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L

L1 circumlunar spacecraft/project, see 

7K-L1 and Zond circumlunar program

L3 human lunar landing project/spacecraft, 

xxii, xliii, xliv, 1, 3-7, 12, 14, 15, 22, 

27, 28, 32, 37, 39, 56, 68, 101, 455, 

493; human lunar landing spacecraft, 

early conceptions of, 76, 80-81, 84-99; 

different mission profiles, 105, 113-115; 

control systems for, 105, 113, 118-132; 

development in late 1960s, 136-141, 

154-155, 171-180, 185-186, 189-193, 

199-200, 213, 218, 220, 221, 224, 225, 

228, 231, 233; development in the early 

1970s, 254, 255-274, 283, 290, 292-

293, 304, 307-309, 317-318, 357-358, 

381-382, 409-410, 415, 420, 422, 423, 

427-429, 433, 435-439; crews for, 227; 

and cancellation of, 521-557, 569-579; 

legacy of, 602-606

L3M human lunar landing project/space-

craft, 258-260, 263, 264, 272, 274, 315, 

535, 545, 598, 606

L3S payload for N-1, 218, 221-222, 228

Labutin, Yuriy M., 269

Lake Baikal, 125

Lapygin, Vladimir L., 427-428, 435, 440, 

445


Lastochka airfield (at Tyuratam), see Dalniy 

airfield


Lavochkin, Semyon A., 262

Lavochkin Factory, 28-29, 113

Lavrov, Ilya V., 247, 374-375, 403

Lavrov, Kirill, 521, 522, 562, 567

Lavrov, Svyastoslav S., 118

Lazarev, Vasiliy G., 404

Lebedev, Yevgeniy F., 235, 339

Legostayev, Viktor P., 117, 121, 159-160, 

162, 163, 247, 255, 304, 331, 339-340, 

358, 359, 456, 461, 464, 494, 495, 506, 

508, 510, 513, 520, 534

Lenin, Vladimir I., 84, 215, 236, 257, 259, 

262, 560

Lenin Prize, 390

Leningrad, 49, 293, 332, 389, 463, 464

Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, 165, 183, 

483

Leninsk, 21, 229, 310, 348, 350, 353, 539



Leonov, Aleksey A., xxiv, xliii, 169, 188

479; and Voskhod-2 mission, 472, 479-

480; and planned Soyuz-11 mission, 314, 

340, 354, 362, 363, 364, 366-368, 395

Levanevskiy, Sigizmund A., 313, 540

Levanevskiy, Yuzef A., 313

Levashev, Ye. V., 194

Leventsov, A. V., 518

636


Index

Levin, Valerian R., 148

Levitan, Yuriy B., 210, 457

Ley, Willy, 40

Leypunskiy, Aleksandr I., 59

Li-2 airplane, 523

Library of Congress (U.S.), 624

Lidorenko, Nikolay S., 122, 131, 218, 418, 

436, 439, 456, 570

LII, see Flight-Research Institute

Likhushin, Valentin Ya., 264, 443, 446

Lindbergh, Charles, 282

liquid-hydrogen–liquid-oxygen rocket 

engines, xxiii, 44, 48-50, 53, 60, 62-64, 

67-68, 71, 81, 83, 85, 89, 90, 150, 192, 

225, 257-258, 261, 272, 275, 544-546, 

550, 554, 574-576, 579, 596

Lira antisatellite target, 27

Lisovich, Izrael M., 112

Lisunov, Boris P., 523

“Little Civil War,” 222-223, 318-319

Litvinov, Viktor Ya., 171-173, 195, 217, 

220, 225, 271, 529, 540

LK (Lunar Vehicle), 13, 27, 76, 88-89, 

94-98, 105, 109, 121, 125, 126, 127-



130, 143, 174, 175, 181, 199-200, 221, 

228, 257, 261-262, 269-270, 306-309, 

410, 486

LK-1 spacecraft/program, 12

LK-700 human lunar lander, 213

Lobanov, Nikolay A., 473

Lobanova, Sofya S., 234

LOK (Lunar Orbital Vehicle), 13, 88, 94, 



9596-98, 105, 121, 125, 127-128, 

174-175, 199, 218, 221, 228, 261, 265, 

269, 304, 306-307, 309, 410, 420, 423, 

427-429, 433, 435-439

Long-Duration Orbital Station, see DOS

Lotos telemetry processing system, 442

Low, George W., 555

Lucid, Shannon W., 600

Lukyashko, A. V., 350

Luna robotic program/spacecraft, xix, 13

Luna (Ye-6) second-generation probes, xliii, 

82, 112-113, 118

Luna third-generation probes, see Ye-8 and 

Ye-8-5

Luna-3 probe, 460

Luna-4 probe, 83

Luna-15 probe, 238

Luna-16 probe, 280

lunar base (permanent) proposals, 191-192, 

281, 525, 531, 535, 542-547, 550, 553, 

556, 571, 573, 577, 588-589, 592, 595-

598, 612, 615, 620, 621

Lunar Council, 194, 232, 573

Lunar Module (Apollo), 56

Lunokhod, 28, 281; see also Ye-8

Lygin, Yuriy I., 427

Lysenko, Trofim D., 113-114

Lyulka, Arkhip M., 67, 71, 89, 119, 150-

151, 390, 576



M

M-220 computer, 488

Magnitogorsk, 389, 561

Main Directorate of the Hydro-

meteorological Service, 33

Main Intelligence Directorate, see GRU

Makarov, Aleksandr A., 25

Makarov, Oleg G., 404

Makeyev, Viktor P., 29-31, 81-82, 223-224, 

390-391


Maksimov, Aleksandr A., 344, 346, 347, 

348


Maksimov, Gleb Yu., 458, 593

Malakhit cruise missile, 24

Malinovskiy, Rodion Ya., 133

Malyshev, Vyacheslav A., 368

Malyshev, Yuriy V., 507

Malyugin, O. I., 195

manned lunar projects, see N1-L3 program, 

L1 program, UR-700 program, LK-1 

program


MAP, see Ministry of the Aviation Industry

Marooned (book and movie), 567-568

Mars, xix, 9, 13, 14, 28-29, 64, 72-73, 76, 

101, 112, 113, 115, 118, 189, 191, 

192-193, 213-214, 216, 222-226, 232, 

242, 258, 259, 271-273, 339, 344-347, 

375-376, 434, 457, 531-532, 543, 547, 

556, 580, 586-595, 612, 620-623

Mars spacecraft/programs (automated), 9, 

13, 28-29, 64, 101, 112, 113, 115, 118, 

189, 191, 216, 232, 271, 339, 344-347, 

375-376, 434, 457, 547, 586, 587

Mars spacecraft/programs (human), 14, 

72-73, 76, 192-193, 213-214, 222-226, 

242, 258, 259, 272-273, 531-532, 543, 

547, 556, 588-595, 620-623

Mars-1 robotic mission, 339

Mars-2/3 robotic missions, 339, 344-347, 

375-376


Mars-75 proposal, 410

Mars-N proposals, 259

637


Rockets and People: Moon Race

Marshall Space Flight Center, see George C. 

Marshall Space Flight Center

Marx, Karl, 240, 248

Mashinoapparat Factory, 256, 301, 302

Mathematics Institute (Kiev), 463

McNamara, Robert S., 5

Medaris, John B., 40

media, see news media

Medvedev, Boris V., 462

Medvedeva, Alla K., 114

MEI (Moscow Power Institute), see OKB 

MEI

Meleshin, Petr I., 195



Melnikov, Mikhail V., 60, 72, 131-132, 194

234, 236, 258, 384, 410, 422, 437, 528, 

534, 571, 576, 594

Mercury (NASA program/spacecraft), 585

Mercury (planet), 586, 590, 612

Meshcheryakov, Ivan V., 8, 325

Meshcheryakov, Vladimir I., 298

Meteor weather satellite/program, 33, 268, 

271


Meteor-2 weather satellite/program, 33, 36

Meteor-3 weather satellite/program, 33, 36

Meyerovich, Yevgeniy A., 149

Miass, 29, 224

Mick, Christoph, xviii

Mikoyan, Anastas I., 134

military space forces (Russian/Soviet), xvi, 8, 

36, 92, 250, 266, 296; see also TsUKOS 

and GUKOS

Military Unit 32103, see Command and 

Measurement Complex

Military-Industrial Commission (VPK), 3-4, 

22, 63, 69, 77, 78, 81-83, 90-92, 123, 

134-135, 137, 145, 148, 152, 172, 181, 

184-186, 198, 221, 236, 239, 240, 254, 

255, 261, 269, 273, 284, 286, 287, 290, 

314, 334, 340, 357, 359, 363, 367, 380, 

389, 405, 431, 452-453, 466, 468, 500, 

523, 528, 529, 539, 540, 551-552, 559, 

567, 570, 575, 594, 596, 607-608, 618

military-industrial complex (Soviet), xi, xiv, 

1-8, 35-37, 415, 595, 609-610

Ministry of Armaments, 414

Ministry of Defense, 3, 16, 19, 33, 34, 35, 

36, 63, 65, 72, 77, 81, 82, 92, 134, 138, 

176, 244, 246, 262, 266, 269, 285, 288, 

397, 451, 474, 484, 493, 500, 504, 518, 

549, 552, 553, 557, 608

Ministry of Defense Space Monitoring 

Service, 394, 406, 516, 518

Ministry of Finance, 86, 272-273

Ministry of General Machine Building 

(MOM or Minobshchemash), 3, 23, 28, 

34, 135, 171, 179, 180, 190, 217, 240, 

266, 268, 269, 287, 288, 290, 416, 453, 

500, 501, 515, 550, 595; dissolution of, 

609


Ministry of Health, 347, 361

Ministry of Heavy Machine Building, 3

Ministry of Internal Affairs, 366

Ministry of Medium Machine Building 

(MSM or Minsredmash), 3, 35, 127, 

130-131, 273, 438, 570, 594

Ministry of the Aviation Industry (MAP), 3, 

28, 179, 198, 265, 286, 433, 468, 552

Ministry of the Communications 

Equipment Industry (MPSS), 3

Ministry of the Defense Industry (MOP), 3, 

31, 127, 179, 265, 292

Ministry of the Electrical Engineering 

Industry, 3

Ministry of the Electronics Industry, 3, 423

Ministry of the Radio (Engineering) 

Industry (MRP), 3

Minsk Automobile Factory, 32



Minsredmash, see Ministry of Medium 

Machine Building

Minuteman ICBMs, 7, 416

Mir automatic recording unit, 393, 395-

397, 399-400



Mir space station, x, xix, xxiv, 23, 214, 245, 

323-324, 381, 405, 406-407, 484, 542, 

577, 578, 579, 598-601, 608, 609, 614

MIRV (multiple independently targetable 

reentry vehicles), 6, 186

Mishin, Vasiliy P., xvi, xxii, xxiii, xxiv, xxvii, 

4, 15, 29, 60-61, 74, 80, 81, 85, 87, 99, 

103, 110-111, 118, 131, 136, 139, 141-

143, 147-148, 154, 159-161, 163-164, 

166-169, 172-176, 177, 180, 184, 186, 



188195205, 258-259, 263-264, 274, 

276, 291, 304-308, 315-318, 369, 383, 

387-389, 390, 392, 404, 437, 454, 459, 

469, 471, 472-473, 478, 480, 484, 487, 

494, 528, 531, 535, 537, 541, 556, 562, 

566, 567, 568-569, 572, 595, 603, 605; 

and appointment as chief designer, 135, 

455; and first N-1 launch, 189-209; and 

second and third N-1 launches, 213, 

217-228, 231-234, 238-239; and fourth 

N-1 launch, 409, 410, 415-417; and 

origins of DOS/Salyut program, 246-

250, 253, 256, 266-269, 279, 283-284, 

287-291, 308-311, 323-329, 333-334, 

638


Index

339-340, 344, 357, 358, 361-363, 365, 

367, 374, 376, 378-380, 397-399, 401, 

405; and dismissal from TsKBEM, xxv, 

521-522, 525-526; and poor relationship 

with Glushko, 49, 68-70, 565, 571

Mishuk, Mikhail N., 397, 399, 402

missile defense systems, see antimissile 

defense forces

Mission Control Center, see TsUP

MK-700M Mars project, 226

MKBS (Multipurpose Space Base/Station), 

246, 248, 273, 280, 281, 283-290, 309, 

311, 347, 382-383, 410, 531, 554

Mnatsakanyan, Armen S., 108, 225, 249, 

297, 326, 369, 375, 456, 477, 497-501, 

513, 570

MNTS-KI (Interdepartmental Scientific-

Technical Council on Space Research), 

125-126


Moiseyev, Yevgeniy G., 203, 229, 377, 435, 

436, 439-440

MOK (Multipurpose Orbital Complex), 

273, 288, 382-383, 410

Molniya (8K78) launch vehicle, 9, 64, 82

Molniya-1 communications satellite, xix, 10, 

15, 16, 101, 140, 215



Molniya-2 communications satellite, 16, 36

Molniya-3 communications satellite, 16, 36

Molniya communications satellites, 153, 

268, 271, 347, 376, 461, 495, 520, 577, 

618


MOM, see Ministry of General Machine 

Building


Moon, x, xii, xix, xxi, xxii, xli, xlii, xliii, 

9-10, 12, 13, 14, 22, 28, 29, 40, 42, 44, 

45, 46-48, 49, 50, 53, 55-57, 64-66, 72, 

73, 76, 80, 82-85, 87-91, 93, 96-98, 

105-106, 108, 109, 112-115, 121, 129-

130, 139-140, 169, 173-177, 181-186, 

189, 191-193, 215-216, 218, 221-222, 

224, 227, 231, 232, 236, 238, 239, 242, 

243, 254, 257-258, 260-268, 271, 272, 

274, 275, 280-282, 288, 304, 347, 382, 

408, 416, 423, 427, 429-430, 435-436, 

457, 484, 525, 531-532, 535-537, 539-

547, 550-551, 553-554, 565, 569-570, 

572, 577-579, 585-587, 590, 592-596, 

598, 603-604, 606, 608, 615, 619, 620-

621, 623


Moon programs (human), see separate 

human lunar projects such as N1-L3, 

L1/Zond, and LK-1

Mordvinov, I. A., 195

Morgulev, Aleksandr S., 497-498

Morozov, K. K., 424

Morozov, Vladimir V., 427-428

Moscow Higher Technical School, see 

Bauman Moscow Higher Technical 

School


Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 

494


Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology 

(MIT), 9, 31-33, 178-179

Moscow Physics and Technology Institute 

(MFTI), 462, 465, 506

Moscow Power (Engineering) Institute 

(MEI), 523



Mosfilm, 559, 561, 567

Mozzhorin, Yuriy A., xvi, xxviii, 86-87, 114, 

136-140, 220, 226, 284, 380, 424, 504, 

531-533, 548

MPSS, see Ministry of the Communications 

Equipment Industry

MR UR-100 ICBM, 26

MRP, see Ministry of the Radio 

(Engineering) Industry

Mrykin, Aleksandr G., 183, 419, 451

MSM, see Ministry of Medium Machine 

Building


Musk, Elon, 612

MV (Mars-Venus) program, see Mars and 

Venera separately

M. V. Frunze Motor Factory, see Frunze 

Motor Factory

M. V. Keldysh Institute of Applied 

Mathematics (IPM), 126, 536

M. V. Khrunichev Factory (ZIKh), 19-20, 

238, 243-245, 255, 262, 266, 267, 269, 

283-284, 288, 290, 292, 308, 381, 484, 

496, 551, 554, 598, 599

M. V. Lomonosov Gold Medal, 601

MVTU, see Bauman Moscow Higher 

Technical School

Myasishchev, Vladimir M., 19, 107, 243, 

523


Mytishchi, 386

N

N-1 heavy-lift launch vehicle, xix, xxii-xxv, 

xxvii, xliii, xliv, 1, 3-7, 12-13, 14, 15, 

18, 21, 22, 27, 87197204211212



218219228421, 455, 493; origins of, 

59-99; contractors for, 90-91; develop-

ment of engines for, 59-72, 73-74, 75, 

78-80, 82-83, 89-90, 93-94, 103-104, 

109, 110-112, 141-144, 155, 236, 264, 

639


Rockets and People: Moon Race

565-566; design changes in 1964-65, 

101-111, 113-115; development of 

control systems for, 117-132, 145-152; 

development in 1966-69 period, 136-

141, 154, 171-180, 185, 186, 189-193, 

200-202, 564-565; preparations for first 

launch of, 171-172, 186; first launch of 

(no. 3L), 139, 171, 188, 193-213, 217, 

219-220, 227, 243, 420-421, 425, 428, 

444; second launch of (no. 5L), 206, 

209, 212, 217-222, 225-236, 243, 272, 

388, 420, 425, 428, 446; future plans 

in 1969, 222-227; foreign visit to N-1 

launch pads, 237; and use for launching 

large space station, 246, 290, 347, 383; 

work in the early 1970s, 255-274, 279, 

283, 290, 292-293, 303, 304, 307-309, 

311, 317-318, 355, 381-383, 395; use 

for launching Mars missions, 14, 72-73, 

76, 113, 115, 191-193, 222-227, 258, 

272-273, 594; and third launch of (no. 

6L), 218, 220-221, 288-289, 300, 317, 

339, 376, 377, 380, 387-389, 392, 

396, 398, 408, 420-421, 428, 506; and 

fourth launch of (no. 7L), 221, 317, 408, 

409-447, 507, 541-542, 602-603; and 

planned fifth launch of (no. 8L), 432-

433, 447, 527-529, 531-532, 535, 539; 

and cancellation of, 521-557, 569-579; 

legacy of, 596, 602-606; costs of, xxii, 

528, 545, 573

N-1M heavy-lift launch vehicle, 594-595

N-11 rocket, 75, 77, 222, 225

Nadiradze, Aleksandr D., 9, 26, 29, 31-33, 

172, 177-180, 186, 224, 276, 318

Napoleon, 560

NASA (National Aeronautics and Space 

Administration), x, xxi, xxiii, xxxi, 42-46, 

52, 57, 68, 172, 239, 240, 241, 254, 

294, 536, 552, 555, 577, 586, 588, 593, 

614, 615


National Advisory Committee for 

Aeronautics (NACA), 42-43

National Aeronautics and Space Act, 42

National Aeronautics and Space 

Administration, see NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Council, 46

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty 

Organization), 26, 32, 592, 604, 614, 

621

Nauka publishing house, 465



Navstar GPS, 615

Navy, see Soviet Navy

Nazarov, A. A., 188

Nazis, xiii, 43, 231-232

N. E. Bauman Moscow State Technical 

University, see Moscow Higher Technical 

School (MVTU)

Nedelin, Mitrofan I., 106, 561

Nekrasov, Nikolay A., 526

Netherlands, 608

Nevzorov, Boris G., 303-304, 466, 498

news media, xi, xxi, xli, xliii, 29, 47, 153, 

163, 185-186, 210, 215-216, 251, 252, 

274, 314, 353, 354, 374, 390-391, 411, 

482, 496, 560, 622; see also individual 

newspapers and journals

Nezdyur, Leonid A., 498

NII IT (Scientific-Research Institute of 

Measurement Technology), 393, 442

NII-1 institute (later MIT), 31; see also 

Moscow Institute of Thermal Technology

NII-1 institute (later Keldysh Research 

Center), 59-61, 443, 458, 462

NII-4 institute, 92, 165, 475

NII-10 institute, 198

NII-88 institute, xi, xix, xlii, 24, 25, 28, 79, 

86, 87, 92, 114, 171, 200-201

NII-229 institute (Novostroyka), 75, 79-80, 

109, 141, 199, 418, 528

NII-380 institute, 33, 128

NII-627 institute, 33; see also VNIIEM

NII-648 institute, 34, 35, 163, 460; see also 

NIITP

NII-695 institute, 128-129



NII-885 institute, 13, 28, 34, 91, 119, 128, 

130, 423, 488

NII-944 institute, 28, 91, 125

NIIAP (Scientific-Research Institute of 

Automatics and Instrument Building), 

13, 32, 34-35, 91, 118-119, 121, 123-

128, 149, 151, 178, 180, 200, 202, 

206-208, 218, 221, 228, 238, 263, 286, 

428, 493

NIIERAT (Scientific-Research Institute for 

the Operation and Repair of Aviation 

Technology), 399, 402

NIIkhimmash, see NII-229

NIIKP (Scientific-Research Institute of 

Space Instrumentation Building), 514

NIIP-5 launch range, 350, 353, 416, 

539; see also Tyuratam and Baykonur 

Cosmodrome

NIITP (Scientific-Research Institute of 

Precision Instruments), 34, 497-501, 

549

640


Index

NIITP (Scientific-Research Institute of 

Thermal Processes), 443; see also NII-1 

(later Keldysh Center)

NIItransmash (Scientific-Research Institute 

of Transport Machine Building), 

593-594

NIIYaF (Scientific-Research Institute of 



Nuclear Physics), 21

Nikiforenko, V. I., 119



Nikita Khrushchev: Crises and Rockets (book), 

572


Nikitin, Boris V., 443, 456

Nikolayev, Andriyan G., 188, 295, 376

NIP (ground tracking stations), 35-36, 326, 

380


NIP-3 ground tracking station, 475-476, 

488


NIP-13 ground tracking station, 372

NIP-15 ground tracking station, 160, 324, 

393, 475, 488-489, 504

NIP-16 ground tracking station, 156, 325, 

376, 379, 380, 393, 475, 488, 490-491, 

504


NIP-23 ground tracking station, 354

NITsEVT (Scientific-Research Center of 

Electronic Computer Technology), 13, 

129, 245, 279

NK-9 rocket engine, 61, 71, 74

NK-15 rocket engine, 73-74, 93-94, 141, 

199

NK-15V rocket engine, 94, 199



NK-19 rocket engine, 199

Noordwijk, 608

North American Aviation (company), 54

North Atlantic Treaty Organization, see 

NATO

Noskin, German V., 456



Novikov, Yulian V., 299

Novodevichye Cemetery, 387, 391, 580

Novosibirsk, 162, 246

Novosti kosmonavtiki (journal), xviii

Novostroyka, see NII-229 institute

NPO Elas, 28

NPO Elektropribor, see Elektropribor

NPO Energiya, xxv, 8, 50, 71, 422, 458, 

503, 517, 533, 534, 568, 594, 596, 597, 

605, 607, 608; formation of, 521-559, 

572, 574; number of personnel at, 551, 

556; see also RKK Energiya

NPO Energomash, see Energomash

NPO Geofizika, see Geofizika Design 

Bureau/Factory

NPO Lavochkin, 28-29; see also KB 

Lavochkin and Lavochkin Factory

NPO Mashinostroyeniya, 19; see also 

OKB-52

NPO Prikladnoy mekhaniki (NPO PM), 



15-16; see also OKB-10

nuclear energy, 14, 59-61, 123, 131-132, 

280, 410, 528, 576, 591-596, 611, 

623-624


nuclear industry, 35, 37, 59-60, 61, 123, 

131


nuclear physicists/scientists, 10, 15, 131, 

223, 260, 273, 415, 438, 439

nuclear rocket engines, 14, 59-64, 67, 81, 

131, 224, 273, 410, 586-587

nuclear weapons, xvii, 1-7, 20, 24, 26, 29, 

30-31, 36, 37, 44, 47, 66, 86, 177, 178, 

179, 223, 240-241, 227, 280, 359-360, 

368, 414, 416, 457, 526, 536, 576, 589-

590, 608, 619, 620, 621

Nuzhdin, Nikolay I., 113-114



O

Oberth, Hermann, 48

Object D, 459-560; see also Sputnik-3

October Revolution, see Russian Revolution

OD-4 optical sight, 392

Odessa, 134, 560

Ognev (fictional character), 522, 560, 562, 

568


OKB-1 (Korolev) design bureau, xi, 3-4, 

8-15, 22, 24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 47, 60, 

63, 66-67, 77, 82, 84, 90, 91, 92-93, 

101-102, 105, 118, 122, 123, 126, 127, 

132, 136, 149, 150-151, 154, 184, 246, 

259, 269, 287-289, 409-410, 452, 453, 

455, 458, 460, 465, 466, 471, 489, 524, 

535, 550; see also TsKBEM

OKB-1 Branch No. 1, 15; see also TsNII-58

OKB-1 Branch No. 2, 15-16

OKB-1 Branch No. 3 (Kuybyshev Branch), 

9, 10, 15, 17-19, 268, 299, 535; see also 

TsSKB; Progress Factory; Kuybyshev; 

Samara


OKB-2 (Isayev) design bureau, 34, 91; see 

also KB Khimmash

OKB-10 (Reshetnev) design bureau, 10, 

15-16, 27

OKB-23 (Myasishchev) design bureau, 19, 

243-244


OKB-52 (Chelomey) design bureau (or 

TsKBM), 12, 19-24, 33, 72, 108, 184, 

641


Rockets and People: Moon Race

185, 213, 238, 243-244, 256, 260, 267, 

279, 291, 292, 409, 464, 484, 496

OKB-52 Branch No. 1 (Fili Branch), 19, 

213, 243-244, 256, 260, 262, 266, 267, 

279, 292


OKB-165 (Lyulka), 67, 89

OKB-276 (Kuznetsov) design bureau, 67, 

74, 90-91, 93, 141-142, 234, 236, 274, 

418, 432


OKB-456 (Glushko) design bureau, 23, 34, 

60, 69, 90, 523, 524, 526, 574; see also 

Energomash

OKB-586 (Yangel) design bureau, 15, 24-27, 

91; see also KB Yuzhnoye

OKB-670 (Bondaryuk) design bureau, 60

OKB-692 (Sergeyev) design bureau, 26

OKB Geofizika, see Geofizika Design 

Bureau/Factory

OKB Khimavtomatiki, see KB 

Khimavtomatiki

OKB Lavochkin, see KB Lavochkin

OKB LPI (Experimental Design Bureau of 

the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute), 

183, 483

OKB MEI (Experimental Design Bureau of 

the Moscow Power Institute), 92, 122, 

127, 129, 298, 423

OKB Yuzhnoye, see KB Yuzhnoye

Okhapkin, Sergey O., 103-104, 136, 138, 

139, 147-148, 154, 172-173, 180, 184, 

188196, 200-201, 220, 222, 234, 236, 

246, 253-254, 256, 264, 266, 267, 290, 

307-308, 334, 380, 410; and stroke of, 

416-417


Okhapkina, Klavdiya A., 416

Okhotsimskiy, Dmitriy Ye., 339-340

Omsk, 27, 551

OPM (Department of Applied 

Mathematics), 225, 475

OPS (Orbital Piloted Station), see Almaz



Orbita ground station, 16

Orbital Piloted Station (OPS), see Almaz

Order of Lenin, 390

Order of the October Revolution, 390



Orion UV observation system, 297, 392

Ostashev, Arkadiy I., xxviii, 580

Ostashev, Yevgeniy I., 296

Ostryakov, Nikolay N., 451

Otreshko, Antonina P., 413

Ovchinnikov, Viktor S., 122, 131-132, 218, 

436-437, 439, 534



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