Wide Area Protection Scheme (waps)


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Wide Area Protection Scheme (WAPS)





























The communications paths consist of a combination of SONET, and microwave radio paths.

  • The communications paths consist of a combination of SONET, and microwave radio paths.

  • The communication routes are completely diverse.

  • Non-deterministic communication systems are not deployed in the network.

  • PNM has communications maintenance technicians on 24hr call to respond to network outages.



Relays and communication equipment have self diagnostics which alarm through SCADA to power operations.

  • Relays and communication equipment have self diagnostics which alarm through SCADA to power operations.

  • PNM is working on establishing monitoring in MONARCH to specifically call out RAS health status.



Line outage is tested by opening the breakers one-at-a-time and verifying the change of state of each breaker in the relay.

  • Line outage is tested by opening the breakers one-at-a-time and verifying the change of state of each breaker in the relay.

  • For following tests, each set of Relays (R1-WN, R1-CJ, R1-BB, R1-TB) will be tested together. (e.g. R1 set will be tested while R2 and R3 still in service)

    • To test line loss detection, status contact inputs to the line relays will be changed to mimic breaker opening which will be observed at the BB line relay.
    • With both lines mimicked to the outage state the instrument transformer inputs are adjusted to mimic the loading.
  • Blackwater and Taiban Mesa breakers are allowed to trip one at a time verifying the intended transfer trip.

  • Functional testing will be done every 5 year.



  • NO INTERACTIONS FOUND. Most Likely Candidates:







Per Operating Procedure, PNM will notify wind farm owners to curtail wind.

  • Per Operating Procedure, PNM will notify wind farm owners to curtail wind.

  • The wind generation will be curtailed to a level (below 773 MW) where the RAS is not required for the double contingency outage of the WN line and CJ line.



The RAS action would trip up to 497 MW of wind resulting slight frequency decline in the Western Grid, however the decline will be well within the normal generation disturbances and should not present any unique problem.

  • The RAS action would trip up to 497 MW of wind resulting slight frequency decline in the Western Grid, however the decline will be well within the normal generation disturbances and should not present any unique problem.



The RAS is using existing relay and communication equipment in which PNM’s CIP compliance program has already been incorporated.

  • The RAS is using existing relay and communication equipment in which PNM’s CIP compliance program has already been incorporated.

  • PNM will also be implementing additional CIP protections by 9/1/2018 for physical security controls and electronic access controls to comply with the current version of NERC CIP standard (CIP-003-6 R2).

    • No expected impacts to proposed RAS scheme.






  • Thank you!!




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