Aalborg Universitet Dialogues on Poetry


Angus Martin and Will Maclean, One Time in a Tale of Herring


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Angus Martin and Will MacleanOne Time in a Tale of Herring
One Time in a Tale of Herring is a large-format artists’ book, in which 
inkwash black and white drawings by the Scottish artist Will Maclean are 
paired with poems by poet Angus Martin. Its theme is a celebration of, 
and lament for, the practice and men of the Scottish west-coast ring-net 
herring fishing industry (which declined, and then disappeared with a ban 
on herring fishing in 1974). Poems appear next to the drawings, in pho-
tographed hand-written ink, with both drawing and poem placed against 
a background of faint grey to off-white images, which on close inspection 
turns out to be enlarged details from the drawings.
The text and images are not as fully integrated as they are in Blake’s 
engravings, where poem and engraving are part of a single engraved plate: 
in One Time the text is on the left and the ‘image’ on the right, but both 
Fig 1: ‘Lament for the Herring / In the memory of gannets’, One Time in a Tale of Herring.

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are embedded in a larger, though faint, image. Furthermore, the ‘captions’ 
of the drawings are written with the same hand as the text, and the text 
is, one might say, ‘drawn’ (i.e. handwritten), so that in that sense it fulfils 
Mitchell’s dictum: these are not poems but paintings of poems. The verso 
of each page also has, faintly printed, the title / caption of the drawing 
opposite, rather as if it had taken the ink by mistake, the book having 
been shut while the ink was dry - though these are in fact, of course, pho-
tographs of both writing and image, and the faint printing does not match 
the position of the caption on the recto page. Elements of improvisation 
and spontaneity appear in the bold, ink-wash drawings, the variable black-
ness of the writing (which was done with a swan’s feather dipped in ink), 
and the small inconsistencies of wording.
6
 Mary Modeen, who designed 
the book, interprets the use of handwriting here as ‘gestural’, invoking the 
hand, and bodily knowledge, linking ‘the body’s importance in ways of 
knowing’ with the work’s theme: ‘a lament for a way of life now past’. 
7
 Her 
suggestion of handwritten poems (which I believe was a new departure in 
Maclean’s work) reflected also a sense of expressive equivalence between 
writing (by hand) and voice: a rather different perspective on the idea of 
‘voice’ in poetry from either a Derridean priority of writing over voice, or 
the mainstream poetic tendency to equate voice with the semi-autobio-
graphical poetic ego or consciousness.  Overall, the integration of the poet-
ry and drawings is achieved semantically (in terms of content), stylistically 
(in terms of technique and mood) and through design (involving a third 
collaborator). Maclean’s inkwash drawings contain recognisable shapes, of 
boats, fish, birds, nets, baskets and (probably) the silhouettes of men in 
fisherman’s gear. But at times they approach abstraction or pattern. The 
first drawing, ‘Sea Stories / The company was fishermen’, may have the 
outline of a hooded figure, and there are clearer suggestions of a basket full 
of fish, a ship’s spar, sails, and sea with mountains beyond (suggesting the 
view from the Island of Skye over to the mainland):
Out of context, though, the drawing would be barely interpretable in 
such representational terms. So it may be that what the book deploys is a 
certain equality or parallel between words and image, in which each avoids 
being available for ready interpretation, by requiring the exercise of a ge-
stalt-like process of perception.  The processes and forms of representation 
are prominent in this work. The title of the book refers to storytelling (‘A 

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Tale’), as does the first poem / drawing (‘Sea Stories’); the second poem 
has the heading ‘A Picture Postcard of Campbeltown Harbour’, drawing 
the reader’s attention to visual representation. Furthermore, the theme of 
memory runs through the work suggesting, as Modeen implies, that the 
images are in some sense a rendering of memory in ‘the mind’s eye’.
8
 The 
use of a swan’s feather to write the poems also embeds an element of mate-
riality of subject matter (birds) into the process of creation (much of Ma-
clean’s art-work uses material objects and replicas of them in collage-like 
constructions), and accords with Drucker’s sense of writing as “embodying 
the fundamental human urge of “mark making”’ (Drucker 1994b, 57). 
In terms of the traditions of poetry-painting intermediality, One Time 
in a Tale of Herring largely conforms to the model of ‘ut pictura poesis’ or 
the speaking picture. Handwriting considered as ‘voice’ and the work as 
the mark of the artist’s hand and body both serve to tie together image and 
words as expressive modes in a reciprocal and complementary relationship. 
Lessing’s distinction between the temporal processing of text and the in-
Fig. 2: ‘Sea Stories / The Company of Fishermen’, One Time in a Tale of Herring.

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stant perception of image is undermined by the analogous processes of 
scrutiny and interpretation required by each: the drawings do not reveal 
themselves to a glance, but require and invite careful decoding; the poems 
also require visual (as much as semantic) attention. There is also a strong 
mimetic element in this work but, in accord with Melville and Readings’ 
description of the ut pictura poesis doctrine, “this mimetic practice is a 
matter of making (poiein) according to the rules of rhetoric, rather than of 
Fig. 3: Will Maclean, ‘Natural Selection’, 2013.

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illusion. Mimesis does not seek to delude an individual into taking an im-
itation as real but rhetorically to persuade a public to an action, to making 
a real” (Melville and Readings 1995, 8). In One Time in a Tale of Herring
this action or making real takes the form of memorialisation, celebration 
and mourning. 
Marion Leven and Robin Robertson, Pibroch
The idea of the expressive gesture of the artist’s hand also seems to play a 
major role in another collaborative work, by the painter Marion Leven, 
and the poet Robin Robertson
A pibroch is a musical form for the Highland bagpipes: a slow and 
stately piece of music with an elaborate theme and variation form of increas-
ing complexity; pibrochs are usually written for solemn events or occasions 
such as clan gatherings and laments.
9
 To quote the catalogue description:
Materials and gesture are two converging aspects of this art-
work. …. In this piece, the gesture is simultaneously the move-
ment of the artist’s hand across the page, the mimetic sweep of 
Fig. 4: Marion Leven and Robin Robertson, Pibroch.

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the water lapping in continual movement, the long free-flow-
ing lament (pibroch) and the energy she exerts in wielding her 
brush to convey the intensity of movement as a measurement 
of time. The water’s waves, rolling and receding, are evoked in 
the poem and the long smooth curve of grey …. Robertson’s 
poem is gestural as well; it moves by rhythm, by the kind of 
theme and variation of the extended lament invoked by its 
title, in cyclical, sweeping form. Image and text are intense and 
choreographic, reminding us once again of the body’s role in 
perceiving and responding to the environment.
10
The poem reads:
Fig. 5: Marion Leven and Robin Robertson, Pibroch.

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Foam in the sand-lap of the north-sea water
fizzles out – leaves the beach mouthing –
The flecks of the last kiss
kissed away by the next wave, rushing;
each shearing over its own sea-valve
as it turns with a shock into sound.
And how I long now for the pibroch,
pibroch long and slow, lamenting all this:
all this longing for the right wave,
for the special wave that toils
behind the pilot but can never find a home –
find my edge to crash against,
my darkness for its darknesses
my hands amongst its foam. (Robertson 1997, 19)
It was displayed with a ‘clear’ version of the handwritten text alongside it, 
the text again appearing in the handwriting of the artist:
However, the element of effacement is more obvious and even aggres-
sive here, in the bold sweeps of the brush, and the extensive blotting over 
of the poem.
In the poem, the waves, and the patterns formed by the materials of the 
beach, seem to function as metaphors for image/painting and text/poem, 
sharing a surface of inscription (suggested by a pun on the verb ‘leaves’ and 
the ‘leaves’ of a book, recalling Shelley’s ‘Ode to the West Wind’).
11
 Writing 
and speech are also evoked by the pairing of ‘leaves’ and ‘mouthing’, sug-
gesting the play of inscription and voice in poetry. The painter’s gestures 
of erasure seem to allude to the erasure of marks on sand by waves: to the 
“flecks of the last kiss / kissed away by the next wave”. The blotting and the 
bold brush strokes feel less loving that the metaphor of the kiss would sug-
gest, but they create an effect reminiscent of patterns created by water and 
sand. The idea of erasure suggests the impermanence of writing, or of cul-
ture. The poem is partly about the sensuous qualities of the natural world; 
it interweaves human sensuality and desire with the movement of natural 
materials (water and sand) in the environment. It is also about the visual 
becoming the aural (the sound of the wave breaking), and natural sound 

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Fig. 6: Marion Leven and Robin Robertson, Pibroch.
Fig. 7: Marion Leven and Robin Robertson, Pibroch.

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becoming music (the pibroch), again effecting a crossing-over between 
the non-human natural and human culture and feeling. Then the con-
cluding six lines suggest the human return to nature via the immersion of 
self, ultimately figuring death, with a suggestion almost of the death drive 
in the quest for ‘my darkness’. What do the bold strokes of the brush, and 
the blots of erasure, suggest in this context? Darkness and oblivion, in re-
sponse to the ending of the poem, perhaps. But also an ambivalence about 
both meaning and representation; an ambivalence which runs deep in both 
visual art practice, and in our responses to natural beauty. As regards the 
latter, Kate Soper, drawing on Adorno’s Aesthetic Theory, suggests that:
one talks [or writes] in order to register the beyond of nature 
to conceptualization; one represents it in order to capture 
its independence of representation. Natural beauty demands 
to be conceptualized, but to be conceptually determined as 
something that is not conceptual. (Soper 2011, 21)
In other words, our impulse to express or represent natural beauty is shad-
owed (and perhaps impelled) by our sense of it as somehow beyond our 
expression and representation.
There can be a double ambivalence in the response of the visual artist 
to the natural world as mediated by language. First, to poetry as a mean-
ing-dense form, conceptual though also gesturing beyond the conceptual. 
Second, to art itself as a form of determination of the indeterminable:
The concept of natural beauty rubs on a wound, and little is 
needed to prompt one to associate this wound with the vio-
lence that the art work – a pure artefact – inflicts on nature. 
(Adorno 2004, 81)
It might not be too far-fetched to see the near-violence of gesture in Pi-
broch, not as intermedial challenge to writing itself, but as a registering of 
the violence of representation itself with respect to nature. The idea of a 
wound has a certain appropriateness to the feeling of the work. As Ador-
no’s dialectical argument suggests, such a registering is not a rejection of 
art, but an acknowledgement of its intimate relationship to nature:

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Wholly artifactual, the artwork seems to be the opposite of 
what is not made, nature. As pure antitheses, however, each 
refers to the other: nature to the experience of a mediated 
and objectified world, the artwork to nature as the mediated 
plenipotentiary of immediacy. (Adorno 2004, 81)
It might be said, therefore, that the dialectical relations between word and 
image (poem and print) serve in this work as an analogue for the relations 
between art and nature.
Jerome Fletcher and Geoffrey Olsen, Pentimento
In Pentimento, a digital work by performance writer Jerome Fletcher and 
painter Geoffrey Olsen (with Toby Holland as Java programmer), the art-
ist’s gesture of creation / erasure is transferred to the user. 
Pentimento is a digital text/image work based on a ‘scratch-
ing’ technology. The performer uses the cursor to scratch 
away successive layers of text and image to reveal, as in a 
palimpsest, fragments of narrative. The narrative concerns 
an esteemed woman artist, a repressive state and an unspec-
ified act of betrayal, either personal or political. ‘Pentimen-
to’, from the Italian word for ‘repentance’, is a painting term 
which refers to a barely perceptible alteration in a painting 
indicating that the artist has changed their mind about the 
composition in the process of painting.
12
Pentimento is clearly a work open to many forms of interpretation: themat-
ic in terms of the text; conceptual in terms of the form; phenomenological 
in terms of the reader or user experience. I would like to pursue here the 
idea of it as a work which thematises and questions medium-specificity; 
as an allusion to, and deconstruction of, the concept of modernist medi-
um-specificity. The title evokes a very specific effect (an underlying image 
in a painting, with an etymological link to ‘repentance’) , while the scratch-
ing process which the reader / viewer is invited to undertake, reveals within 
each specific medium the hidden traces of its other (words for painting / 
painting for words). In this way modernist medium-specificity is thema-

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tised via a postmodern reflexivity, which effects a questioning of what that 
medium is, or what a medium in general can be. In particular, what is dig-
ital medium-specificity? The work almost seems to perform symbolically 
(or ask the viewer to perform symbolically) the history of collaboration 
and competition between text and image. Insofar as medium-specificity 
is the version of modernist aesthetics which seeks definitively to separate 
different art forms and media, it is something of a paradox to address it in 
an intermedial work. But is it intermedial? Or is the digital itself the medi-
um of this work? Can there be such a thing as digital medium-specificity? 
John Cayley points out that we tend to see the appearance of painting in 
digital form as remediation, but to see the appearance of writing in digital 
contexts simply as its insertion into (new) media.
The existence of media that are able to represent other me-
dia or to represent artifacts  that were made in a traditional 
medium as (new) media (remediation) is, in a sense, the phe-
nomenon that allows us to see older conventional media as 
such; to see that painting, for example, is media, not just a 
medium. Subsequently, we struggle to distinguish, materially 
and critically, between conventional media(tion) and any cor-
responding new (re)media(tion): the painting and its digitiza-
Fig. 8: ‘North, from Jerome Fletcher and Geoffrey Olsen, Pentimento.

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tion, as a specific exemplary instance. In the case of literary art 
… such struggles are, typically, futile. It is pointless to insist 
on a materially significant difference between these words as 
they might appear to you on paper and as they might appear 
to you on screen. Thus, whenever we do consider differences 
in writing and mediated writing to be critically or materially 
significant, we tend to speak of writing in new digital media, 
as if writing were not undergoing remediation, but as if it 
were being newly mediated by removal from an unmediated 
condition and translation into media. (Cayley 2010, 205)
Here Cayley seems to be distinguishing two related sense of medium / 
media, one of which stresses materiality, the other communication:
Any of the varieties of painting or drawing as determined by 
the material or technique used. Hence more widely: any raw 
material or mode of expression used in an artistic or creative 
activity. (‘medium’, OED)
An intermediate agency, instrument, or channel; a means; 
esp.
 a means or channel of communication or expression. 
(‘medium’, OED)
One of his points is that painting can be identified in terms of a mate-
rial medium (paint) in a way that is not open to language; although the 
‘materiality of language’ has been much discussed, it remains that case 
that language can be reproduced in different physical forms with a limited 
effect on its meaning (words carved in stone and words printed in a book 
are both using the ‘medium’ of language; an image in paint and an image 
carved are in different media, in the material sense). There is therefore an 
asymmetry between the two elements of Pentimento: the painting has been 
remediated, whereas the text has, in Cayley’s terms, been written in or into 
new media; seemingly ‘newly mediated by removal from an unmediated 
condition and translat[ed] into media’. To put it another way, the images 
appear as ‘simulation’ of painting, whereas the words do not seem to be a 
simulation of text; they just are text. One of the paradoxes of the Green-

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berg conception of modernism in terms of medium-specificity (and there 
are several) is that the medium-specific conception and practice of (mostly 
abstract) art wished to depart from any idea of painting as expression of 
channel or communication; the paint is no longer playing an intermediat-
ed (representational) role between perceived and represented world, but is 
representing only itself and its own potential. 
13
 The ‘medium’ of painting 
in the material sense (paint) is thus no longer a ‘medium’ in the sense of 
being something intermediate (the etymological sense of the word), nor 
in the sense of being a channel of communication. Medium-specificity 
makes painting no longer a medium, but a material. As Cayley’s discussion 
implies, this possibility has never really been open to literature, although 
genres such as concrete poetry move in that direction. Literature, by using 
language, always retains some element of channel or medium by virtue of 
the referential function of language, however much that function is brack-
eted or effaced.
So, in Pentimento, the painting is clearly no longer painting, but a 
representation, or remediation, of painting. On the other hand, the text is 
(still) text, and there is no necessary reason to read it as an allusion to text in 
a book or other non-digital location. This hybrid form of mediality might 
be seen as digital medium-specificity; as Cayley writes, “New digital media 
are not just to be considered as media; they are media” (Cayley 2010, 205).
David Bellingham, Wall Drawings
Finally, a series of works which seems to offer a counter-example to the 
‘self-effacing’ poetic text – and which are not collaborative but the work 
of a single artist. David Bellingham’s’ series of three wall drawings presents 
short, aphoristic poetic lines in large text:
There is an echo of Magritte here, in the use of reflexive, gnomic 
statement; as with La trahison de images, though less explicitly, there is an 
address to intermediality itself. Are the ‘words on a wall’ just words on a 
wall? They are also marks on a wall, a  form of drawing, executed in ink.
14
 
In interview, Bellingham seems to stress the priority of the image:
I think of all the work that I make as image-making, as pic-
ture-making. Some of the things may look a bit like poems, 

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some might look a bit like objects, a bit like photographs, but 
they are all images. Of course I do not mean image in the 
sense of a picture that records a likeness by way of imitation, 
I mean a conceptual construction, the bringing together of 
various elements into a unified whole; so not an image of 
something but an image as something, not a secondary il-
lustration but a primary self-determining thing. (Otty 2009)
Another of Bellingham’s wall drawings, Big Upon Little seems on one in-
terpretation to express the dominance of text, at least in terms of size: the 
words are big, while the marks which form their background are small.
Fig. 9: David Bellingham, Words on A Wall That’s All.

30
Yet the words are constituted by an absence (of the marks). There is a typical 
self-deprecating humour: the work announces itself as a big statement about 
a small matter. 
15
 Another work, ‘This Just This’, also implies modesty yet, 
like all three pieces, is simultaneously assertive, written large in a public space, 
presenting and repeating a strong deictic (‘This’) by which it points to itself.
John Cayley, in an article entitled ‘The Gravity of the Leaf: Phenom-
enologies of Literary Inscription in Media-Constituted Diegetic Worlds’, 
argues that ‘language always comes to us from a world that is distinct from 
the media-constituted diegetic world within which it represented’, since:
Phenomenologically, language, as graphic inscription, does 
not appear or dwell in our world of lived experience in the 
Fig. 10: David Bellingham, Big Upon Little.
Fig. 11: David Bellingham, This Just This.

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mode of objects having position, volume, structure, and so 
on, except in a manner that is highly-constrained and funda-
mentally two-dimensional. (Cayley 2010, 202-203)
He contrasts ‘literary inscription’ in this respect with architecture, since
We live in architecture without departing from a world in 
which we live. We live in (aesthetic) language only in so far 
as we leave the world in which the language is embodied. 
(Cayley 2010, 200)
Bellingham’s wall drawings are neither literature nor architecture (in any 
straightforward sense): he sees himself primarily as an artist who uses text 
(though one who often uses text): “when I use words I use them as ele-
ments of a picture” (Otty 2009). Nevertheless, these works do involve, in 
Cayley’s terms,  “language, as graphic inscription”, and they also appropri-
ate elements of the architectural by inscribing poetic texts in a physical en-
vironment. The texts remain two-dimensional (in that sense, ‘constrained’ 
by ‘the gravity of the leaf’), but the phenomenology of our experience 
of these works is crucially affected by their location in three-dimensional 
space (they change as the viewer / reader changes distance and angle with 
respect to the work). Bellingham’s own comments on his work in general 
stress the element of material construction:
The words have always been used as unitary things. I use 
words a bit like bricks, the brick is a unit and the word is a 
unit. It is a constructive process. (Otty 2009)
The reflexive phrases which constitute the verbal content of the works 
both assert and problematize their existence in space (alongside their sta-
tus as images and texts). Close up, the wall drawings appear as multi-
ple, small marks with a suggestion of movement, like a swarm of insects. 
Close up, Words on a Wall appears as marks on a wall; only by retreating 
(which requires adequate space) can we ‘read’ it as a text or poem. In this 
sense, the poetic text of these wall drawings alternates between assertion 
and effacement.
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