drift of dust from 1m
2
 of the actual surface, 
g = 0.002
F – surface of dusting, m
2

F = 50m
2
.
The maximum one – time ejection from the ware-
house surface will be:

mr
 = 1.0 * 0.5 * 0.1 * 1.4 * 0.8 * 0.002 * 50 = 0.0056 g/s
Total amount of dust inorganic, ejected from the 
surface of the warehouse per year: 
M
g 
= 0.0056 * 2400 * 
 *3600/106 = 0.04838
t/year.
The foreseen analysis of the calculation of the surface 
of the environment by means of production emissions 
showed that their contribution to the level of atmospher-

Section 1. Biology
6
ic pollution is insignificant and does not exceed the es-
tablished quotas at the border of the production site of 
the quarry and the plant. Emissions of pollutants from 
mobile sources are 4.4 tons/year.
References:
1.  “Regulations on the state environmental review of Uzbekistan” Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic 
of Uzbekistan in – 2001.
2.  Collection of methods for calculating air emissions of pollutants from various industries. Under. Ed. LI Verev, 
Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, – 1986.
3.  The draft EIS of the construction of a brick factory with a raw material base on the territory of the Chimbaiabad 
massif in the Pastdargomsky district of the Samarkand region. Samarkand – 2007.
4.  Ecological Herald  – No. 11–12 (91).  – 2008.

7
MEMBRANE HYDROLYSIS O F CARBOHYDRATES IN SMALL INTESTINE OF GROWING, ADULT AND OLD RATS...
Karimova Irodakhon Ibrohimjonovna,
Physiology and biophysics department,
Biology faculty,
National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent
Sadikov Bahodir Asrorovich
Bioorganic chemistry institute of
Academy of Sciences of
the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent
E-mail: turdimurod@gmail.com
MEMBRANE HYDROLYSIS O F CARBOHYDRATES IN SMALL INTESTINE 
OF GROWING, ADULT AND OLD RATS, OBTAINED SOLUTION OF 
LEAD SALT OF DIFFERENT DOSES TOGETHER WITH FOOD
Abstract: It was shown that the chronic intake of lead salt of different concentrations with food 
into the organism of growing, adult and old rats leads to different to negative alterations in the 
activity of carbohydrases of the small intestine mucosa. The higher concentration of lead salt, the 
more profound alterations in the hydrolytic function of the small intestine, and the mechanisms of 
membrane digestion of the growing organism turned out to be more vulnerable.
Keywords:
1. Introduction
Heavy metals are considered to be of particular 
ecological, biological and health protective importance 
among ecotoxicants of chemical nature. Mass pollution 
by salts of heavy metals of the environment leads to pro-
nounced toxicoses of plants, animals and humans. It was 
established that food contains various salts of heavy met-
als and they have a serious influence on the health of the 
population [1, 2].
In our earlier research, it was shown that in offspring 
of rats, whose mothers were fed on a diet contaminated 
by heavy metals, the mechanisms of cavity and mem-
brane hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the small intestine 
lag behind in development [3]. Chronic intake of lead 
salt at the dose of 5.0 mg/kg leads to a decrease in the 
hydrolytic function of the pancreas and small intestine 
of growing, adult and old rats [4].



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