1Comparative Typology as a branch of general linguistics


One-member sentences of nominal type


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One-member sentences of nominal type.

They are expressed by 1 model only where subject is a noun in Nominative case typical of the Russian lang only

Ex.ночь, улица, фонарь, аптека

In modern English they are now used in fiction.

Ex. Night and the boundless sea.

In present day English they can be used either.



  1. Communicative function

According to the communicative function sentences may be

Declarative (negative, …..)Imperative Exclamatory Affirmative sentences express some statement, the difference is in word-order.

Negative sentences differ in structure. In Russian they may have several negations

Ex. Никто никогда ничего не знает

In English only 1

Ex. Nobody ever knows…



Interrogative sentences may be of the following types

  1. General questions

  2. Special

  3. Alternative

  4. Disjunctive

An interrogative word in English is always placed at the head of a special question.

Ex. What is your name? where did you go?

In Russian it may be place in the middle of the sentence.

Ex. Он куда уехал?

Besides in Russian a sentence may become interrogative without any syntactical changes. The intonation turns a statement into a question?

Ex. Он студент?



Imperative sentences in both lang-es induce the person addresses to fulfill a certain action or request. And they have verbs in imperative mood.

Ex. Пиши, сиди,. Come here.

(+ знания о повелительном наклонении)
24. Attributive word combinations in eng and rus.
In attr word combinations, both components are joined together with the help of syntactical subordinate connection. There are 7 types of attr word combinations :

1 prepositional attributive word combinations with agreement (concord)

adjunct+kernel

This type of word combinations is typical of the Russian language where we can observe agreement in 3 categories (the cat of gender, number and case) like (большой город, большое село, большая страна)

In English there is no agreement btw adjunct & kernel word in corresponding word combinations. ( large city, large lake) It is called adjoinment. In English adjunct word maybe expressed by

1 a noun in attributive function (a picture gallery, a tennis table)

In Russian such combination seldom occur . We may meet them only in constructions like (душевный человек, краса девица)

2 pronoun (in both languages) – my book, his book, моя книга, его книга.

3 participles (in both languages) a laughing girl, цветущий сад.

4numerals (in both languages) the first lesson, первый урок

There are only 2 types of agreement in English and only in the category of number, when demonstrative pronouns are used (this house, these houses, that table, those tables)

2 type of attr word combination is called prepositional attributive combination with government.

Adjunct + kernel (my brother’s book, a mile’s distance) Russian equivalent is adjective + noun ( часовая поездка)

3 prepositional attributive word-combinations with adjoinment .

In this type of word combination relations are not expressed morphologically, the meaning depends upon word –order like in isolating languages, chineese ( a silver spoon , a silk blouse) but (blouse silk – the meaning is different)

In russian the same example have agreement ( серебряная ложка, каменная стена)

If we change the word combination we shall get predicative word combination with the same lexical meaning.

4 attributive post positional word combinations with government, where adjunct word is expressed by a noun in one of its case forms. There are several classes of this type

1- genitive class (typical of the rus language only книга брата) In English it will be prepositional with government – brother’s book or with the preposition “of”

2 -dative class, where adjunct word is expressed by a noun in dative case. It is typical of the rus language only. Письмо брату, ответ другу. In eng corresponding word combinations will have preposition “to”

3 – instrumental class, where the adjunct word is a noun, in instrumental case. In rus it is работать пилой, ходить лесом. In eng, in such cases prepositions “by or with” are used.

5 attributive post positional with adjoinment, where

1 a kernel word may denote some general notion, and adjunct word is more concrete город москва,профессор иванов. The same in eng – professor Brown

2 a kernel word is a noun and an adjunct word is a verb. Желание работать.Еру same constructions we may find in eng – the promise to marry

3 a kernel is a noun , and adjunct – is a numeral(room 3, chapter 7) In rus, we have no such combinations. (комната пятая – it will be predicative)

4 a kernel word is a verb, but adjunct is an adverb- to read fast, in rus читать быстро.

5 a kernel word is a noun, an adjunct word is an adverb (езда верхом, взгляд искоса) In eng there are no corresponding word combinations.

6 attributive post positional word combinations with government and preposition

kernel +preposition+adjunct

They are typical of the russian language only. Classes:

1 genetive class with the structure kernel+preposition «из» +adjunct word платье из шерсти

2 dative class K+ по +adjunct (любовь к музыке)

3 accusative «на, под» kernel + на , пол + adjunct

4 instrumental «за,между» разговор за обедом

5 prepositional class with «в,на» дама в очках., шуба на меху.



7 attributive post positional word combinations with adjoinment and prepositions typical of the English language only. Classes:

1 a kernel word is a noun with prepositions- about, of. (stories about dogs, the end of the street)

2 a kernel word is an adjective with prepositions –of, at, (good at sport, proud of his son.)

25. Word classes in eng and rus. Polysemy and homonymy.
26. Types of synonyms and antonyms in eng and rus.
27. Euphemisms and taboos in eng and Rus.
28. figurative meanings of words in eng and rus.
29. typology of word fromation16.
Every word in different lang-es has 2 sets of forms. 1) word-changing form buikt with the help of word-changing morphemes

Ex. Дом – дома – домов , town – towns.

2) word-buildings set which is formed with the help of word-building morpheme, which change the meaning of a root morpheme:

Ex. Teach-teacher, дом-домик.

In English a root morpheme usually consists of the stem of a word. But in other flexional lang-es roots don’t coincide with the stem. According to their structure words in 2 lang-es may be divided into the following types:


  1. Root (R) when a word consists of a root morpheme only.

  2. R+suffix = this type is both productive in both lang-es. The most productive suffixes of nouns denoting the doer of the action are

Ex. Suffix – er, - or, ess, -nik.

In russ suffixes –тель, -щик, -чик are productive.

Less productive S of nouns in Eng –ship, -hood, -dom.

In Rus –у, -ок,…


In Riussian there’s a great number of S with some emotive or expressive charge –чик, еньк, ка, ик,

In Eng the meaning of such S is usually rendered with the help of word combinations.

2 ) the most productive S in Eng – abke, -full, -less

In Rus –ов, -ист, - оват, -ск,

Prefixal type Prefix+Root

Prefixes are more productive in verbs. The most productive in Eng is re- which corresponds in Russian to пере-. In Adjectives the most productive is Un- rendered with Не- in Rus.

Prefixal-suffixal type prefix+root+suffix.

Characteristic of both parts of speech in both lang.

Non-affixal type of word-building. The most productive model is Noun – verb. This type embraces a great number of derivative words in Eng.

Ex. A walk – to walk.

In Rus it is less productive. Some grammarians distinguish the same model

The Verb into a Noun – (ходить – ход)

A Noun – into verb ( глаз – глазеть)

A noun in Instrumental case changes into an Adverb. Любоваться ранним утром. Утром мы пошли на речку.

A Noun is formed from attributive word-combinations Ex. Столовая комната – столовая. Военный человек – военный.
30. typology of compound words
31. types of bilinguism
32. types of language interference

3. COMPARATIVE PHONETICS AND typology

Phonetics as we know studies the way how sounds are produced and comprehended. The function of sounds is examined by another linguistic discipline phonology. These terms are taken in European linguistics, but Americans use the term phonology to both phonetics and phonology. There are different aspects of sounds:



  1. Articulatory phonetics – studies how sounds are organized at which location and in which manner a sound is produced.

  2. Acoustic phonetics – examines the length frequency and pitch of sounds. Special instruments are required to measure and analyze the sounds while they travel via the channel.

  3. Auditory phonetics – studies what happens inside the ear and brain when sounds are finally received. It is also interested in our ability to identify and differentiate sounds.


Articulatory phonetics

It concentrates on studying how sounds are produced in the human vocal track – that is manner of articulation and place of articulation. The production of any sound involves the movement of ear. Speech sounds are produced by pushing lung air through the opening between the vocal cords. Such sounds are called – pulmonic sounds. Sounds may be produced when the air is pushed out, they are called igressive sounds. The majority of sounds in languages of the world are produced by pulmonic igressive air stream mechanism.

Sounds fall into two major classes consonants and vowels. Sounds differ according to the voicing location and manner of production. Any change of these factors may alter a sound. If the stream of air leaves the vocal cord unhinged the resulting sound is a vowel; if the stream of air is abstracted, gets some obstruction (is blocked) the resulting sound is a consonant. Consonants can be voiced and unvoiced – p t k – unvoiced, b d g – voiced. Sounds like p t k are known as explosives, because they are accompanied by explosure. Fricatives are sounds which may be prolonged in pronunciation as - s f v , and aspirate is a sound made by breathing immediately after explosure. Consonants in both languages are classified according to the organs which take part in their production. They may be made by teeth, the gums, the hard and a soft palate and the lips. The consonant made by both lips – is called bilabial w b p m , бпм. A consonant made by the low lip articulating against the teeth is called labia-dental – f v – ф в. A consonant made by the blade of the tongue which touches upon the upper teeth – is called dental th th –т з д. Vela-consonants are made by the back of the tongue being pressed against the velum – k g – к г . When we pronounce sound “L” the stream of air passes on both sides of the tongue, so this sound is called lateral or side-sound. In both languages sounds M N are nasals, when air passes through the nose.


6.TYPOLOGY OF PARTS OF SPEECH

All words in any language are divided into large groups which are called parts of speech. The principles on which this classification is based are three in number:

1.meaning;

2.form;


3. function.

By meaning we understand the meaning common to all the words of the given class, thus the meaning of nouns denote things, objects. The meaning of the verb is that of process, action.

By form we understand morphological characteristics of a word, thus a noun is characterized by the category of number, a verb by the category of tense, mood. Besides every part of speech may have some morphological indicators. For ex. Suffixes – ment,-dom,-ship,-ism,-ist, are typical of nouns. (-чик,-щик, -тель). –able, -ful.

By function we understand syntactical properties of a word. Nouns function as subjects and objects, verbs usually are predicates, a verb combines with a following noun (he writes letters) and with the following adverb ( to write quickly). Adverbs may combine with verbs

10.Typological characteristic of a verb.

verbs in both languages denote actions in its broadest and in most general sense.The main syn function of a verb is that of the predicate in both languages. Verbs have nearly the same grammatical categories in both languages. the exception is , the category of gender, which characterizes verbs in russian in the past tense. ( он писал- она писала).

Typology of the category of aspect.

This category is typical of both languages. In Russian, every verb belongs either to the perfective or imperfective aspect. The chief indicators of aspect in Russian are prefixes and suffixes. (думать – придумать, читать- прочитать) In English the category of aspect is presented by forms of continuous and non- continuous aspects (he write- he is writing) Perfective aspect in Russian, is usually formed with the help of prefixes which not only change aspect forms , but also add new lexical meaning to the verb (нести – принести- вынести- занести) Every aspect form is a new word. In Russian , verbs with suffix ну in perfective aspect, usually denote a quick and sudden action like (нырять- нырнуть, толкать- толкнуть). In english in such cases, different words are used ( to flap, to push, to dive) Imperfective aspect in Russian is usually formed with the help of suffixes. (ыва- ива- ва, переписать – переписывать- забить- забивать) They usually show repeated actions. In English , the repetition of action is usually expressed with the help of prefix (re ) write- rewrite. In some cases , in Russian , only vowels in suffixes may change (пустить- пускать, решить- решать) In English in such cases only one verb is used and what you will see in dictionaries such verbs are given ( пустить см – пускать) 2 russian vebs of perfective and imperfective aspects have 1 english equivalent like (получить- получать, ---receive) Though the category of aspect gives a characteristic to an action , this category is more identical in 2 languages. In English the category of continuous aspect has a most specific character than verbs in non- continuous aspect. Verbs in continious aspect show action in progress, while in non- con aspect , they denote actions as pure facts. In russian, perfective aspect, has a more specific character. It may express some state, in the process of action. Usually the starting point (спел- запел).Imperfective aspect in russian is broader in meaning, than continuous aspect in english. The category of aspect in English, is closely connected with the category of Tense. The finite forms of verbs , of the indicative mood in russian, maybe convey action in the past, present, or future. Past tense in russian, is a specific category, because verbs in the past have no special endings ( я – читал- он читал- мы читали- они читали ) Verbs in the past in russian have grammatical category of gender (он читал- она читала) And this feature differs russian, from other in the european languages and English among them. In English, past tense is devided into past- indefinite, past continous, past perfect and past perfect continuous. Past Indefinite presents a pure grammatical category. While past continuous and past perfect continious ,present Tense and Aspect forms. Present Tense, in some cases coincides in meaning, in Russian and English. It is used to express 3 types of actions .

1. An action at a moment of speech. ( I see Tom in the street)

2. Repeated action . (They go to the seaside in the summer)

3. An action going on without any interval ( Месяц светит ,но не греет. The moon shine , but doesn’t give any warmth. )

Present tense in English is devided into – Present Indefinite, Present Continious, Present Perfect and resent Perfect Continious. But if present Indefinite is used to denote future action in subordinate clouse of time and condition after conjunctions (as soon as , ….) in russian – future tense is used in both sentences (если погода будет- мы поедем) In both languages, verbs of motion may denote future action (the train arrives at 5) in English present continuous maybe also used in such cases (he is leaving soon) If completeness of an action is underlined, in English- present perfect is used ( he will know the poem by hard, if he has heard it twice) In russian – future tense is used in such cases ( он выучит стих,если прослушает его дважды)



13. Typology of syntactical systems.

The idea of a syntactical level.

Syntax of language is a level which deals with more complicated units, than a simple word. Syntactical level, as any other level of a lang, has its own set of units – a phrase and a sentence. A phrase is a combination of 2 or more notional words, united on the basis of a certain syntactical relation, playing a nominating function.

Ex. Новые часы – A new watch; читать книгу – to read a book; ходить в школу – to go to school.

So, a phrase as well as a word nominates an object, an event, an action, a process. But in contrast to a word, which presents a whole unit of a lang (Аракин)

In coordinative word combinations, words are in equal positions and it is possible to change their places (mother and son, son and mother) THE SAME IS IN RUUSSIAN. In subordinate word combinations, words can’t change their places (a big house) In every languages, word combinations, words are according to the models of this language. Thus a word combination, formed with the help of subordination maybe characterized by the following features.

1 by forms of expression of syntactical relation (attributive, objective, adverbial)

2 by types of expression of syntactical relations (agreement, government, adjoinment (примыкание))

3 by the position of the dependent or ‘adjunct (придаточное) word, upon the kernel word in preposition or post position (расположение позади)

In both languages, there are word combinations, in which a dependent component gives some temporary characteristic to an object or person which appears during a certain action (he sat pale, он сидел бледный). This type of relation is called predicative and it is typical of both languages.



15. Typology of lexical systems.

The word is the fundamental unit of lang representing the things of the real world and the psychological life of men. There have been many attempts to define “the word” but generally excepted is the following:

The word is a sequence of human sounds conveying a certain concept, idea or meaning which has gained general exceptance in a social group of people speaking the same lang and historically connected. This definition takes meaning as the most essential aspect of the word. So, the question is What meaning Is?

Meaning inseperable from the word itself because it reflects the reality of things. The reality of thought which is also a material phenomenon manifests itself in lang. and the property or quality of a thing which strikes men most of all, he adopts as a basis of for /to naming it.



Perception of external world is different in different lang-es. Language is national and thought is international. But experiments prove lang

Typology of compound words. May be characterized

  1. By a number of roots

  2. Type of connection (adjoinment, adjoining morpheme, and with the help of auxiliary verbs )

1 group may be divided into a) sunrise (predicative connection), red-breast (attributive). Black-board. Joining morpheme. Auxiliary words (editor-in-chief, hide-and-see). In Rus they seldom occur мать-и-мачеха.

2 group
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