1Comparative Typology as a branch of general linguistics

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Particles. (частицы) in Russian they are used to denote the category of mood, ( сидел бы). In English particle to indicates infinitive.

some other ways of expressing the grammatical meanings.

Word order is especially important in languages with no case flexions – for analytic type of language.

Supplitive forms which express different grammatical meanings – хорошо – лучше
13. Grammatical and typological categories.

Historically take its origine from ancient Indian grammar by Panini. He described his native lang. Sanskrit. He was the 1st to put a sharp dividing line btw words and nouns. This idea of classification was developed by ancient greek philosopher Aristotle.

When describing any gramm. struct. he described 3 genders. If there was an opposition they described grammat. category.

cat(unmarked) – cats (marked)Typological categories differ from grammatical. We may speak about typological category even if it is not expressed morphologically. Typ. cat is : - inter language; - inter level; - inter class

The grammatical category expresses a generalized grammatical meaning. This general meaning is present in a set of word forms, each of which has its own individual meaning, which is a particular case of the general one.

14. Grammatical functions of the article. The category of determination in Rus.

15. Typology of category of Gender

The basic cat. Every lang-s distinguishes btw. – males; - femalesIn Rus. gender is expressed morphologically that’s with the help of flexions. There are 3 genders in Rus.: - famine (with flexions а-я) ; - masculine; - neuter (flexions o-e).genders correspond to nouns он, оно, она.Classification on nouns into genders is deprive of any logics. Sometimes different nouns denoting the same objects belong to different genders. (девушка – das mädchen). Nouns denoting the same things may belong to different genders. (береза, сосна, дуб).The oldest way to express gender is with the help of words (lexical).We have special words denoting males and females: husband, wife, man, woman.In eng. gender is not expressed morphologically. Except some examples. waiter, waitress, actor, actress. In other cases it can be expressed lexically girl-friend, boyfriend, she cat, he cat.Nouns denoting profession may be referred to men as well as to women, they may be of masculine or feminine gender depending on situation. In both lang-s there are words which may denote either male or female: - человек – ребенок, мальчик – девочка. There are words in both lang-s denoting domestic animals (hen – cock).But in older practice they were not used except some special purposes. In Rus. gender may be indicated by special morphemes, nouns (тель – щик – чик ) musculine. Nouns ость- радость – feminine.

The category of gender is basic in nouns. This category differs in English and Russian. In Russian it is expressed morphologically , there are 3 genders feminine, masculine and neuter. They correspond to pronounce он она оно. These pronouns may replace the noun. On the whole the category of gender is deprived of any logics. One and the same noun in different languages may belong to different genders. Вода is feminine in Russian, in german Wasser is neuter gender. Девочка feminine, das Madchen –neuter. Words denoting the same things belong to different genders. Дуб сосна, тюльпан – роза, nouns denoting persons are referred either to feminine or masculine gender depending upon the sex of the person. in both languages nouns denoting male beings belong to masculine gender, nouns denoting female beings are of feminine gender. Brother sister son daughter. In all this cases the category of gender is expressed lexically. It is the most ancient way to express the category of gender. Some nouns have the same root in masculine and feminine gender. Gender in this cases is expressed with the help of endings (flexions). Студент-студентка. The same examples we may find in English though they do not occur often. Waiter-waitress, conductor-conductress, actor-actress. Nouns denoting occupation or profession may be referred to men and women and they may be of feminine and masculine gender depending on the situation. Doctor Ivanova, Pr.Braun. in both languages there are words which may denote either male or female beings, человек, child, baby, ребенок, дитя. In both languages we have words denoting domestic animals of both sexes like –бык-корова, овца-баран, курица-петух. Ship-ram, cow-cox. But in oral practice only one word is usually used to denote animals. In English the category of gender may be expressed with the help of formal words, or special indicators like she-goat, woman-doctor, a boy-girl-friend.

16. Typology of category of number

The category of number is even more universal than the category of gender because from the type in memorial men,people have always distinguished between one thing and more than one. In the majority of languages nouns are treated, looked upon as singular plural or collective. Some ancient indo-european languages sanscript, greek and Russian apart from singular and plural had also dual number indicating two – this was used to denote things coming in pairs like eyes, hands, feet, ears. In some American Indian languages the grammatical distinction between singular and plural does not exist at all. The ways of forming plural vary in different languages. Many languages use reduplication to express plurality. The use of the plural form where it exists doesn’t follow any logical system. As rule tatar, finish and congarian use singular forms instead of plural after numerals. A sentences I see five boy – is natural for these languages. Russian has the genitive singular of the noun after numerals 2 3 4 . but after four the genitive plural is used. The category of number has undergone a very complex development. And some linguists consider that this category was connected with parts of the human body. In some African languages numbers are expressed by touching the fingers in a special way the wrist, elbow, neck and so on. In some modern European languages the decimal system (system of numbers) is based on usage of the fingers of two hands. And it leads to the conclusion that counting was originally demonstrative and the system of numerals was connected with parts of the human body. In English and Russian the category of number is expressed with the help of flexions and suffixes , in English flexion –s,es, sometime inner flexions are used. –tooth-teeth. In Russian such flexions as ы а и я .

2.stress is used to express the category of number in Russian which may change nouns from singular to plural like дом;а. д;ома. Words which have no suffixes in singular may receive the in plural like сын сыновья, чудо чудеса, and in English they are few child-children, ox – oxen. Besides borrowings in English have original forms of plurality phenomena-phenomenon. Changing of consonants may take place to express plurality. Ухо-уши, друг-друзья, сук-сучья, knife-wife-wives. Supplitive forms may be used in both languages to express the category of number человек-люди, ребенок-дети,men-people. In both languages there are nouns which are used either in plural or in singular:1.abstract nouns, (courage,fight)2.collective nouns (police,poetry)3. Nouns denoting materials, products and minerals.(milk,sugar,water). 4. Some nouns are used only in plural in both languages like ножницы, очки,spectacles. Some nouns are used only in singular in English – news, advice, information,knowledge,permission. But in Russian they have two forms –новость-новости, совет-советы. And some nouns are always used in plural in Russian – часы, деньги,духи, дрожжи, сани , but In English they may have either two forms sledge-sledges, or only singular like money.

17. Typology of the category of case

More controversial, because the number of cases various from 2 to 15. In some lang-s there are no cases. The number of cases depends on the number of factors. In Rus. 6 cases and they show the relations btw case form in nominative and accusative in plural (дом’а – ‘дома)In Eng. prepositions are used because there’s only one distinction btw. noun and possessive. Every case form has its definite syntactical function. In Rus. only in nominative case are used in subjects. In Eng. nouns in possessive case have the function of attribute. Some grammarians consider that there are no case flexions at all.Nouns in the possessive case in Eng. have the following characteristic features as nouns in nominative case may be used with articles a puple’s book

the puple’s book with adj. (a good pupil’s book) with numeral (2 puples’ book)

But nouns with the possessive and nominative case have different functions. Nouns in genitive case may have ‘of’ (дом брата).In Eng. nouns in the possessive case have: - property opposition (jone’s book), - private or social relations (jone’s wife), - the origin (the moon’s light), - relation btw a whole and a part (jone’s hand), - a characteristic feature of smth (mother’s care), - time distance relations.Relations expressed by nouns in the possessive case may be expressed by a noun with prep ‘of’.

They are synonyms but difference is in style. Combinations with ‘of’ phrase are more official and may have some additional meanings: - a characteristic feature (a woman of a strong will), - material (a dress of wool), - a part of smth (crowd of people).Posessive case in Eng. has 2 forms: dependant (tom’s falt), - absolute/ independent(Jone’s was a brilliant idea).

In Rus. dative case has the meaning of an action directed at an object. (купил детям).Accusative case in Rus denotes a direct object (писал письмо).Instrumental case denotes an instrument with the help of which is performed (писать карандашем). In Eng. preposition ‘by’ is used. Prepositional case in Rus has meaning of space (собрались в аудитории).

This category in English is represented by opposition nominative possessive – a girl-girls, in Russian it is represented by the system of six cases – nominative,genitive,dative,accusative,instrumental and prepositional. The category of case shows the relations between words in a sentence. The number of cases is different in different languages. Some languages have no cases at all. The number of cases varies from two till 15 in Finish. It depends upon the structure of the language. In Russian in plural number nouns have five different forms, because nominative and accusative coincide in form – дома,дома. Sometime genitive and accusative coincide in form – учеников, учеников. But incite of their likeness in form they have different lexical and syntactical functions. When case forms coincide then prepositions and the context help to understand the meaning у двери, к двеи, на двери. Prepositions are especially important in English because the majority of nouns has no case distinctions and only prepositions show the relations between words – at the door, to the door, near the door. Every case of a noun has its definite syntactical function. The subject of the sentence in Russian is expressed by nominative case and other members of the sentence may be expressed by other case forms. In English the majority of linguists distinguish two case forms. Possessive case in English differs from genitive in Russian, by the fact that it is characteristic of nouns denoting living beings and nouns denoting time and distance – a minutes talk. A miles distance. A noun in the possessive case in English has the same characteristic features as a noun in nominative case. It may be used with articles, a pupil’s book, with adjectives a good pupil’s book., numerals two pupils’ book, and pronouns his pupil’s book. Nouns in the possessive and nominative case are used in different syntactical functions. Nouns in the possessive case are usually used in the function of an attribute, but in Russian nouns in genitive case may also be used in combination with another noun and in such cases they have the function of an attribute. –дом отца. Приезд брата. In English in such cases preposition OF is generally used. The house of my father, the arrival of my brother. In Russian genitive case may be used after adjectives in comparative degree like сильнее бури, красивее принцессы. In English the meaning of the possessive case is more limited than this of the nominative case. It has the following meanings -1.property or possession like John’s book, 2.social relations (private) like John’s wife. 3. The origin of something the moon’s light. 4. The relation between a whole and a part – like – John’s head. 5. Characteristic feature of something – mother’s care. 6 time or distance – a minute’s walk. Relations expresses by possessive case may be expressed by a noun with preposition OF but they are synonyms only in some context. Constructions with OF may be used with all nouns in English, besides constructions with OF may have some additional meanings to those which have been mentioned. They are:

  1. Characteristic feature of something : a man of strong will.

  2. Material : a dress of silk

  3. A part of something : a group of students.

Constructions with OF are more official than possessive case. But the possessive case in English is divided into possessive case dependent and independent (absolute genitive). John’s was a good idea. In such cases possessive pronouns may substitute a noun like his was a good idea.

  1. From lexical point of view nouns in English and Russian denote objects or things.

  2. From the syntactical point of view in both languages they are used as subjects, objects or predicates.

  3. A characteristic feature of nouns in Russian is existence of special suffixes with individual сoloring like братец, братишка, девушка. Девица. Which absolutely impossible in English except one suffix – ing, et. Book-bookle, duck-duckling

  4. Both languages have grammatical categories of number and case, but their structure is different. Besides English nouns are characterized by the category of determination which is expressed with the help of articles. In both languages the category of gender is expressed lexically. And in Russian it also expressed morphologically.

18. Typology of the category of tense

19. Typology of the category of Aspect

The category of aspect is in both lang-s. In Rus. it is a universal category because every verb belongs either to the perfective or imperfective indicators prefixes suffixes. In Eng. is presented by 2 forms: - continuous – noncontinuous (he writes – he is writing). Instead of some aspect forms in Eng. different words are used (нырять – толкнуть). In Eng. to denote quick aspect different words are used (to push, dive). In perfective forms in Rus. are built with the help of suffixes (ыва – ива переписать-переписывать/ write - rewrite).

The category of aspect in Rus and Eng is connected with the category of tense. The finite forms in indicative mood in Rus may convey actions in the past present/future (только глаголы в изъявительном наклонении имеют все времена). In Rus verbs have no special ending denoting persons. Verbs in the past tense have the category of gender.

Past tense in eng. is divided into 4 groups: - verbs denote action at a moment of speech, - repeated action, - ????

20. Typology of the category of voice
The Category of Voice, is a verbal category which characterizes different relations between subject and object and is realized in endings of verbs. The number of voices is different in different languages from 5 to 2. In russian, vebrs may belong to active , passive or reflective , or middle voice. So there are 3 voices in russian. Active voice is expressed syntactically and shows an action directed at an object., expressed by a noun in the accusative case without any preposition like (мальчик читает книгу) Middle voice is formed of a verb in the active voice with the help of the suffix (- ся ) which shows the direction of an action to its doer. Verbs in the reflecsive voice , may be of 5 types.

1. Verbs denoting an action, when the subject and the object- is one and the same person like (обутся, умытся) Affix has the meaning oneself.

2. Verbs denoting the action of 2 or more persons each of them is a performer of an action, and at the same time, the object of an action. Affix –ся has the meaning “each other”( обниматься- здороваться)

3. Verbs denoting inner state of the subject, its feelings and emotions (обрадоватся, опечалится)

4. Verbs denoting actions , performed by a subject for its own purposes (запасаться, собираться)

5. Verbs denoting actions without its reference to an object, but as a characteristic feature of a subject itself ( собака кусается)

Passive Voice shows that a subject of the sentence, doesn’t perform any action, but is influences by it. In English, only 2 voices have morphological expression : active and passive.

Only transitive verbs have forms of the voice. Intransitive verbs ,such as verbs of motion ( to go, to swim) verbs denoting position in space (to lie- to sit, to stand) and verbs of physical state have no voice distinctions. Comparison of forms of voices in 2 languages shows, their function in speech is quite different. Passive Voice in English, is used if the subject of the sentence is influenced by some action, while in russian, in such cases, active voice is more often used with direct object in the accusative case ( this house was built by students) and in russian ( этот дом построили студенты) Predicates , in active voice in russian, usually correspond predicates in passive voice in english (нам сообщили новость)and ( we were heard the news).

21. Typology of the category of mood.

This category may be expressed lexically with the help of different words which reveal the attitude of the speaker to reality. In English such words as (maybe, probably, certainly) and modal verbs (can, may, must) and in russian (возможно, вероятно ) and modal verbs ( мочь, хотеть) and the category of modality, may be expressed grammatically in both languages, with the help of different Moods. The main form to express modality of reality in both languages, is Indicative Mood or изъявительное наклонение. It denotes an action as real going at some period of time.

In russian only one mood is used to express an action as unreal desirable or possible and that is subjunctive mood which is built analytically with the help partical бы and past form of the verb. In russian, subjunctive mood, may express an action in the past , present or future (хотел бы поехать завтра., вчера, сегодня) б besides , the meaning of condition in russian, may be expressed be a verb in singular, second person, imperative mood. In English, such cases are imposible ( скажи ему не ходи – он не сделает) повелительное наклонение.

In English, modality of unreality, is expressed by 4 moods. Subjunctive 1, 2, suppositional , conditional.

Conditional mood is used in principal clauses of a complex sentence, like( if I were at home, I would help him)

Subjunctive 2 has present and past distinctions ( if I came, if I had come). Subjunctive 1 doesn’t express the category of tense, person, number. It is used in poetry very often, commercials for stylisic purposes ( be it so, long live ….)

Suppositional mood. It has no grammatical categories, it is built analytically. The verb should + Infinitive. ( I suggest that he should go) . In russian, subjunctive mood is used in such cases.

Imperative Mood. Expresses demand, request, order in both languages.It has the category of person and number. In russian, a verbs in the second person, singular and plural may express Imperative Mood synthetically (читай – читайте) But in english only 1 verb is used for singular and plural ( read, write) First person in russian may be expressed by 2 forms , synthetical like ( пойдем- поедем) and analytical ( будем читать- будем писать) And in English only analytically ( let’s go, let’s reda)

22. Grammatical categories of adjectives, types of adjectives in Eng and Rus
23. Typological characteristic of type of sentence in eng and rus.

In all languages , sentences have principal element, subjects and predicates. But their structure is different. Types of subjects:

1 one component subjects are expressed usually by 1 notional word in both languages. It maybe 1 a noun (in both languages ) a girls plays the piano.

2 by a pronoun also (in both languages) we are students.

3 by a substantivised adjectives ( a poor gathered in the street) бедные собрались .

4 present or past participle ( only in russian) трудящиеся собрались)

5 numeral ( in both languages) 5 is my favorite number, второй прибежал первым.

In all these above mentioned cases there is concord or agreement btw subject and predicate, in the category of number. But there are cases, when there is no agreement btw subject and predicate. When the subject is expressed by:

1- infinitive (in both languages) – to know all is to know nothing, курить здоровью вредить))))))

2 gerund (in English only) reading is my hobby.

Two component subjects.

-which consist of2 dependent words, when 1 word cannot exist without an other. It is typical of the English (there was a pause ----there+pause, or with the construction it + to say (it is useless to say)

Types of predicates in english and russian.

One component predicates with agreement or concord include the majority of predicates in English and Russian. But, in English , agreement is more limited. Eg the boy reads a book. Agreement in person, tense and number. Мальчик читает книгу ( agreement in person, number and tense)

One component predicates without agreement are limited by a small group of modal verbs in English – I, he, she, they---- can ,may, must…. etc

Two component predicated- consists of 2 words:

1 a link verb+ noun (in both languages? but more common in English) – she became a doctor. Она стала врачем.

2 a verb + adjective (in both languages, but more typical of English) – she turned red, he fell silent . Он стал красным(---он покраснел)

Typology of sentences in English and Russian

Typologically sentences are characterized by

  1. The number of principle elements they be with 1 member or 2

  2. Communicative function

  3. Position if the predicate in preposition or postposition to a subject

  4. Agreement between subject and predicate

  5. Position of an attribute in preposition or postposition to the attributive word

  6. Word-order it may be fixed or free

1). Characteristic of sentences according to The number of principle elements

Two-member sentences with subjects and predicates. They may be of 2 types: 1) verbal 2) nominal

Verbal 2 member sentences may be with agreement and without. In English such sentences may have the structure Attribute+Subject+predicate. And there’s no agreement b/w attribute and subject.

Ex. Red roses grow in the garden

Structure Attr+Subj+Pred with Agreement is typical of the Russian language only.

Nominal 2member sentences have predicates which consist of a link-verb usually the verb “to be” and nominal part which may be expressed by an Adj, a noun or a pronoun. 2 classes:

  1. Sentences may have agreement in both members of the predicate or only in one. Sentences with agreement in both parts are typical of the Russian lang only

Ex. Он был выдающийся художник.

Sentences where nominal part of the predicate is expressed by an adj.

День был прекрасный.the day was nice.

Sentences with a noun in instrumental case which are typical of the Russian lang only

Ex. Он был поэтом -

  1. Sentences in which the nominal part is expressed by a link verb which agrees with a subject. They are typical of the English lang only

Ex. She is clever, they are clever

Nominal part in this part may be expressed by a possessive pronoun “the book is mine”.

One-member sentences of verbal type which are typical of the Russian lang only. In English they have 2 members.

Ex. Морозит - it’s freezing

Темнеет - it’s getting dark

In rus in such sent pred may be expressed by a verb in the 2nd person Sg

Ex. Тише едешь – дальше будешь.

By a verb in the 3rd person

Ex. Вечерело, темнело, смеркалось.

  1. By a 3rd person Pl

Ex. Их разместили в гостинице.

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