A study of Change: a laboratory Investigation Vocabulary and Concepts


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A Study of Change: A Laboratory Investigation
Vocabulary and Concepts

Physical change

Chemical change

Endothermic

Exothermic

Process


Reaction 


Introduction

We have been studying physical and chemical changes. In a physical change, the substances present remain the same but change physical state. They are often easy to reverse. In chemical changes, a new substance is made and many times, these are irreversible changes. 


In both physical and chemical changes, energy can be released or absorbed from the surroundings. If energy is absorbed from the surroundings, this is called endothermic, where endo means in and therm means energy. If energy is released to the surroundings, this is called exothermic, where exo means out. In a physical change, we call it an endothermic or exothermic process because it is not a reaction but a change of physical state. In a chemical change, we call it an endothermic or exothermic reaction because new substances are made. 
In this lab we will prepare two experiments: we will make rock candy and we will fix something rusty. 
Materials

Two 500 mL cups

One pot

1 clean jar without a lid



About 500 mL water

About 1000 mL sugar 

Pot holder (to keep your hand safe)

Wooden spoon

Two skewers (see image)

A rubber band or some tape

Plastic wrap

One small piece of rusty metal (coin, nail)

200 mL vinegar (lemon juice)
Method


  1. Rock Candy Method

  1. Make sure your jar is clean and dry

  2. Put a pot on the stove and add 500 mL of clean drinking water

  3. Turn on the heat and add 500 mL of sugar, stir until all dissolved

  4. DANGER: DO NOT LET THE WATER BOIL!!! Keep the temperature low

  5. Add another 500 mL of sugar, stir until dissolved

  6. If it stops dissolving, do not add any more sugar. Otherwise, add a small amount of sugar and let it dissolve, then add a little more,...repeat until no more will dissolve.

  7. Let the pot sit on the stove warm for about 5 min, not boiling. Then, turn off the heat. 

  8. DANGER: LET HOT LIQUID COOL FOR AT LEAST 15 MINUTES.

  9. Test and set up your jar and skewer system. Place one skewer across the jar and one skewer in the middle of the jar. Using a piece of tape or a rubber band, attach the vertical skewer to the horizontal skewer. Place the horizontal skewer across the top of the jar and re-adjust the height so the vertical skewer touches the bottom of the jar. 

  10. Remove the skewer system from the jar

  11. DANGER: POTENTIAL FOR BROKEN GLASS: Put the jar into the sink and slowly pour the cooled sugar water into the jar (should be warm but not hot!). 

  12. Dip the vertical skewer into the liquid, remove it, roll it in some solid sugar, then insert it back into the jar and skewer system

  13. Cover this with a piece of plastic wrap that has small holes punched in it. You want things to get out but not in

  14. Do not refrigerate. Put on the counter and record changes daily. Photos are useful too. 

B. Rusty Metal Method

  1. DANGER: DO NOT SPLASH ONTO SKIN OR INTO EYES; IF SPLASHING OCCURS, FLUSH SKIN AND EYES WITH LOTS OF COOL WATER

  2. Into a clean 500 mL cup, pour 200 mL of vinegar

  3. Take a photo of your rusty metal

  4. Place your rusty metal into the vinegar

  5. Note any changes you see

  6. Let the rusty metal sit in the vinegar solution over several days, making as many notes as possible. Note the time and date each observation was made. It is useful to take photos.

  7. When finished with your experiment, pour your vinegar down the drain and flush the drain with cool water for about 2 min. 

  8. Dry off your rusty metal piece and take a photo as evidence.

Results


  1. Rock Candy




Date

Time

Observations

















































































Image: Day 1 Jar and Skewer Set Up

Image: Day 2


  1. Rusty Metal




Date

Time

Observations








































































Image 1 Piece of Rusty Metal


Image 2 Rusty Metal Day 1
Conclusion
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