Wnv landed for the first time in America in 1999 and then quickly spread to much of North America


Download 6.3 Mb.
Sana26.06.2019
Hajmi6.3 Mb.











WNV landed for the first time in America in 1999 and then quickly spread to much of North America

  • WNV landed for the first time in America in 1999 and then quickly spread to much of North America

  • CHICKV has been adapting to a new carrier in just a few years, has caused epidemics in geographic areas that have never been touched before and has been steadily rooted in the Americas

  • ZIKV, another African virus, has caused epidemics in Polynesia and then in the Americas, assuming the connotations of a global emergency

  • In recent years, various tick-borne infections have increased incidence, extended their spatial area, or emerged for the first time









Al 6 ottobre 2017, 282 notifiche (156 confermati e 126 probabili) in Lazio (Anzio, Roma e Latina-242 casi probabili e confermati) e Calabria (Guardavalle Marina-33 casi probabili e confermati).

  • Al 6 ottobre 2017, 282 notifiche (156 confermati e 126 probabili) in Lazio (Anzio, Roma e Latina-242 casi probabili e confermati) e Calabria (Guardavalle Marina-33 casi probabili e confermati).

  • Casi ‘importati’ in Emilia-Romagna (4 casi di malattia 3 probabili da Guardavalle Marina e uno confermato ad Anzio), Marche (un caso da Anzio), Francia (1 caso confermato da Anzio) e Germania (un caso probabile con storia di viaggio a Roma).





Dati del US Fish and Wildlife Service indicano che dal 2000 al 2004 più di un 1 trilione di animali di vario tipo (invertebrati inclusi) sono stati importati negli USA.

  • Dati del US Fish and Wildlife Service indicano che dal 2000 al 2004 più di un 1 trilione di animali di vario tipo (invertebrati inclusi) sono stati importati negli USA.

  • Tra questi quasi 900 milioni di pesci, 26 milioni di anfibi, 9 milioni di rettili, 2 milioni di uccelli e più di 200 000 mammiferi.









The current distribution of genotypes and subtypes of many pathogens genotypes and subtypes follows the pathways of recent human dispersion

  • The current distribution of genotypes and subtypes of many pathogens genotypes and subtypes follows the pathways of recent human dispersion

  • The demographic explosion has probably favored their evolutionary speed and geographical differentiation

  • The Yarawa paradox: can the same virus exhibits a much lower evolution rate in a small and isolated population in which is predominantly vertically transmitted than in a large, rapidly growing in which the transmission is predominantly horizontal ?













Forty-eight (9.6%) of the 501 tested subjects were conclusively diagnosed as having CD.

  • Forty-eight (9.6%) of the 501 tested subjects were conclusively diagnosed as having CD.

  • The highest prevalence of CD was among those from Bolivia (43/169, 25.4%) and El Salvador (4/68, 5.9%).

  • Older age (aOR 1.05, p=0.004), a Bolivian origin (aOR 8.80; p=0.003), being born in the department of Santa Cruz (aOR 3.72, p=0.047), having lived in mud houses (aOR 2.68; p=0.019), and having an affected relative (aOR 12.77, p=0.001) were independently associated with CD.







Number of animals imported to the United States in 2002: over 38,000 mammals, 365,000 birds, 2 million reptiles, 49 million amphibians, and 216 million fish.

  • Number of animals imported to the United States in 2002: over 38,000 mammals, 365,000 birds, 2 million reptiles, 49 million amphibians, and 216 million fish.

  • Number of primates legally imported into the United States as pets or research animals between 1995 and 2002: 99,939





Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:


Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2019
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling