Written sources few, spotty, confused, and late. Written sources few, spotty, confused, and late
Download 467 b.
Written sources few, spotty, confused, and late.
329-328 BCE – Alexander conquers Bactria-Sogdiana (roughly Afghanistan); marries Roxanne.
“Be that as it may, they say that Alexander founded eight cities in Bactriana and Sogdiana, and that he razed certain cities to the ground, among which was Cariatae in Bactriana, in which Callisthenes was seized and imprisoned, and Maracanda and Cyra in Sogdiana, Cyra being the last city founded by Cyrus…” (Strabo, Geography 11.2.4. Trans. H.L. Jones, 1928)
“That he might leave his name to these parts, he founded the city of Alexandria on the river Tanais, completing a wall six miles in circuit in seventeen days, and transplanting into it the inhabitants of three cities that had been built by Cyrus. He also built twelve cities in the territories of the Bactrians and the Sogdians, and distributed among them such of the soldiers as he had found mutinous.” (Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus. 12.5).
“After the division of the Macedonian empire among the followers of Alexander, he (i.e. Seleucus I) carried on several wars in the east. He first took Babylon (312-11 BCE), and then, his strength being increased by this success, subdued the Bactrians.” (Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus. 15.4).
Slightly before 250 BCE (i.e. 254/30 BCE) – Seleucid satrap of Bactria, Diodotus, declared independence.
“After the death of Alexander the Great, when the kingdoms of the east were divided among his successors, the government of Parthia was committed to Stasanor, a foreign ally, because none of the Macedonians would deign to accept it. Subsequently, when the Macedonians were divided into parties by civil discord, the Parthians, with the other people of Upper Asia, followed Eumenes, and, when he was defeated, went over to Antigonus. After his death, they were under the rule of Seleucus (I) Nicator, and then under Antiochus and his successors, from whose great-grandson they first revolted (Seleucus II Callinicus 246-225 BCE OR Seleucus III Ceraunus & Antiochus III Megas), in the first Punic War, when Lucius Manlius Vulso and Marcus Attilius Regulus were consuls (i.e. 250 BCE). For their revolt, the dispute between the two brothers (i.e. 222 BCE), Seleucus and Antiochus, procured them impunity; for while they sought to wrest the throne from one another, they neglected to pursue the revolters. At the same period, also, Theodotus (i.e. Diodotus), governor of the thousand cities in Bactria, revolted, and assumed the title of king.” (Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus. 41.4).
Very little textual evidence; stray references and fragments; heavy reliance on archaeology and numismatics.
Ca. 230 BCE – Euthydemus I overthrows Diodotus II; circumstances unknown; likely consequence of incursions by Parthians et. al.
“For Euthydemus himself was a native of Magnesia, and he now, in defending himself to Teleas, said that Antiochus was not justified in attempting to deprive him of his kingdom, as he himself had never revolted against the king, but after others had revolted he had possessed himself of the throne of Bactria by destroying their descendants. After speaking at some length in the same sense he begged Teleas to mediate between them in a friendly manner and bring about a reconciliation, entreating Antiochus not to grudge him the name and state of king, as if he did not yield to this request, neither of them would be safe; for considerable hordes of Nomads were approaching, and this was not only a grave danger to both of them, but if they consented to admit them, the country would certainly relapse into p303barbarism. After speaking thus he dispatched Teleas to Antiochus. The king, who had long been on the look-out for a solution of the question when he received Teleas' report, gladly consented to an accommodation owing to the reasons above stated. Teleas went backwards and forwards more than once to both kings, and finally Euthydemus sent off his son Demetrius to ratify the agreement. Antiochus, on receiving the young man and judging him from his appearance, conversation, and dignity of bearing to be worthy of royal rank, in the first place promised to give him one of his daughters in marriage and next gave permission to his father to style himself king. After making a written treaty concerning other points and entering into a sworn alliance, Antiochus took his departure, serving out generous ratons of corn to his troops and adding to his own the elephants belonging to Euthydemus.” (Polybius, Histories 11.34).
“The Greeks who caused Bactria to revolt grew so powerful on account of the fertility of the country that they became the masters, not only of Ariana, but also of India, as Apollodorus of Artemita says…” (Strabo, Geography 11.11.1. Trans. H.L. Jones, 1928)
""When I was in Bactria (Ta-Hia)", Zhang Qian reported, "I saw bamboo canes from Qiong and cloth made in the province of Shu (territories of southwestern China). When I asked the people how they had gotten such articles, they replied, "Our merchants go buy them in the markets of Shendu (India)."" (Shiji 123, Sima Qian, trans. Burton Watson).
“Almost at the same time that Mithridates ascended the throne among the Parthians (171 BCE), Eucratides began to reign among the Bactrians; both of them being great men. But the fortune of the Parthians, being the more successful, raised them, under this prince, to the highest degree of power; while the Bactrians, harassed with various wars, lost not only their dominions, but their liberty; for having suffered from contentions with the Sogdians, the Drangians, and the Indians, they were at last overcome, as if exhausted, by the weaker Parthians. Eucratides, however, carried on several wars with great spirit, and though much reduced by his losses in them, yet, when he was beseiged by Demetrius king of the Indians, with a garrison of only three hundred soldiers, he repulsed, by continual sallies, a force of sixty thousand enemies. Having accordingly escaped, after a five months’ siege, he reduced India into his power. But as he was returning from the country, he was killed by his son, with whom he had shared the throne, and who was so far from concealing the murder, that, as if he had killed an enemy, he drove his chariot through his blood, and ordered his body cast out unburied.” (Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus. 41.6).
Then, having approached Saketa together with the Pancalas and Mathuras, the Yavanas – valiant in battle – will reach Kusumadhvaja….And in the city the Yavanas, the princes, will make this people acquainted with them: but the Yavanas, infatuated by war, will not remain in Madhyadesa; there will be mutual agreements among them to leave, due to a terrible and dreadful war having broken out in their own realm – there is no doubt. Then, at the disappearance of those Yavanas due to the power of the Yuga, there will be seven mighty kings in Saketa. (Yuga Purana, 47, 56-8)
Events in Bactria under Eucratides and his successors pieced together entirely from coins and Chinese sources.
Darius I conquers Western India (ca. 518 BCE).
After the partitioning of the Macedonian empire amongst the allies, Seleucus fought many wars in the East. First of all he took Babylon, after which, his strength augmented by the victory, he conquered the Bactrians. Then he crossed into India which, following Alexander’s death, had shaken from its shoulders the yoke of servitude and put to death his governors. The man responsible for this liberation was Sandrocottus. (Justin, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus. Trans.J.C. Yardley, Atlanta, 1994. XV.4.10-13).
There is in the country of the Yonakas a great centre of trade , a city that is called Sâgala, situate in a delightful country well watered and hilly, abounding in parks and gardens and groves and lakes and tanks, a paradise of rivers and mountains and woods. Wise architects have laid it out , and its people know of no oppression, since all their enemies and adversaries have been put down. Brave is its defence, with many and various strong towers and ramparts, with superb gates and entrance archways; and with the royal citadel in its midst, white walled and deeply moated. Well laid out are its streets, squares, cross roads, and market places . Well displayed are the innumerable sorts of costly merchandise with which its shops are filled. It is richly adorned with hundreds of alms-halls of various kinds; and splendid with hundreds of thousands of magnificent mansions, which rise aloft like the mountain peaks of the Himalayas. Its streets are filled with elephants, horses, carriages, and foot-passengers, frequented by groups of handsome men and beautiful women, and crowded by men of all sorts and conditions, Brahmans, nobles, artificers, and servants. They resound with cries of welcome to the teachers of every creed, and the city is the resort of the leading men of each of the differing sects. Shops are there for the sale of Benares muslin, of Kotumbara stuffs , and of other cloths of various kinds; and sweet odours are exhaled from the bazaars, where all sorts of flowers and perfumes are tastefully set out. jewels are there in plenty, such as men's hearts desire, and guilds of traders in all sorts of finery display their goods in the bazaars that face all quarters of the sky. So full is the city of money, and of gold and silver ware, of copper and stone ware, that it is a very mine of dazzling treasures. And there is laid up there much store of property and corn and things of value in warehouses-foods and drinks of every sort, syrups and sweetmeats of every kind. In wealth it rivals Uttara-kuru, and in glory it is as Âlakamandâ, the city of the gods. (Milindapanha 1.2.1-2 Trans. D.T. Rhys).
“Inland behind Barygaza there are numerous peoples: the Aratrioi, Arachusioi, Gandaraioi, and the peoples of Proklais, in whose area Bukephalos Alexandreia is located. And beyond these is a very warlike people, the Bactrians, under a king…Alexander, setting out from these parts, penetrated as far as the Ganges but did not get to Limyrike and the south of India. Because of this there are to be found on the market of Barygaza even today old drachmas engraved with the inscriptions, in Greek letters, of Apollodotus and Menander, rulers who came after Alexander.” (Red Sea Periplus, 47).
“This Garuda pillar of the god of gods, Vasudeva, was caused to be made by Heliodorus, the devotee, the son of Dion, from Taxila, who came as Greek ambassador from the court of the Great King Antialkidas to Bhagabadra, the son of Kasi, the Savior, who was then in the fourteenth year of his prosperous reign.”
Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:
Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2019
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling