29 April 1818–13 March 1881


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29 April 1818–13 March 1881



  • Princess Marie of Hesse,

  • thereafter known in Russia

  • as Maria Alexandrovna

  •  



  • Crimean War (1853–1856)

  • Britain and France invade Crimea



  • The Nihilist Arrested



Positivism: the influence of sciene

  • Begins in the 1840s as a response to the ills of society undergoing industrial revolution

  • Karl Marx: economics

  • August Comte: philosophy

  • Taine: race, milieu and moment as defining features of art

  • Darwin: evolution

  • Positivism = the application of scientific method to society and social problems



Nihilists espoused the ideas of social progress

  • Nihilists espoused the ideas of social progress

  • Term becomes current with Turgenev’s Fathers and Sons (1862) where the hero Bazarov declares himself a nihilist

  • Medical training; denies emotions, religion, sentiment

  • Unsuccessful relationship, then gets sick and dies



Arrested in 1862

  • Arrested in 1862

  • Writes What is to be done? (pub. 1863) in Saints Peter and Paul Fortress in St Petersburg

  • Revolutionary theme of women’s liberation, free love

  • Revolutionary hero leads ascetic life

  • Book highly influential on Lenin



Overthrow of Tsarist regime

  • Overthrow of Tsarist regime

  • Class warfare, revolution

  • Atheism

  • Communism

  • Women’s liberation

  • Free relations between sexes

  • Creation of sewing circles to save girls from prostitution



Narodnik movement of 1860s and 1870s

  • Narodnik movement of 1860s and 1870s

  • 1874 Young people went out into the countryside to propagate revolution among the peasants

  • Movement suppressed by the police, replaced by Narodnaya volya – terrorist organization

  • Group suppressed after Alexander’s assassination, replaced by other groups including the Socialist Revolutionaries (SR)

  • 1887 Lenin’s brother Aleksandr Ulianov hanged after attempt on life of Alexander III



Coronation – September 7, 1856

  • Coronation – September 7, 1856

  • Great national debate in wake of defeat

  • Serfdom

  • Law reform

  • Industrial development begins, especially railways







Local Self-Government (Zemstvo) for the rural districts (1864) and the large towns (1870)

  • Local Self-Government (Zemstvo) for the rural districts (1864) and the large towns (1870)

  • Army and navy reorganization (1874)

  • Reforms in education



  • January Uprising in Poland (1863-1864)

  • Martial Law in Lithuania

  • Polish-Lithuanian territories were excluded from liberal policies

  • 1876 Ems ukaz banning Ukrainian language



April 4, 1866 by Dmitry Karakozov

  • April 4, 1866 by Dmitry Karakozov

  • 20 April, 1879 by Alexander Solovyov

  • December 1879

  • 5 February 1880








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