1. Do you know any of ancestors to have been one of the flows of bring novelty to the world?


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1.Do you know any of ancestors to have been one of the flows of bring novelty to the world?

There are great diversity of our ancestors which is do great works on that time for instance: Abu Ali ibn-Sina (Avicenna) was born in the year 980 in the settlement of Afshana near Bukhara into the family of a financial official.

As early as his childhood, ibn-Sina, along with his father, arrived in Bukhara. He familiarized himself with the Koran in his very early days, and did the same with Greek philosophy, geometry and Indian calculation.

Ibn-Sina's scientific interests evolved in two directions: medicine and philosophy. By the age of seventeen he had become a fully developed scholar and had achieved great prestige as a physician.

Once he was invited to the sick Nukh ibn-Mansur, who ruled Bukhara, and cured him. In reward, Ibn-Sina received permission to use the palace library.

After the overthrow of the Samanids and the capture of Buhkara by the Karakhanids (between 992 and 999) ibn-Sina went to Urgench, to the palace of the Khorezm Shah where a good number of prominent scholars worked.

At that time in Khorezm, ruled Abui-Abbas Mamun (999-1016) who patronized scholars, poets and painters.

Ibn-Sina's philosophy, expounded in the "Kitab ash-Shifa" ("The book of healing"), is a whole epoch in the history of oriental philosophy. However, it is his classic consolidated work on medicine that has gained him a world reputation, "Kitab al-Kanun fit-Tib" (The canon of medical science). The translation of this work into the Latin language was made at the end of the 15th century among the incunabula. In one hundred years, in 1593, its Arabic edition was published in Rome. Afterwards, it was to be published many times up to the 17th century, and became one of the most popular works on medicine in the West. Western medicine was directly impacted by the Canon.

Of the medical practice of ibn-Sina legends were composed. One of them goes that after death he left his apprentices forty ampoules with orders to give him daily infusions of one ampoule during forty days. When the apprentice injected the 39th ampoule, he saw that the teacher's cheeks blushed pink, his lips turned crimson, and his hair and moustache blackened so it looked as if he were at the point of opening his eyes any moment. The apprentice became so agitated in the expectation of the resurrection that he dropped the last, fortieth ampoule, and it smashed.

Amir Temur was bom on 9 April 1336 In the village of Hojailgor near Shakhrisabz. His father was a rich man whose name was Amir Taragay. His mother was a noble woman. He was strong and handsome. His father had many servants. When he was 12 years old he began to rule over them. When he was a young man he began to go to war. He was a good horseman. In Europe he was called Tamerlane.

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Khorezmi THe birthday of Abu Abdallah al-Khorezmi is not determined yet. He spent his youth in the cities of Khorezm: in Khiva, Zamahshar and Kat, where he was born, lived, studied and also succeeded in many fields of knowledge.

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Khorezmi

(died in 997 )

Encyclodedist scientist, philosopher, historian , astronomer, mathematician, chemist, expert in Islamic Studies

One of the founders of the classification of the sciences in the East



Biography

The birthday of Abu Abdallah al-Khorezmi is not determined yet. He spent his youth in the cities of Khorezm: in Khiva, Zamahshar and Kat, where he was born, lived, studied and also succeeded in many fields of knowledge. The scientist had lived in Khorasan for some time. He achieved the best results and knowledge when he served as katib – the kind of chancellerian (minister’s adviser) to Abul Hasan Ubaydallah ibn Ahmad al-Utbi (977-982). More likely, Al-Khorezmi often used to be in Bukhara for work. He visited emir’s famous library, where he spoke to many great scientists of that time, including, to his junior contemporary, Ibn Sino. He died in 997.

The Main Scientific Works

Al-Khorezmi was an encyclopedic scientist. He created a number of scientific works.

It should be underlined that the only work written by Al-Kharazmi preserved until our times, which had been written in Arabic as the majority of works of that time in Middle Asia, is a treatise “The Keys of Science” (“Mafatih al-ulum”) which is one of the only sources in history of development of sciences and their classification. In “The Keys of Science” consisting of 2 parts Al-Khorezmi expounded the meanings and content of 15 sciences. Chapter One consists of:

Fikkh – the Muslim jurisprudence;


Kalam – the dogmatic theology;
Grammar;
Office Work;
Theory of Poetry and Metrics;
History or Chronological Sciences.
Chapter Two consists of:
Philosophy;
Logic;
Medicine;
Arithmetic;
Geometry;
Astronomy;
Music;
Mechanics;
Chemistry.
This work was created between 976 and 991.

Contribution to the World Science

The famous encyclopedic scientist made a lot of contribution to many famous sciences of his time. Particularly in:

Philosophy: he was one of the first scientists of medieval times who made a great contribution to elaboration of problem of classification of sciences which is considered to be an ethalon of science development. He also enriched this field of science theoretically;

History: he expounded new information on the history of Old Yemen, Ancient Greece and the age of ignorance (jakhiliya) on Arabian Peninsula;

Literature: he expounded and enriched various genres;

Philology: he gave short, capacious and precise explanations to many terms of all sciences of his time in a very simple and accessible way.



World Recognition

Nowadays the only work by Al-Khorezmi, which had been published in Arabic in complete edition on the basis of the manuscript in 1163 by a Dutch scholar van Floten, attracted a great attention of many famous scientists of the world. It was studied as one of few sources on the history of development of science in the Middle Ages by German, English, American, Arabian, Russian, Uzbek, Iranian, Indian, Malaysian, Turkish and French scientists.

The work of Al-Khorezmi as one of the biggest works in medieval times, was recognized by many scientists both West and East. For example, the great German scientist Brokelman K. recognizes the work as the encyclopedia which can get a lot of information in many scientific fields and short answers to all of this. Another famous German scientist Videman E. recognizes Al-Khorezmi as the maker-up of the first muslim encyclopedia. The explorer of the ancient alchemistry, medicine and other disciplines German scientist Ruska U. points to “The Keys of Science” as the source for alchemestry in the X century. The famous Russian scientist Krachkovskiy I. picks out the work of Al-Khorezmi as a sourse which is consisted of the important information in geography literature. The famous American historian Sarton J. considers the work of Al-Khoezmi as the main source for studying science and culture in Medieval times.

Who invented the first electrical clock in 1092?
A Chinese monk by the name of Su Sung designed a huge clepsydra in the year 1092. Five stories high with numerous automata, the device was run by a very large water wheel that moved similarly to that of a modern clock escapement. Every quarter of an hour the wheel would turn, advancing all the other cogs and gears and opening and closing doors that released the automata.
It may be that this was the first mechanical clock as we know it today with its gears and pulleys, even though it still relied on water as its power source. Nevertheless, it is the first known use of a mechanical escapement and as such proved to be many hundreds of years of its time.
4.Who was al- Kindi ?

Abu Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn ʼIsḥāq aṣ-Ṣabbāḥ al-Kindī (/ælˈkɪndi/Arabicأبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكنديLatinAlkindus; c. 801–873 AD) was an Arab  Muslim philosopherpolymathmathematicianphysician and musician. Al-Kindi was the first of the Islamic peripatetic philosophers, and is hailed as the "father of Arab philosophy".

Al-Kindi was born in Kufa and educated in Baghdad. He became a prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, and a number of Abbasid Caliphs appointed him to oversee the translation of Greek scientific and philosophical texts into the Arabic language. This contact with "the philosophy of the ancients" (as Hellenistic philosophy was often referred to by Muslim scholars) had a profound effect on him, as he synthesized, adapted and promoted Hellenistic and Peripatetic philosophy in the Muslim world.  He subsequently wrote hundreds of original treatises of his own on a range of subjects ranging from metaphysics, ethics, logic and psychology, to medicine, pharmacology,  mathematics, astronomy, astrology and optics, and further afield to more practical topics like perfumes, swords, jewels, glass, dyes, zoology, tides, mirrors, meteorology and earthquakes.

In the field of mathematics, al-Kindi played an important role in introducing Indian numerals to the Islamic world, and subsequently, relabeled as Arabic numerals, to the Christian world, along with Al-Khwarizmi.  Al-Kindi was also one of the fathers of cryptography.  Building on the work of Al-Khalil (717–786),  Al-Kindi's book entitled Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages gave rise to the birth of cryptanalysis, was the earliest known use of statistical inference,[ and introduced several new methods of breaking ciphers, notably frequency analysis. Using his mathematical and medical expertise, he was able to develop a scale that would allow doctors to quantify the potency of their medication.

The central theme underpinning al-Kindi's philosophical writings is the compatibility between philosophy and other "orthodox" Islamic sciences, particularly theology. And many of his works deal with subjects that theology had an immediate interest in. These include the nature of God, the soul and prophetic knowledge. But despite the important role he played in making philosophy accessible to Muslim intellectuals, his own philosophical output was largely overshadowed by that of al-Farabi and very few of his texts are available for modern scholars to examine.



Discuss the importance of oriental input to the world civilization.

There was held an English knowledge contest about "Oriental Contribution to the World Civilization" devoted to the 90th anniversary of Samarkand State University by the English language department teachers on April 20, 2017.



Four teams: "Avicenna", "Al-Kharazmi", "Mirzo Ulughbek", "Alisher Navai" teams competed with each other. Teams demonstrated their knowledge and skills at three actions: introduction - guided tour, role play/skit, short question and answer. Their participation of the teams were evaluated by the juries, the chief of the scientific department of Samarkand State University A. Yarmuhammedov - the chairman of the jury, the head of the economic theory chair of Samarkand State University D.Nasimov, vice rector of Samarkand State Architectural and Civil Engineering Institute A.Gadayev, the head of international relations of Samarkand State Agricultural Institute Sh. Khasanov. The competition was very interesting and controversial. It was too difficult to evaluate the active participation of the teams, and to choose the winner.

Finally, as a result, the team of "Alisher Navai" took the 1st  place, the team of "Avicenna" took the 2nd place, the teams of "Mirzo Ulughbek" and "Al-Kharazmi" took the 3rd  place. At the end of the competition all participants were awarded with certificates and diplomas by the rector of the university and memorable gifts were given them by the trade union of the university.
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